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Full text of "Literature"



'\ 



Edited by 



^HMnH' 



Published by 

<?hf (Times. 



VOL. I. 



OCTOBER 23, 1S9T, TO JANUARY 1, 1898. 



"iff' 



LONDON : 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GEORGE EDWARD WRIGHT. 
AT THE TIMES OFFICE, PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE. 

18U8. 



INDEX TO vol.. I 



PAOt 
AMERICAN LKTTBRS- 

.',«. ss, I'ja. lil. isl, '-'14, 246 a7R, Sll, 343 

AMONO MY BOOKS 

A<l>li«>u's 'Iriivpli -<1 

Advnituri'ii of C'birubiiuk 14< 

Aimricnii Hixtoripi 27i 

OrUiii lvriK-t» «f Modern Critioim, Oa 20U 

('oiloi|uy III! I'ri1ii'i»in, A 17 

Iliitury »« it in VVrittrii 48 

Li'of fi'iiiii an Inn Album, A SS6 

Periihal)!.. Hookn 178 

I'oi'tii' JuilnniinU upooPoeU 805 

ThouKhtii on Stylo 11- 

I'tjlinesii in Kirtion 80 

AT THE BOOKSTALL 

.15, 119, 180, 310 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS REVIEWKD- 

Ailnm, Junirn 270 

Atlilrrliy, Jnnia* 21U 

Adv. Mi« 239 

A.ft in 

Aitksn, (Jeorge A 233 

AlUnion-Wimi, K. G 202 

All.n, Au.lrey Mayhew 30>.t 

Allrn. (imut 226 

AlUn, Thomna Taylor 294 

AnibroKiiis, Johanna 326 

Andi-raon, Kobvrt 141 

Anonymous 47 

AOKon. Sir William 207 

Amioiir, Marfarrt 341 

Arnintronu, Anniv E 24."> 

ArniHtronK, Arthnr CoUa 268 

AshMii-iid-Hartlrtt, Sir Ellis 23 

Askwitb. ti. H 170 

Afpinwall, Alicia 276, 309 

AtteridKC Helen 309 

Kain. K. Ni.sbft 210 

Bilker, Kev. A 206 

Balfour. A. J 296 

Balfour. M. C 85 

Baring -Could, 3 6S, 117 

Barlow. Jane 84 

Barr, Mattbiaa 268 

Barrio, J. M 841 

Barry, Binbop 205 

Bartram, Cieorge 63 

Bedford, H. I^iuiaa 810 

Bell. Mri. Arthur 240 

Bennett, John 275 

Bennett. \V. II 204 

Berkeley, George 295 

B<rn. Maximilian 245 

Bickirdykc 149 

Bierbaum. Otto Juliui 179 

BigK«. C. H. W 175 

Biomiion. Bjomitjerne 178 

Blaik. L.M.P 147 

Blackmorc. K. U 273 

Blasblicid, E. H 334 

Blomlleld. Reginald 101 

Bloun.lelle, Burton 274 

Blun.lell, Mrs. Francis 62 

Bonner, (i. A 64 

Bonufeblt. W. B 204 

Bonny. Kev. Prof 399 

Bootbby. Guy 23 

Bounlillon. Francis William 15 

Bourget. Paul 292 

Boutniy. E 172 

Boville, Mai 170 

Bradley, Henry 201 

Brual, Sliebel 197 

Broniby, Charles Hamilton 141 

Brtekstail. H. L 178 

Browne, Maggie 310 

Bruce, A. B 173 

Bryce, Kt. Hon. JamM 261 

Bryden, H. Anderson 13'J 

Burnett, Sir Henry 342 

Burgoyne, F. J 200 

Bnrke, H, F 342 

Bumev. Charlea 303 

Bury. U G 271 

Buahby, Dudley ChulM 268 

Butler, Samuel 19S 

Canipljell, Uobert 24 m 

Carter, Kev. T '.'."....' 77 

Curtwrijiht. Julia 23» 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell 275 

Care, Rev. R. H 244 



fAOl ; 
ArTiiouii or SooKN Rcriiwiv— (eonlinnMl) 

Chanibem 342 

Cbanil«T», Kobert W -'IJ 

Charltou, R. J 

<huroh. Hey. AUrad '■  

Clare, Aoatin 147 



rAOB 
Rook a R«TltW«i («o1l— ><) 
Dyioo 7 



Clark, J. W. 

('lintim, ilanry Ijaum . 

Clouiib, B. A. 



Ill 

1:1.'. 



Clouiton, K. Warrco )•''* 

Coleridge, M. B ll-f 

Cookson, George 26M 

Conler, Annie SG8 

Comford, Re». J 105 

Corni.h. C. J 2»6 

Craekantbonie, Hubert 167 

Crauipton, deorgo , 908 

Craven. Udv Helen 23 

Crawford. .%(arioD 17« 

Creswick, I'anl 84 

Crockett. S. R 8J 

Crowest, Frederick J 142 

Croxier, Jubn Beattie 44 

Dakyna, H. O 271 

DAnvem, N 240 I 

Diirnieate' "' . Janm 298 1 

Davis, K: rig 109 

Diiwaon, ^\ i iirbut 107 1 

Dawson, W. J 21'-' 

DebtrtI 341 

Delia Uocca, Gen. Knrieo 7U 1 

Do Mitty. Jean 266 

De Nolhac. I'ierie 2^6 ' 

De Vere, Aubrey I ^ 

Dirkion. Arthur i 

Diebl. Mrs. M 11.. 

DitchlleJd. P. H 118 

Dobaon, Austin 19<» 

Dml „ 342 

Dowden. Edward 7 

Du Maurier, 49, 276 

Dyke. Rev. Principal J. Oswald 77 

Earle, John 202 

Ebeni, (ieorg 211 

Ellis. Edward 8 24 4 

Ellis. F. 8 2.13 

Elphinstone. Sir Howard WarburtoD Ill 

Emmet. Ix<wis E 303 

Eve, (}. W 240 

Everett-Green, Mist 275 

Eyton, Canon 23'.' 

Fairbairn. A. M 204 

Faly, Patrick, C 146 

Farrow, G. E 310 

Fenn, G. Manville 276 

Ferguson, Sir Samuel 140 

Feriiald, J. (' Sr' 

Field. Eugene , SOU 

Findlay. J. J 42 

Fitch. Sir Joshua 42 

Fitzgerald. S. J. A 106 

Flammarion. Camille 106 

Fletcher, J. S 310 

Fleming. David Hav 164 

Forbes- Holiertson, Fraacea 147 

Ford, (ieorge 180 

Foni, Paul l^icester 149 

Fothergill. J. Milner 110 

France, Anatole 76 

Francis, Beata 309 

Francis, M. E 68 

Frnser, Rev. James 108 

Gaelvn. Henry „ ^ 3.13 

Ganiiner, Samuel RawsoD 38 

Garland, Hamlin 197 

Gariitt. Con.slance 178 

Oemnur. C. U 268 

Gethen. H. F 810 

Gibeme, Agnea 809 

Gibson. Charles Dana 277 

Gi.ssing. (ieorge 24,^ 

Golsebiiiana. Lion 309 

Goninie, G. Laurence 341 

Gosse, Edmund 16.5 

Gould. Nat 245 

Graham. J. M 22 

Grand. Sarah 145 

(;runt. Prof. A. J 142 

Greenhow. Surgeon-Major H. H 115 

Gieenedge. A. H. J 203 

Greenwool. Harry 143 

Griffith, F. U _ 330 

Griffith. George 244 

Guyon, Madame 294 



ii King 
A.W 
M 



II 

118 

116 

M 
IM 

<!• 
S« 



Ha»«i>. 11. 1; ^.......n S7( 

Hitwthome, Nathaniel ..^.^^..m 141 

lUy. Alfred 175 

Hayens. Herbert lit 

Haiell „ „... M9 

Heam. I.afcadia 41 

Healb. Admiral Sir UopoU 174 

Heatl. T I SO6 

Hea' Ul 

He. harle* Wiliiaa > 1«7 

K M 

!. - US 

mO „ M 

Henley. William Emeat M, SM 

Hentv. G. A „ 117 



Herr 

Hid 

Hir 

Hill 

Hil 

Hon 

Hoi 

Hoe 

II.. 

H,. 

11, .: 



211 



244,841 

■«ae»Me«e»e— ■— Wv 

 •••••eaaeaee •■• 99 

M4 

MS 

S4S 

^ SI 

S7» 

lat 

Home. Andrew „ .m». S1# 

Hooper. T ^ ..... 117 

Ho|. • \ _ $U 

H. , •. A S»7 

Hun S3 

Hume. .M.ilin A. 8 18S 

Hunt. \ iolet tit, Xli 

Hunter. W. A 7» 

Hutchinson. Kev. H. N St7 



.kU'ck 



^rd B. 



Hatrhiuion. Tbomaa , 

Irwin, S. T „.... 

Jackson. A. M 

James. Henry 

Jebb. Prof. ft. C. ... 
Jenkiiu. Edward 



SSS 
SM 

lis 

M 
S70 

ss 



J•l>^opp. AugUStOl SSS 

Jokai, .Maurus S14 

Keith. l.<slie „ 53 

Kenyon, Frederic O. .„„.... ^ M, 9(0 

Kipling. Kudyard 81 

Knigbt. William 140 

KuoxLittle. W. J 1S« 

La-Id. George TumboU 75 

La Farge. John „. SOS 

Lamb, Horace SOS 

Landor. Walter Savag* ...._ .'.... SSS 

Lang, Andrew „ SOB 

Lawson. Henry 147 

Layard. Nina Fraacea. ^.^.^ SM 

Lean. Lieut. -Col. F. ,„ SOI 

Leelerc, Max SSO 

Lee. Albert „... S75 

Lee". .1 Can»roo ....„ „ SM 

Le( . !:ichaid „ ISO 

I-ei -rt S44 

Lev. . - _ S74 

Liddon, H. P. .„ •< 

Lie. Junaa 17S 

Little „_. S7S 

Un-k. Kev, Walter „ SSO 

Locke. William J _ SS 

Ixx-kyer. Sir Norman „ IS 

Loyd. Udy Mary SOO 



Lurs 

Lyf. 

Ml 

M ( 

Ml 

M'( 

M N 

Ma. 

Ma. 

Ma. 

Ha.1 

Magnun. l.,a.iy 

Magnus. Laurie 



Uaban. Capt. A. T. 
Ualan, Rev. A. N. . 



VerraU S04, SIS 

Hon. B 14 

a 14« 

SSO 

„ » SOS 

. - ro 

rd „ S18 

O SS 

_ SS4 

Forater 70 

1). U SO 

_ 47 

78 



SOO 

SM 



INDEX TO you I. 



PAOK 
AMERICAN LETTKRS- 

r.ll, ss, ITi, IJl, IHl. '-'14, 246, 278, Sll, 34a 

AMONG MY BOOKS- 

Ail.lnou'* Tciwi-U 241 

AdvotituiiH of Cluriibin* 144 

AiiiTiraii lli«t<)rie» 2"'.' 

CrrUiii Pcfectit of MoUain Critieim, On 'ZO'J 

Oc>iloi|uy on CriliciHiii, A 17 

Fli>tory *• it ia Written 48 

Iii'itf front an Inn Allmm, A 336 

I'liriilmtilf Hooks 176 

I'oi'tH' .Uiil|{ini'nt« upon PoeU SOft 

ThoiiKbtH on Stylo ll'J 

rglinemi in Fiction 80 

AT THE BOOKSTALL - 

r>5, 119, 180, 310 

AUTHORS OP BOOKS REVIE\VED - 

Ailnm, .IiinK* -70 

Aildi'rliy, Jnrna* 210 

Ally, Mm 289 

A.fc in 

Aitk;-n, Crorge A 2S.1 

AlUnton-Winu, K. G 202 

AlUn, Auilrey M«ybew 30« 

All*n, Ciraut 226 

AlUn. Thomai T»ylor 294 

Anil>roKiiis, .loliamift 326 

Andcrtou, KolxTt 141 

AnoiiyiiiiniK 47 

Anxon, Sir William 207 

Armour, Margaret 341 

AriiiKtroug, Aiiiiio E 24:°> 

Aniistronn, Artliur CoUs 26H 

A»hmpnd-Hartl<-tt, tSir Ellis 23 

Ankwith, Ci. K 170 

Afpinwall. Alicia 276, 309 

Atteridge, Helm 309 

Bain, R. Nisbct ?10 

Baker, Kcv. A 206 

Balfour, A. J 298 

Balfour, M. C 85 

Baring-tiouUl, 8 63, 117 

Barlow, Jam" 84 

Barr, Matthia* „ 268 

Barrie, J. M 341 

Barry, Bishop 20S 

Bartriin, (!eorgs 58 

l»4dford, H. I^)ui»B 310 

Bell, Mrt. Arthur 240 

Bennett, .lohn 275 

Bennett, W H 204 

Berkelry, George 295 

Bini, Maximilian 245 

BickcTdyke 149 

Birrliaum, Otto Julius 179 

Bigga, C. H. W 175 

Biiirnson, lijiirrutjeme 178 

Black, L.M r 147 

Blackniore, K. 1) 273 

BlashlieUl, K. H 334 

BlomlieM, Kiginald , 101 

Bloundelle. Burton 274 



Blunilt'll, Mrs. Kranuia , 

Bonner, U. A 

Bonnfel.lt, W. B, 
Bonny, Uev, Prof. 
Bootbby, Ouy 



52 

B4 

204 

299 

23 



MTV^WUUJ, VIHJ ^O 

Bourdillon, Francis William 15 

Bourget, t'aul 292 

Boutmy, K 172 

Boville, Mai 170 

Bradley, Henry 201 

Brial, Michel 197 

Broniby, Cbarira Hamilton 141 

BroekKtad. H. L 178 

Browne, Maggie 310 

Bnice, \. B 173 

Bryce, Ut. Hon. James 261 

Brydrn, H. Andernon 13U 

B'lr.l.tt, Sir Henry 342 

Burgoyne, F. J 200 

Burki'. H. F 342 

Bumey. Charles ".'" so3 

Burr, K, d |. 271 

Bushby, Dudley Charies 268 

Butler, Samuel 198 

Campbell, Kobert '"24 m 

Carter, Kev. T 77 

Cart\vrii;ht. .lulia 239 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell 275 

Cafe, Kev. U. H 244 



\ r Books RVTilwib— (cootinue.l 

' .».. -r.. Kobirt \v.!!!!i.'.."...V. ... 

Charllnu, R J ili 

Church, Iter Altnd - >*'' 

Ctnre, Aoatm ! 

Clark. J W »„ ». 

Clinton, Henry laorta 1 

Clougli, B. A 32^1 I 

(■loimtnn, K Warreo 137 1 

Col., '! i: IIS I 

Co. 1 « S68 

Cor.1 t«8 

Comforil, Her. J 105 

C.imi.b, C. J .„ 296 

Crar!- V Vrt 167 

Oral 808 

Cr;.> 28 

Cra»l.,r.l, .NUriuo 178 

Cre.wick, I'aul 84 

Crockett, S. R 82 

Crowest, Kreilerick J 142 

Crorier, Jolm Beattie 44 

n.ikvn«. H. (; 171 

1) Anv,r«. N MO 

Darmeateler, Madame jame* 198 

Davis, Kiclianl Hartling 109 

Dawson, William Harbut 107 

Dawson, W. J 212 

Debrtstt 341 

Delia Rocca, (ieo. Borioo 70 

Dc Mitty, Jean 268 

De Nolhac, I'iarra ^ S.lfi 

De Vero, Aubrey 133 

Dickson, Arthur Ill 

Dichl, Mrs. M 14.'» 

Ditchliel.l, 1'. H „ ir.S 

Dobson, Austin I9'l 

Dod 342 

Dowden. Edward 7 

Du Maurier. O 49, 176 

Dyke, Rev Principia J. Oswkid 77 

Earic, John J02 

Ebers, (ieorg 211 

Ellis, Edward 8 241 

Ellis, F. 8 2.13 

Elphinstone, Sir Howard WarbnrtoD Ill 

Emmet, Ix-wis E .10.1 

Eve, (J. W 240 

Eren'tt-Cireen, Uiss 275 

Evton, Canon 239 

Fairbairn. A. M 204 

Faly, Patrick, C 14« 

Farrow, (J. E 310 

Fcnn, (!. MaoTille 275 

Ferguson, Sir 8amu«l 140 

Fernald, J. C 34-.' 

Field, Engeno 309 

Fiiidlay. J. J 42 

Fitch, Sir Joshua 42 

Fitzucnild, S. J. A 105 

Flammarion. Camille 106 

Fletcher, J. S 310 

Fleming, David Hay 164 

Forbes- ItoU'rtson, FnUKM 147 

Ford, (ieorge IhO 

Foni, Paul l.,eic«ster 14'.> 

Fothergill, J. Milner 110 

France, Anatole 75 

Francis, Beata 309 

Frami.«, M. E 52 

Fniser, Uer. Jamas 108 

(iaehn. Henry _ 3.13 

(lapfiner, Samuel KawsoD 3X 

(iarlaiKl, Hamlio , Ill7 

(iarrett, Coiutaooe 178 

Oemmer. C. U 168 

Gethen, H. F 310 

(iil>eme, Agnes 309 

Gibson, Charles Dans 277 

(iissing, (Jenrge 243 

Oolsebmana, LcoD 30^ 

Conmie. (i. Laureaoe 341 

(!os.se, E.lmund 165 

Gould, Nat 245 

(iraham, J. M 22 

Grand, ."^arah 145 

(;rant. Prof. A. J 142 

Gr«eiibow, Surgeon-Major H. II 115 

Greenclge, A H. J 203 

Greenwool. Harry 143 

Griflith, F. LI _ 330 

(irimth, (ieorge 244 

Ouyon, Madame 294 



rkou 
Ki Kktibwbu— (eoMtauad) 

'jraosi 7 



II 

116 

115 

»« 
IM 
«• 

14 
SM 
17* 
141 
176 
US 
S4S 

41 

imiikl 8ir Uopold 174 

I SN 

111 
l$t 



'■ '-"f •■ 

Hall, Mrs. A. W. . 

Hamilton. M. 

• . Cliriatopber 

.u-k. Dr. A.l..l(<il .. 

. r:>den,B«'atrice „ 

Hart, Brig (ira. K. O 

Hart, Mrs. Kniest 

Haoeis. H. R 

Hawthorne, Natbaoirl 

Hay. Alfred 

Hayrns, llrrbcrt , 

lUsell „.. ^„ 

If — .. I nfeadio -. 



barles WiUiaa „.„ 

;! K , _ 

Hendry, Hamiah ,. lU 

Henham, Km**t G „ „«.«.... B4 

•• " n Emwt „. M, SM 

IIT 

II 111 

lliel.tio, : »..».,..,. sot 

Hick^.n. y ^ 144, Ml 

Hill.' ..-T:k „,.... „„. SM 

Hil „ „„». ,„.„ SS 

Ho»: S _ SM 

Hol.b.^. J.jLu Uliret „^... fl4S 

H.H.y. Mrs. Caakel >.. S4S 

Hollis, Margery „.„ SS 

Holmes, F. M „ STS 

Holmes, Richard B ™ IS* 

Honie. Andrew „ „„. SIS 

Hooi«-r, T „ „....„ „ lit 

Hopkins, A. A «...» „.,.^... SM 

Hopkms, Albort A SS7 

Home, Fergus ...„,...„ SS 

Hume, Martin A. 8 ISS 

Hunt, Violet „... lU, 274 

Hunter, \V. A „ 7» 

Hutchinson, Rev H. N «.»._.„... SS7 

Hutehin«on, TtiOmas ^.^^.^ ISS 

Irwin, 8. T »....„»„.„ SSS 

Jackson, A. M „._....„.,„...^„....„. IIS 

James, Henry „.., IS 

Jabb. Prof. ft. C STS 

Jenkins, Edwaid „„,.m SS 

Jassopp, Augustas ,„ „.,..„.„ SSS 

Jokai, .Mauru.s SiS 

Keith. 1/islie _ ,. SS 

Kenyon, Frederic Q. .„ „...M, SSO 

Kipling. Huilyard 81 

Knight. William 14S 

Kuox-Little, W. J „^ ISS 

L».ld. George TumboU „.„ 7S 

Lai • 'r, SSS 



SSS 



147 



Laii : .- Savsig* 

Lang, Au-lrew 

Lawson, Henry „ „„, 

I>ayard. Nina FriTas 

Lean, Lieut. -Col. F SSI 

Leclerc, Max SSS 

Lee. Albert _„. S7S 

I.,ers, J Cameron ....^ „ SSS 

Le ( i all ienne, Kiduud „ „ IfS 

Iveighton. Robert S44 

I^ver, Charles S74 

I.iddon, H. F SS 

Lie. Jonas „ ITS 

Little „ „. STS 

Lock, Rer. Waltar „ ^ SSO 

Lorka. William J ,..„„.... 8S 

Ix>ckyer, Sir Norroas .- IS 

lx.v.1, Udy Mary MO 

Lucas. i:.l«..rd Verrmll M4, llS 

Lvf Hon. B ... 14 

M'c a IM 

M C. imH. SSO 

M'Donnell, AC lOS 

M'GilTert, Arthur C. 170 

.M'Nidtv, E.lwaid „ US 

Macllvaine, H. O IS 

Mackail. J. W SM 

.MacSwinnev. Robert Fonlar „ TS 

Ma<l'l-n. Kt Hon. D. U SS 

Ma,.! 47 

Ma^ „ 78 

Mab. v. T SOe 

Ualaa, Uev. A. N. SM 



354 



INDEX. 



rAOB 

Acruok.-i or Books Bctibwbd— (•oaUaued) 

Utn-b. K. A 342 

ManDdia, O. B MS 

MaiadMi. «. O Ill 

Umr,h RifhMvl S3, 117 



■out RlTllwiD— {continued) 



111 



r.. » 

.W. 8 

F. T 

Xaxirvll-8cott. Hon. 

Hrin, Arthur V 

" lith  > -■ . 



Mrs. 



M»]mU. 

MilWili. i'aul 

Minehia, J. U. Cotton .- 

HolMWMth. Mr« 

MoUoy. J. FitxerUd 

MoBtrttor. F. V 

Moara, PloraoM 

Moor*. TboittM , 

ltor'->nRrown, H. .«.„.. 

M.' ■■■• 

M. . iiu 

MorriMO, Aritaur 

Moakittrick. K. K „. 

Ilaaro, John 



83 

>.... 333 

114 

84 

807 

„ SS9 

IW 

6» 

M 

tee 

je» 

827 

S43, 310 



14 r 

SIO 



... 26.^ 
... i;-.> 

38, 72 

... 2! 

... so.' 

... 244 



Mtnu. Stfinund ** 134 



MurraT, l>r. J 
liumll. WiU 
Nm^Ijt, Hrnry . 
Nspirr, (irorgr Q 
Nsriaaon, 
Kavberrj, 

New*— '• 



A. H. 



H. W. 
VaoBf B. .. 
'>»ocU H. 

,1c 



^U, LMly . 



- L. 



201 
110 
333 
329 

277 
245 
SXi 
111 
324 

71 
341 
173 
14H 
142 

22 j 
HI 
200 

10 



N. 

NirboU. : 

Nir^i: 1 . 

No:. 

Moms, n 
Oigm, W. . 
Ofrie. Jotm J 
uriphaot, Mra 

Ottlrj. K. L 100 

Orertoa. John Hemy ....>.« 331 

Facet. 8tepiMO Hi 

FklKraT*, Prancii T 28G 

Fury. Jadf 248 

F>tar«aa. Arthor „ 62 < 

P.ton. AlUa H«»k 233 I 

Patrick. D»»id 342 I 

81 1 
304 
77 
148 
2»» 
276 
24.'; 
102 
206 

! „ 149' 

on. Sir B. .„ 237 

orlny, Cli»» 82 

 cl T 141 I 

t K»r 118] 

K.r.D Maoindes 43 

r. K ; 341 

^ 829 

I 244 

ck. Btft. 34, HI 

„ 24 

' infiloa « 1 m 

„ - 18 

116 
32H 
309 
22t* 
142 

Sin 

21) U 
207 
341 



Payne, Ja 

Faake, A. 8 

PCMry. K«T. R. B 

Pni.{. r»l M.rr L , 

F«i„ -r 

Ptn:, :i 

PtnaT, iiirfjartl 

FwkuM. JuuM Brack.. 
Prrrv. Jobn 



■.V M. 



L. 

D. .». 
 rio« X. . 



'Pin 



K 



\ 



"»od —„.... 143 



i.-rt „ 

ll.u-.i, .ii 

■"L."o."6V...r.T.7.*.'." 

A. Mary P 

Pmlrnck 8 

Bodd, RrancU 

O. J 

I of R1»r|<tMt«rir. Lt..Ool. 

Bo»" ' m Miefaaal .„.. 

Km- -rk „,. 

Kymn  f* 

SaWticr, Aiig M ta..., 



2J« 
33.'. 
171 
340 
207 
T.>H 
10« 

:v.M 

1 0.1 

116 
23 
IS 



211 
337 

29S 

.lam ^ 330 

23 

A Ill 

Inors -. ~ ,..,. 322 

Kilbum 175 

S87 

W 171 

' o SOS 

13 
104 
84 
333 
309 
396 
363 
3*6 
77 
309 
203 
SOS 



1", 



AOTl 

hi.. V I. 

Bauibit' 
Sasntoi 
8aB«lay, 

Baaiia, Juliii 
BaiinJrr*. O 

BcV- ' 

8. 

&. 

B.T i. A 

Berfeant, l/ewii 

Bctoim, Oabriel 

Bhan<l, Alcxaniler 

Bhar)i, Kvrlyn 

.Ki,..r!>r, Mr*. Clement 

IMilli 

Mora 

:- H 

:- 1 Ip 

."■v 1 lUiaro 

^•Kow, lUomaa 

Sommrr. H. Oiikar 118 

..,,„„ M well 15 

237 

uh 48 

. Ucv 287 

Dr. (iordon 244 

.;..., riora A 212 

8teeTcn», U. W 302 

St«phcoM)n C 171 

StevenaoD. Hobprt LouU 18, 309, 341 

Strinnpr. Frnnrin A 303 

8tuart, Kuth McKner; 212 

Suildanis, V 171 

Burrry, Mnrgaret 244 

Swift, iteiijnmin 51 

8yri>tt, Nett» 311, 300 

T«l)b. .John B 15 

Tadenia, lAureuce Alma 268 

Tanrer, J. C „ 2S9 

Tanna 243 

Taunton. ReT. Ethalred L 73 

Taylor, Mins Lucy 275 

Telle. C. P 369 

Temple, A. 876 

Tennrann, Loril 3, 84 

Th«clieray. Rpy. V. 8 205 

Ticknor. Caroline 375 

Timiot. M 17.S 

Townnhenil. Dorothea. 70 

Tupper, .lohii Lueaa 23.') 

Turner, B. B 199 | 

TurKenev, Ivan 178 ; 

Twain. Mark „ 330 

Tyl.T, MoMW Coit 194 ' 

l^yler, Sarah 148 

I rquliart, John W 175 



36 
24:< 
109 
310 
301 

ur. 



Vallanre, Aymer 

Venie, .luleii 

ViUrt. Col. II. H 

Von dcr Lippc Konow, Ingeborf 

Von Verily ilu Vemoif, Oen 

Voynioh, K. L _ 

WnMatein. I.ouii 231 

Walker. I'rof. Hii({b 142 1 

WarborouRh. Miirtin Leach 309 ; 

Warburton. Henry 303 ' 

Wnnl, Wilfred 297 

WaUon, Alfre.1 E. T 33r. 

Wataoii, E. H. Ucon 117 

Wataon, I.ily 117 

WaUon, William 2r>8 

Watt-Dunton, Ilieodore 162 

Wedmore, F 328 

WeirMiteliell, 8 

Wei«a Schmttenthal, Prof. Karl 

WelU, H. (J 

Wentoott. Dr. B. P 

We«toriT, Miaa 

Wheatley, H. B 

Wheeler, ^<tepl>en 

Whi<h«<r, Prod 

Whintler, Charlea W 

Whitaker »42 

Wjll*rforee. A. H „ 5 

Wilkin«, .Marv E 19 



•■*"■ PAOK 

CONTRIBUTORS OF SIGNED 

ARTICLES AND LETTERS, d(0. - 

" A •• „ 209 

Arnold, A. O ,...„, i:;o 

Bibliopfailo* 345 

Birrell, .\uxuttine „ 17 

Black, C 281 

Boyle, Kreilk 34,', 

Bro.iiliy, C. H 280 

Burlei|{h, Tbom-u „ -A]:, 

Carryl, (Juy Welmore 272 

(Jtibb, Ceranl V I8.t 

Cixik. riieixlore A 151 

(Vewe, Karl of „ 336 

Dawiuin, William Harbutt 183 

DoltHon, Atiatln I44 

Eilitor of tlie Qaaritrly Rtritm 2l.'> 

Pottey. A 8.% 

Kuniier Bookaeller, A 184 

tSaniett, R S04 

CibKon, William Wilfred 208 

(■oaKe, Edmund 241 

(Iralmiii, Jnmea H 85 

Hus.s.ir, An 120, 24K 

JaniFH. Henry 306 

KipliuKi Kudyard 16, 170 

LanK. Anilrew 48, 314 

LawleKi, Kinily m. 176 

Lely, <i. M t Sift 

Librarian, A 281 

MHclarrn, Inn „ 80 

Maele...!, Fiona 240 

Maliaify, I'rofeaaor 112 

Martin, K. S 314 

Murray, Frauk 216 

Nutt, Alfred 184 

Palmer, .1. Luttrell 216 

Powell, (1. H 183 

Reich. Kmil 213 

BolHTta. W. Rhya 184 

Bargeant, I.ewia 150 

Shiuid, Alrx. Innea 345 

Sillard, P. A 248 

Smith, Cid.lwin 272 

Stephen, I.eHlie 176 

Btillinan, W.J 183 

ToTnl>ep. Paget 216, 344 

Tyler. Thomaa 150 

W*at«nii, William 144, 305 

Writer i>f .\rticle on Misa Mitfiinl in 

" nictionniy of Nnti<mal Biography ". 151 

CORRESPONDENCB- 

American CoUegei 183 

Bingraphy 314 

Bookaaie .\vera(fe« 345 

Boukteller'a Cnevance, A 315 

Bookaellinit V<>e>t^<<>n> I^M 1^> 816, 248 

Ethica of I'liblishirig .'M5 

areece in the XI.X. Centurj- 150 

Historical .Accuraoy in Fiction 85 

Late Lonl 'I'ennyion, The 120 

Mary Fytton 150 

Method* of .Mr. Moaher, The 151 

Mountain, Stream, and Covert 345 

Mra. Browning und Mias Mitford 150 

New Tammany, The 314 

Novel, The „ 8ft 

Peri«hable Booka 281 

PayeboloKical .Chestnut, A 314 

Qun^atio de Amia et Terra 816, 280, 344 

Quarlrrlu i>n Poela, !!>• 215 

Rudyard Kipling 120, 183, 848 

Stuart PortralU 281 

Swiaa Relief Stationa 188 

'ITioughta on Style 184 

POREION LBTTBR8- 

Prance 86. IBS, 182, 279, 313 

(lermany 121. 879 

Italy.... 847 

Ruaiia 87. 158 



21 
326 

50 
270 
.141 
139 
293 
340 
118 



HEADED ARTICLES 

All>h..lia.- Daiidet 



Ira. (\ R 

H 

< Freda 



Will 

Win 
w.; 

Wi. 

W.. (i. A 

W. H 

Wor.lol.i. W. B.i,il 

BIBLIOORAPHIBS- 

Nigerta 

North-Weat Frontier, The 
Preaent Auatrian ('riaia, Tb« 



■orge C 140 

" "" „ 340 

20.'. 



I4:< 
142 
238 
262 

94 

62 
287 



Trafalgar, The Battle of 29 



I 



.'»06 

Aalil.uniham Sale, 'llie 277 

Booka ot 18:i7 337 

Comitry Claaaiea 342 

Daodet eluz lui 307 

Eiphlieth Annirenary of Theodor 

H.' lK^..'."'.",V."V.".'.'.V.'.'.". ..... 246 

Lil n, The 59 

Moiiuni.ut^ of Karly Printeni 188 

Sir Philip Franeia'a l^etlera 118 

'ITlc " Waspa " «t Caniliridgo 184 

LEADINO ARTICLES- 

Age of s , 1-ho IM 

Author » 1 

Biogiai-l ji.ir Writer* 280 

BookavUing gueetiou, The 7» 



INDEX. 



355 



Lradino Abtici.kh— (oontinueil) 

{'liri«tm»« HiiokH 

DiiniiiiHtioii iif tlir Novel, The 



l-*n«i 



rAUl; 



2MU 
6!V 



trr 



Kiik1>«>> Aiiiilimiy, An IJj 



HiiTiilay 'I'n-'k fur PaiwriU, A 

Llt<T»ry Ycur, 'l'h<' ■••v' 

Uuiirterlii on J'ofln, Tb« .. 

Tra^if Suct**'Hi«, A 



as: 
sai 1 

121t 

a3 



LETTERS FROM A PORTFOLIO- 

Ramuntl Hurke 

ThoniM ("»rlyl« 

Aleiaii'lrf DuinM l*» 

Tlininii-^ H"."l I''" 

|.<iiil Ji')Tr<-y 

VV. C. MaritBily 

U8T OP NEW BOOK«- 

30-32, «.H-C4, ur., l)fi, 127, 128, IfiH-lBO, 191, 
1U2, 223,224. 2r..-.. -'.'iB, 2«7, 288, S52 



149 
140 



Hit 



Aktimtic (lirr BonKjt— (continurj) 
f<b«nliMH't C«l«ii<Ur 

BtiiAio 

V»nily K«lr 

Wt-nwl CalnHUr 

Work uf (;iurlM KaeM, Th* 

BIOGRAPHY- 

Alfn-il. I,"r.l T»nn]r»OB <- 

An-.:. I ,,1 i.'„..i,.- , 

A-  r»n 

Ai. ■■!• Onjroo ... 

It. ' 

Ki. 

Hn - llrrt Dl»r3r 

H<«>-l'oia <.f thf UfarotlM -IJ-I 

Jpwiah PnrtntiU 47 

J,,'  • M 

.1. ,on 5S«i 

J. M r„!hY Wordfwofth 140 



r. 



YOPMO ( uu a H — rf) 



a7i5 



3. i* 

4-J 

70 

294 



I u 



I'r 
I't. 



. Ill 
sio 

SI* 

so* 

310 

11* 
•.'71 



NOTES- 

28-2!>, R9-0-.' -.-u-.X, 123-126, 163-in8, : 
187-100, 217-222, 248-2r.5, 281-286, ! 
345-3r.2 

OBITUARIES 

Alcork, Sir Kiitherford 120 

Ilrown, Kev. T. K »0 

Byrnr, Very Uev. J »l| 

CaMfrwood, l*ri>fei«or 186 

CHvalriwelle. (tisvanni Ratitt* 121 

Cirnvreiir, Madame Auguate 68 

nana, Charles A ft8 

l)au.let, Ali.lioiwe 306, 307, 312, 316 

l)ri»ler. Prof. Henry 279 

George, Henry 89 

Legge, Profemior 216 

LUmlaff. Dean of 2S 

Palgrave. Prancin Turner 68 

Pasriial lie (JayaiigoH 2r> 

Kegnaiilt, .lnri|uen Arnable 68 

Kenouf , Sir Peter le Page 26 

Konaiter, William 68 

Shoppe, C. J 187 

Stoiighton. Dr 89 

" Taxma " 68 

Teck, IhiduM of 89 

Von Kiehl. W. H 186 

Von Wegele, Dr. FraDZ Xaver 68 

Walfor.l, E 187 

POEMS- 

Blin.l Ri.lcra, The 208 

Dirge of the Munatrr Forest 176 

EluKJoo 144 

Haven Mother 272 

Maiglxleann Mliara, The 240 

KeceMaiininl 176 

Theseu.i anil Minoi 304 

White HwseH 16 

UNIVERSITY LETTERS- 

Caniliriilgc 213 

Oxford 66, 246 

REVIEWS. 
ART 

Art of Painting in the Querns Ueign 276 ] 

Chipiiendale I'orioil ni Kn^lish Furniture 137 

Chriitt and His Mother in Italiau Art 2S9 

CoDDoiRseur, I'hc 106 I 

Decorative HeraUW 240 

(ilasgow School of Painting, The 333! 

Historioal PortraitH 139 

Hiatory of Kei.aissancu Architecture in 

England, A 101 

J. F. Millet and Kuatio Art 383 

Life and Work of W. Q. Orchardnon 27« 

Ornamental Design for Woven Fabrics ... 171 

Portrait Miniatures 140 



U-tl.i. u: I),. ' Kn^aetli 264 

I^'tters of Kl rett Browninf ... 98 

I/Heritage d. 266 

Life and Letters of Mr. 1 I'ortcr 76 

Life and Tiine« of C'anlh . .u 297 

Life of I iverie I'uiey 66 

Life of >n 298 

Life of 1. ., ,n 170 

Marie Antoinette Dauphin* 236 

Mary Queen ..f Scots 164 

Memoir of Ai; '" t^h, A 325 

Memoir of W 299 

PriTato Pap. T Iberforce ... 6 

Queen Victoria ISO 

KecoUections of Aubrey ile Ver* M^ 

Russian BiokTaphical Dietiooary 9 

Bir Walter Kalegh 138 

Rolomon (Vsar Malan 234 



tt liays 

, a •• CfciM's 

p.. 

T. 

T. ■■■■■'.^ 

T d - 

Tr. -I „ 

Tr. \ 

T" -e 

(-. ' to Fairvlaad 

Ti. 

W 

Wr' ■■-HT ci: rii:..|>|>;. i n.- 

BOOKS OP REPERBNCB 
B. Year- Book aa4 



UafdM 



Thomas and Matthew Arnold 
William lilackwond and his .Son* , 
William Murris 



42 
10 
36 



11 
«■! 
!• 
1) 

lis 

fit 

W; 



U. 



ary 



.111 

343 
343 
34t 
342 



341 



nophon 

EDUCATION ' 

Ar. on with l.atm Verses 



■be 



I;. 

^■ltlo^lm' 

1 

FICTION 



Ml .. 

I he.. 



Another'a Burden . 

A-  - ■■'"'- " 
A- 

1'.,.. 

p.. .bclg 

V rs, The 

11..,.. 

Beth Book, The 

Bladvs iif the StewpOMJ 

. Arcs 

>ir°s Breadth 



Tboums (iain.sliorough 
Vnsari's Lives of the Painters 
Work of t'harles Keene, The .. 



:'40 
334 
276 

ARTISTIC GIFT BOOKS- 

.\lnianac of Twelve Sports 277 

An AlphalH-t 277 

Art .lournal 277 

Art of 1S«17 277 

Art of Painting in the Queen's Reitrn 276 

Blackberries. The 277 

Olaasical Sculpture Gallery 277 

Coon Calendar 277 

Legend of Canielot, .\ 276 

Lite and Work of W. Q. Orchardson 276 

London a.s seen by Charles Dana Gibson 277 

People of Dickens 277 

Pictures of Clas.sic Greek Landscape 277 

Kcmington Calendar 277 



BOOKS FOR THE YOUNO- 

Ace o' Hearts 

Adventures in Tovland 118 

Adventures of a Siberian Cab 300 

All the Way to Fairyland 809 

Black Arrow. Tbe 341 

Black Disk, The 27B 

Book of Verses for Children 204 

Bnshy 341 

Butterfly Ballads 809 

By Sartal Snnds 244 

Children's Study 276 

Chronicles ot Christopher Bate* 841 

Clash of .\rms »74 

Clovis Dnrdintor 243 

Concerning Tiddr 244 

Days of Jeanne D'Atc 276 , 

Echo-Msiil and other Stories 309 Amr Vivian's Rinff 

Eerie Book, Tbe 341 •— "^--•- "-J— 

Eiiled from School 310 

First Book of •• Krab," The 245 

Flamp. The 212 

Flight for Freedom, A 244 

For the Flag 243 

Frank and Saxon 276 

Fur -lunge Ilrrren 245 

(Jardeu of Delu-ht. The 309 

Gentleman of Knuland, A 24 i 

(Sentlenianly (liaiit. The 31 

Gladys in (irnuunarland 3f 

Gold' Ship, The 27 

Golden Galleon, The 24  

Half-aDoien Uovs 31u 

Half-a-l)o/.n (iirls 310 

Hans Anilersen's Stories 118 

Icelandic Fairv Tales 118 

Ideals for Girls 376 

In the Days of Good Qaeen BMi 244 

In the Days of the Pioneers 244 

Joana 244 

Just Forty Winks 118 

Job Heldre.1 341 

Joy of my Youth. Tbe 341 | 

King Ola'f's Kinsman 118 

King's Stor>- Book, The 341 

Ud of Mettle, A 246 | 

Lever's Novels 274 i 

Lullaby-lan.l 309] 

Making of Matthias, Tbe 310 

Master of Ballantrae 341 | 

M  '^.rk 2751 

>' vo made the Empire 244 | 

,M - una 276 

Mis... Mouse and her Boyi..... 243 

Moilern Puck. A 309 

Mona St. CUiro 246 ; 

Naval Cadet, The 244 , 

Netherdyke 212 

Nursery Rhyme Book 309 



CLASSICAL 

Her I ••■• 142 

PI 271 

p,. ilea 260 

Reivil.h. '.t na'.> „ 270 

Sophocles 570 

Works of .Xrnophon 'J71 



14 



Aims and Practice of 

2S7 

< of a Foster PWaat ... 239 

-chools 171 

?IS 



..-...._„.„. 118 
81 

,..„ IM 

.._ 117 

„.... 149 

211 

— . 340 

UT 
146 
117 

84 

„ x:t 

....„ 308 

:rageoas HI 

na and Mother's Hands 178 

1 i.ui.ie iMvai of '96 U 

Corleone 178 

Creel of Irish Stories, A 84 

Crime and the Criminal, The 28 

Dariel 27S 

David Dimsdala, M.P SU 

DerelicU „ M 

Dorrington Deed Box. Tlie M 

Kl Carmen .. 3M 

Fall of th<- Sparrow .. 86 



F" 

1 

1 

Fi 

C' 

C 

li 

li 

1 

li 

In 

Ii 



1 Son . 

... A 

itrr's Sake 

ll.r.rr HeMdilh.. 



.1 A. 



St 
943 

147 

lis 

US 

M 



Train Robbeir 14t 

:. 11 

and Ends .„ MS 

■. 20 

.nrnt Way 211 

-..We . 212 

Man, The 60 

Jas> II 1^. wards 119 

Jeroair !• 

King with Two Paece, Tbe 11* 

Lady Rosalind ^ 



356 



INDEX. 



fii-TlO)!— {coatianad) 

lAmniT*. Tbr 



LorliiBrar 
LoriU of 
Mm 

M*> i !>• 

Mwn-,^ I'T 

H&rrh oil I>>iHtoi>. A 
MAnrlla • M»fii>ir<' 

■artian. Tlw 

oltteTltiKl 



riM 



ISO 



M 

M 



LAW 

Annual Praetim, 1898. Tb» 

Olabralrd Tri«U 

Kitcjrlo|xr<lia of tbr I^wi of EnKlaod 

UoodFTc'it MiMli-rn Law of KckI property 

(irMn«o(Hl on ( 'unvryaoriiif 

H«titrr"« Koni»n l^ftw 

 " : tilution 



At 



Uotmt.. 



Kioto 

HalM of k Mu 

CMd Storic* 

Obf of U>» Brokaa Brifaal* . 

fteol Utnrt 

PnfU of Cloptoo 



fsc:^ 



r't Danmuo, Tka..... 

Butt Vrrdict. A 

Kip's KodaaptioB. Tko ....>.. 
8i. Itm 



fo 



BlMiU llacLcoJ. 
8ta» Paitloa*. Tbr . 
amft of Marioy .... 

fiknrr, Tb« 

8o* of Um C'lar 

I lUid, A .... 
•U of OSet. A .. 



M.P. 



81 

Bmtmo umI PUt Storiw 

TcBpto of FoUt. Tba 

Tkno Coaaoly HJudcni mini their Alfsin. . 

nmo nugnem, Tho 

'i l<ttir« Windom 

Too ••■(••■...• 



-rr-inj 



Torrt— 

T»: • !r, A 

T»ili»L; IU,1, Th.- .. 
Two <'«pt«io>. The .. 



:e. llie 

r« at Coraniw.. 



OEOORAPHY AND TRAVEL 

An., r.' » »ii ; :•.■■ Americana 

An Ann' - l^t'.fi- from Japan 

Aaiati 1 .fi..-. 

( h r.r».- t ' \' r'^' - ' ICl 



I^al. n I'.. 



> fieUa . 
' > rii Afrioo 

» eii .-• 



, I 



■'■. Afriaa 

xnd froMnt . 
aii.i Woat Coaat . 



H I STORY - 

l*«teiopip«nt of Um) Engliab Coiutitutiaa 
Ba«luli Black M<>ak« ul Kt. Beacdiet. Tba 
fraaaa ander Lnuts XV 



. tiivmtlth and Pro- 
l*r»/>r»l« . ... 

Bi*lM7 of tba ' 
LHarary Hialor^ ula- 

tion „ „,„^ 

Lord* of Lara, Tba».«....>,„ „.,. 

lUkiac of AUtotaford 

Mafic Aatoiaatta Daaptiiaa 

Now Lrtter* of Napolooa i 

Qoaaa Vi«tona „ _ 

Sir Wa)l«r RaJogb 

Saallcr Hiatoriaa of OroMo Md 

B oaial 8«itaarland 

Story of oor Kaclub Towaa 



4'i 
179 

.'>4 I 
2r.' 
146 
178 

33 
147, 

82 
I'lQ 

r.3 

53 
148 
53; 

116 
18 i 
243 

149 1 

as I 

147 i 
117 i 
340 i 

lie' 

179 I 

22; 

179 1 
213 

S4 
14S 
148 
212: 

51 I 
178 
211 
340 

33 
116 
274 
117 
179 

22: 

19 
147 
148 
117 



47 

2'i:( 

■-'I'M 

261 ' 
l.'<4 
3»0 
1.(9 
300 
237 
15 
205 
I 

172 
73 

102 

230 
71 

104 ' 

142 
75 

139 , 

88 { 
>«3 

i;i4 
i.i 

229 

23< 

290 

1S0> 

138 

203 

107 

108 

271 



M :>>«. i^uarriva, ami Miiiaralt. IjiW of... 

.M. rt.; .Kii, l'lr<li{e«, I{y]M)tbci'*tioDK 

.Motor «.'ar». Ij»« of 

N'otei on lVni<iiii; Title! 

I'ritiniit. - if I'leaiiing 

Ke '••> 

K' ^ 'tiona 



Art, The 

i i.< ading Caaaa in tba Crim- 
lliai l.itw 

Torta. The Ijiw of 

White .^ 'Hiilor's Leading Casea in Equity 
LITERATURE- 

.\gi? of Tennyiion 

Authori-s.s of the Odvanev 

BililiograpbT of the \V>irLs of Wm. Morri* 

Critirisin^, IteHiclionii, Maxinu, of Uoetba 

I)iar^ of .MastiT William Silence 

Kasai de Si'nmntiqiie 

Hanmet 8hakc«|>eare 

Hawtbonie'« Huuiie of the Seven Gablt-a... 

Hi*'  ' 'riich Literature 

Hi T.ard the Kox 

J..- run 

La^t 6lUiiio* 

Lett<'r«, kc, of Walter lavage Landor ... 

LiteraryHintorTof the American Kevolotion 

Literary I'ampbleta 

i,ordn of l.-im 

Mai ' I iHier, Le 

M. .|'hy 

Nei.' „!■ «ur 'llieorie and Teehnik 

dcr Kpik un<i Draniatik 

Oxford English Dictiooary 

Principles of Criticism, Tiio 

Question ot the Water and of the l.«nd, A 

SbakcniM^arc , I'uritan and Hecugant 

Short Hiitory of French Literature 

Short Hittory of Modtru English Litera- 
ture 

8t«n'lhal (lEuvres Posthumes) Napoleon I. 

The Spe<'tator 

Voyageuscs, Les 

Water of this Wondroos Isles, Ttia 

Wordsworth, .\ Primer of 

MATHEMATICS 

Applied MhthenialicM 

Elenirntary Course ot InflnitesimaJ 

(^al4-uliis, .\n 

W..rki i.f An-himedes, The 

MEDICINB- 

J4>bii Hunt4*r 

Medical Hints for Hot Climates 

Origin of Disea-u-, The 

l'ra<-titii>ni'r's Handbook of Treatment ... 

MISCELLANEOUS - 

Itaddesley Clinton 

Cambridge I>iwril>«d and Illustrated 

Celebrate)! Trials 

Chronicles of the Bank of England 

Free Library, 'I'lie 

Home and flaunts of Sir Walter Scott ... 

How to Make a Drew 

Library Construction 

Lumen 

yagic 

Marriage Custouis in Many Landa 

Oocaaional AdilreNS, Tlie 

Obi Harrow Days 

Printers of Bsalv in the XV. aad XVI. 

Centuri<-« 

Koinanre of the Irish SUge, The 

SicutColumbae 

Htorii-s of Famous Bonga 

MUSIC 

Eiiir of Sounds, The 

Musical Memories 

Verdi, Man snd Musician 

NAVAL AND MILITARY 

llattle Fields of Thcssaly, 'ITie 
Coldstream Uuards in the Crimaa, Tbe ... 

(7uba in War Time 

Int. •  • .erirs in Sea Power, Ihm... 

I.a i'M;aia4* 

Ul -i.e Black Sea 

Not4M uu Naval Progress .....m~>.., 



PAOI 

. 303 

. 135 

143 

111 

143 

79 
307 
207 
111 

79 
207 

64 
SOS 
111 
HI 

24 

24 
111 



303 

24 

303 

142 

198 

237 

204 

S'.t 

197 

233 

141 

7 

233 

236 

167 

293 

191 

336 

43 

75 

202 

46 
201 
262 
141 

'C7 
237 

165 
266 
233 
292 
72 
78 



20G 

20C 
206 

54 
111 
110 
110 

142 
214 
135 
199 
200 
229 
142 
200 
106 
297 
297 
203 
327 

167 

76 

338 

105 

143 
143 
142 

2:1 
109 
109 
300 

5. 
174 
178 



Naval and Militakv— (nmtinued) 

Rirbanl BainI Smith 

Reflections on the Art of War 

Roral NavT I ist 

I'l:' -■ '■■■:■ . t ".■■■ 

W ,k 

^\ '■ '.'uartors in 1870 

PHILOSOPHICAL - 

Kvolutioii of the Ides of (imi 

History of Intellectual Development 

Outlines of a I'hilosouhy of Itelieiou 

pii ' !!!!!!!!!![!;;! 

V' ,: , , ,iey, The 

POETRY- 

Adniirnla AU 

Balbi.ls of the Fle<'t 

Book of Verse* fur Children 

Collect^J I'oenis of Austin DobaoD 

Coming of Lore, The 

Earth Breath, The 

English Lyrics 

Fairv Changeling and other I'oems 

Pidelis and other Poems 

Flower of the Mind, 'Iliu 

Gediehte 

(jolden Tn-asury of Songs and Lyries 

I History of Heynard tba Fox 

Ho|)«! of the World 

I Lays of the Bed Branch 

I Lyrics of John B. Tabb 

Minuscula 

Nineteenth (Jentury Poetry 

Poems by George Cookson 

Poems by Matthias Barr 

I'ovms of L. I'upper 

I'oems of l.ove and Pride of England 

Poems of Wonlsworth 

Poetry of Kobert Bums 

Realms of Unknown Kings 

Royal Shepherdess, kc, 'Vhe ^,,, 

Rubaiyat of Ulnar Khayyam 

Seleited I'oems by (ieorge Meredith 

Songs in Many Moods 

Tale of BiKTsccio. A 

Wiiiiclennc .\lbatrosa, The 

SCIENTIFIC 

Darwin snd alter Darwin 

Electric Light 

Electric Power in Workshops 

First Principles of Electricity and Mag- 
netism 

Lumen 

New I'sycbology, 'Ibe 

Principles of Alternate Current Working... 

Psyrhi>logy of the Emotions 

Keceiit an'l Coining Kclipsea 

Studies in Psychical Research 

SPORT 

Boxing 

Mountain, Stream, and Covert 

Nature anil Sport in South .Africa 

Nights with an Old tiunner 

Queen's Hounds and Stag Hunting Recol- 
lections 

Racing and Chasing 

Sporting and .Athletic Records 

THEOLOGICAL- 

.AdtlrcNses and !*i'nnons „ 

Anglican Communion, Tba 

AS|>e<-ts of Life 

Bamptun Lectures, 1897 

Beginnings of the English Churcb and 
Kingdom 

Book of Ciimmoii Prsver, The 

Church in England, 'ilio 

Chureb nf Englaml In-fore the Reformation 

Egypt Kxploraiion Fuml, IWC-IKUT 

Elements of the .Science of Religion 

Everlasting (iospel. The 

Rver.ley BiMe, The 

ExiMisiiors of tbe(;re<-k Taatameot, The... 

Faith of Centuries, Tlie 

Guide to Biblit«l Study, A 

History of Christianity in tbe Apostolie 
ABC 

History of Dogma 

John Donne 

Life of Our Saviour 

(lullinci of a Philosophy of Religion 

Pniiier of 111,- Bil.le, A 

Provi.i.ntial Order of the World 

S, Frani-is of Assisi 

BemioiiB Preai-bed in Eton College Chapel 



.' ation, A 

Two Lectures uu the " Sayings of Jesus ' 



100 
33 

301 
33 

302 

301 

326 
44 

12 

76 
231 
■296 

334 
324 

204 
196 
163 

16 
268 
296 
268 
266 
836 
266 
233 
2»8 
140 

lA 

15 
205 
268 
268 
235 
328 
233 

68 
268 
268 
169 

69 
2C8 
268 
268 

103 

175 
175 

175 
106 
171 
175 
171 
13 
S2S 

202 
'.'32 
139 
296 

335 
335 
265 

208 
205 
270 
100 

76 
106 
831 

76 
S.IO 
296 
237 
234 
173 
260 
204 

370 
108 
839 

178 
IS 
204 
173 
136 
205 
141 
234 
108 
330 



Edited by 




Published by 

iThc iTimfS. 



No. 1.— Vol. I. 



SATUUDAY, OCTOBKH L'3, 18y7. 



SI 
Itiuii«ii:r.i 



CONTENTS. 



PAoa 

Leading Article— Author and Critic 1 

Poem " Wliiti' IIoi-si's," by }{u<lyiiril Kipling 10 

" Among my Books," '>>• Anu'ust inc Hiiifll 17 

Reviews - 

Tennyson's Life H 

Tln> WillH-rfoife Piipers 6 

Hisitoi'y of French Literature 7 

liusMiiin liio^niphy 

W. Blttckwo<xl and his Sons 10 

Pliilosopliy of Ilt^li^ion 12 

Recent anil ('online Eclipses 13 

Latin Verses 14 

Siain on the Meinam 15 

Minor Poets 1"> 

Fiction— 

St. Ives , y.^*j........ 18 

Wliat Maisie Knew ,.,... .7 IB 

Jeitinio 10 

In Keiiar's Tents 20 

HuKh Wynne 21 

Maricttji'n llarrl.iKO. .\ Week of PaKxion, Stnplctoirs Luck. Tlio 
Son of tlie I'rjir. The DorriiiKton Deed Hox. The t'riiiio iiml 
the Criiiiitml, Slioilii MoLcod, Tlio Twilight Kccf, Notes of n 

Jl lisle Lover 22 & 23 

Military -Under Iho Hod Crescent— Bat tlcflclds of Thotwalj — 

Art of Wiir 23 

Legral -ItiiUnK Canon- Law of Torts— Rogers on ElcotionK 2t 

Obituary - Dean of LlandafT — Pascual do GayAngos— 

Sir Peter Le Page Kt'noiif 25 & 28 

Notes -Il, 27, 21. & 20 

Bibliography -TrnfalKftr 20 

List of New Books 30, 31. & 32 



AUTHOR AND CRITIC. 

It must be almost imjx)ssible even for the most 
imaginative of literary men to realize a world in which 
authors had the whole field to themselves, and there was 
no such thing as an organized system of criticism, to say 
nothing of a recognized guild of critics. Yet such a 
world there once wa.s, and, indeed, the day of its existence 
was not so very far removed from our own. The critic, 
not officially so styled, we have, of course, had with us for 
a couple of centuries ; but he was himself usually a great 
man of letters, — a Dryhex, for instance, or a JoiixsoN — 
and though a " mighty hunter before the Lord," when he 
took to pursuing other authors, he condescended only to 
the larger sfjecies of game. Save for one brief but 
agitated interval in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
when the lairs of Grub-street were suddenly beaten up by 



1 „ _ 11 armed lift . , r 

occu]>antji, down to the very smallest among them, chased 
in all ' -, the jK'ople of t'    ;„ j,pac« 

and c .'lit, pinciieil it , rty, but 

unvexf'd by critical detraction. The great Unappreciated 
of the present iK'riod mu.st 1 ' " " , one might imagine, 
Ujwn that eni — or they - m so if the supponed 

eternal enmity between author and critic were a fact, 
instead of, largely, an > ' " " , 

Age of letters. For tii' 

they complain that there are so many, " to come between 
them and their public " ; and that ; ' " 
reach that an obscure author of t;  i 

had only to find an influential patron in order to be at 
once relieved of all apprelien.sion of ' ' ' ' f 

doors. If such a patron were not 

had, it is true, to be run ; but even then the literaij 
aspirant who could find no noble; ' ' '' '' i 

could still adilress the reader in 

he was the " gentle reader," the " candid reader " — gentle 
because his heart was ri ' ' '. '   '■ " » 

his judgment wa-s still 1. 

honesty of the professional critic. And so the (iolden 
Age ran its course and ija^ised away. 

Saturn succuiuIkiI to .lupitcr we may supjjose in 
1802. The commencement of the Silver Age is marked 
by the establishment of the Kdiuhnrgh Hfvitnc. < »' *  

then for the first time ceased to be a protection. ' ^ 

began to organize itself, and a little band of renewers 
arose who, not content with discussing the merit* of such 
writers as had already gained the ear of the public, 
affected, as they still affect, to sit in judgment on the 
claims of those who were as yet only n.--- ■-'•• • *n win it. 
They showed, in fact, from the very ouJ ir nji^m- 

tions that they had no idea of confining their n' 

to well-known authors like Mr. SoCTii'^ "' " ' ■.. ' 

is roughly but not, perhajw, unri. 1 in 

No. 1 of the Edinbttrgh, or like the famous divine and 
scholar whose pulpit eloquence is the subject of a still 
quoteil " appreciation " beginning. " Whoever has had the 
good fortune to see I>it. I*.\ " ; for a luckless and 

now long-forgotten Mr. Pka ..;aor of" Bread ; or the 

Poor — a Poem," is called up for correction, and two other 
unhappy Doctors of Dinnity, of less note than Parr, are 
chastised for their presumption in publishing their 
sermons. These last three are evidently only aspirants to 
acceptance ; so here we have the critic " conii- 
them and their public to warn off their pi> 



2 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



and. ' ' '" " " - J " r- rnives, th»ir not im- 
po(i- . we 8e* clfarly, lina 

b«^n. Like its mythical prototyjie, though worse than 
the Ool ! * "' ' tter than the Bra-ss, for the critic 

only wt : 1 once a quarter, or a little later 

oaoe a month, whereas when the Brazen Age — for authors 
— waa ushered in by the a|>|>earance in 1817 of the 
LiUmiy GawdU, the critic began to go alx)ut his sinister 
basiness every week. As to the Iron Age, its commence- 

• '- ast an affair of yesterday. It began when the 
ijM'rs, instead of bestowing merely a casual and 
intermittent notice u|)on literature, took to ojK'ning their 
columns lilierally to the reviewer at short intervals and 
regularly-recurring dates. FVom the combined effect of 
their sejiarate action it has resulted that when one of these 

 Mimals is not reviewing another is ; so that the 

now to be seen at work somewhere or other every 
morning of our lives, and no author can be sure of not 
awakening any day to find that intrusive shadow falling 
" b«>twt"on him and his public." The daily critic ! 
Do but consider what it means. The gentleness of the 
gentle reader turned into severity, the candour of the 
candid sophisticated, at least, once in every twenty-four 
hour*. This should be the worst and darkest of all our 

lit, — , for the injured author. It should be verily 

an. i t he age of the dejiarture of Astraea — the age 

when Justice, despairing at last of preserving that scanty 
remnant of impartiality which the critic has left in the 
mind of tlie pul)lic, has finally taken leave of the earth. 

Or that, at any rate, is what ought to be the author's 
gloomy \new of the situation ; and that is what it would 
be if there were any truth left in the legend of his 
hostility to the *' irresjwnsible, indolent reviewer." As 
a matter of fact, his actual attitude towards this immense 
development of the critical industry has been suqirisingly 
different. S) far from his having been driven in disgust 
from the field by the vastly-increased number and 
activity of his " natural enemies," he has redoubled, or 
rather quadrupled and quintuj)led, his own energies of 
production. One would think that he welcomed criticism 
instead of repelling it ; that it stimulated instead of 
di- ^ his literary ambitions ; and that his dread of 

injii-: I-  ..rt*l been completely conquered by his desire for 
notice. It luw apjuirently l)een borne in upon even tlie 
Great ' iated that obscure merit, after all, fares 

better u,.,. ;.. many critics than with too few or none, 
and may congratulate itself that its lot has been cast in a 
time when, instead of sinking helplessly in the icy waters 
of neglect, it is much more often found floating, p<-r- 
hap« even too buoyantly, on a " boom." But there 
is, perhapn, another reason why the ever-increasing 
crowd of authors, esjiecially among the ranks of the 
unknown, liave l)egun to look upon criticism with 
other and more friendly eyes. They are getting dis- 
mayed by their own numbers, and, what is more, they 
have begun to {lerceive that this feeling of dismay is 
becoming general. They are uneasily conscious that, 
even if the reader still retained all the gentleness and 
candour which they were wont to ascribe to him, he would 



be unable to exercise those qualities through sheer mental 
confusion ; and they no longer, therefore, attach a sui)er- 
stitious value to the privilege of connng unintriKluced into 
the presence of a public which is merely bewildered by 
their multitude. On the contrary, they have begun to 
feel the need of an interniediar}- between themselves and 
the reading world. l/ooking round ui>on their crowded 
and ever-swelling ranks, and " conscious, as they are " — 
in the words of the famous judicial epigram — " of each 
other's imperfections," they welcome and, indeed, crave 
for the services of the discriminating dust-sifter who will 
be quick to discern the fla-sh of merit amid the rubbish- 
heap of incomjjetence. 

The situation is not without its embarrassment for 
the critic ; but in one resj)ect, at any rate, it simplifies 
his course of action. He is not calKni ujwn to excuse 
himself for increasing the scojie of activities which seem 
to be so much in demand. No ajwlogy, for instance, can 
1)6 needed for adding another to the list of journals which 
devote themselves, exclusively or princiiwlly, to the art 
and industry of literary criticism. Vastly as that industry 
has develo{)od of late years, its progress has been not 
equalled merely, but outstrii)i)ed, within the same period 
by the growth of literary production. Where the analytic 
impulse abounded, the creative ntsus ap})arently doth 
much more abound. There is apparently no reason to 
ho})e, or fear, that the former will overtake the latter, or 
that there can ever be a time in store for us when critics 
will be found increasing and multiplying with as much 
rapidity — even relative rajjidity — as authors. Nor, even 
in that case, would it be i>os.sible by any conceivable ex- 
pansion in the literary department of the jieriodical Press 
to overtake and keep abreast of the stream of production. 
Already, however, the thought may have occurred to the 
reader of these lines that, even if this were jwssible, it 
would scarcely be desirable. To render an account, how- 
ever short, of every book published nowadays is a task 
only to be attempted on the quite untenable assumption 
that every such book deserves to be so treated. In offer- 
ing to the public a new weekly journal dealing exclusively 
with the subject indicated by its title, we are animati^ by 
no chimericjxl hope of accomplishing the inijmssible. 
Literature, on the contrary, owes its existence in some 
measure to the conviction that, in the effort to satisfy 
every one of the innumerable applicants, deserving and 
undeserving, for its notice, contemjiorary criticism is 
running a real danger of neglecting its discriminative 
functions, and of forgetting that the special recognition 
which it owes to writers of genuine literary merit is neces- 
sarily depreciated in value by association with a too 
liberal comjjlaisance of attention to all writers whatsoever. 
While endeavouring, therefore, in these columns, to pro- 
vide the public with an adequate account and appraise- 
ment of whatever works may deserve any critical notice at 
all, we shall at the same time make it our constant aim 
to assign that iwsition of importance to the higher class 
of literary productions which nowadays, amid the multi- 
plicity of claimants to the attention of . rid-iKm, they too 
often fail to obtain. 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



IRcvicws. 



Alft^d Lord Tennyson : A Moninir. By his Son. 
Oi+Oiiti. 5101-551 PI*. r^)iul<>n, isir7. Maomlllan. 80;- n. 
(KIltST NOTICE.) 
A biography of a great ixM^t from the hand of one who 
stoml to him in tlie three-fold relation of nou, Sfcretary, 
and constant literary confidant munt needs !>«> full <»f 
interest for the world ; and I^ord Tennysou'i* ' 

Kharc in this memoir of his illuMtrious father 
naturally enough in matter of the highest value. But the 
additions, copious in amount and various in kind, with 
which he has been able to enrich it indefinitely increaiie 
its worth. It may be doubte<l, indetnl, wiiether any work 
of this description bus ever before so munificently enlargt^il 
the stock of public knowledge concerning the inner and 
spiritual life of a profoundly thoughtful philosopher-i>oet, 
the opinions and judgments of a life-long student of Eng- 
lish poetry, and the artistic development and methotls of 
the most excpiisite of poetic artists. The book contains 
letters of the highest interest from and to the late 
Laureate, an abunihmce of his own literary memoranda, 
a faithful record of his conversations, ranging over 
a wide field of subjects, a collection of critical pronounce- 
ments, always weighty and illuminating, on the literature 
of the past, and, most precious of all, a singularly large 
array of hitherto unpulilished jiieces from the hand of the 
poet liimself. It is only by the biographer's resolute self- 
efi'acemeut that room has been found even within the 
thousand i)ages of these two substantial volumes for the 
mass of illustrative matter with which they present us. 
" According to my father's wisli," writes Ix)rd Tennyson, 
in the iiuxlest and judicious preface with which he intro- 
duces the work, " tluoughout the memoir my hand will be 
as seldom seen as may be " ; and he goes on to i)li>ad this 
excuse, unneeded, it apjiears to us, for its " occasionally 
fragmentary chanvcter." It will surprise none who can recall 
certjiin famous and trenchant utterances of the poet that he 
" disliked the notion of a long formal biograi)liy." " He 
wished, however," adds his son, " that if I deemed it better 
the incidents of his life shoukl be given as shortly as might 
be without comment, but tliat my notes shoidd lie final 
and full enough to j)reclude the chance of further and 
unauthentic biographies." His wish has assuredly been 
fulfilled in this work. It is not always that what may be 
called the •' official biograjjliy " of an eminent person is, or 
indeed deserves to li(>, the final one; but her' 'rn to 

finality is quite indisputable. What the \>: ^ ^ r has 
given us about the poet's " birth, home, school, college, 
friendshijjs, travels, and the leading events of his life" 
supplies an ample account if not, to use his own words, 
of all that " people naturally wish to know," yet certainly 
of all that ]»eoj lie have any sort of right to leani. Those 
who wish to know more will belong essentially to that 
class of persons u|)on whom the Laureate half humorously, 
half seriously imprecated the '* curse of Shaksix-are." 

To readers of this order — an order unfortunately which 
various causes have for a good many years \n\st contributed 
to increiuse — the new biograpiiy will be a wholesome dis- 
appointment. One cannot honestly say that the story of 
Tennyson's life, domestic and literary, fidl though it is of 
human interest, would as here told supply much " copy " 
for a " mainly-alwut-people " column. The biographer 
has adhereil so resolutely to his own sound principles that, 
writing as he does on a ma7i who had alre.idy been the 
subject during his lifetime of "sketches," "studies," 



 inonocrnphii,** »nd " •piwtHriationn " without number, h« 
hii ' ' i-klitionn * *' "' 

whicli (Mil) 

cnrrieil t<> ^ 

enten-*! u|>on bin tank, JSuch adilitioni) to j- .w- 

Iwlge as he hoji made are to Ix* found, be 

exjtected. in tl»e earlier chapters. We catch for 

tl  M»e, for i' ' ' ' • 

u r '>'d and • > 

land<-«l projH'rty away from liin elder t" 

and who deserves iniMiorf.iIit V ifmilv for 

infelicity of the ji; 

in handing to the MMitnim .mih-u im- n<iii'iiiiiiiiiii i"i i» 

po«'?n which the Iwl htul coin|»im«l " by desire " on bin 

gi I fere in 

til ••d bv I 

for it, the lant." Had tlie ui. i man cc 

self with the less s|)ecitic p. . >.i tliat tt.v . 

never liecome a jK)et, he might even now be 
d' ' it in the Klysian Fiil ' 

v; iii'Xi. But the hard : 

behind him the largest fortum* - 
exercise of the i)oetic art must be b< 
venerable shade to explain away. A 

sketched from the Tennysons of ai. ....... . ., .. ., 

that of the jwet's rigidly Calvinistic aunt who wept 
over the in" ..... . •iio*'t 

of her fri> 1 lo^t 

of her neigh tM>urs," liad lieen jacki-d out lor eternal ^alva- 
tion — a reflection (juite in the manner of Browning's 
" Johannes Agricola ;" and who one day remarked 
encouragingly to her nephew, " .Vlfr. ' '"' '  ' - ' ' '• 
at you I think of the wonls of H' 
from me ye or 
too, we hear, a 
Tennyson's brothers and 

that extraordinary family of i 

longevity and ;jenius — which has j»r'' di»- 

tinct marl ' ' - the Li " ' * 

this day n I by fiv. 

of ninety and iIm 
year. The jioetic i , , 

almost as early in Altml's two elder br<' in him- 

self, and, indeed, was in all of them, it w ....... .-, , in, an in- 
heritance from their father. In an interesting fragment 
of ant   ites : — 

Ai of mv rocollcctjon, when I wma aboat 

eight ye.ir» old, 1 c<>. of a tlato with rhnmaonikn 

blank verse in prais.' : my brother I'liorles, who w«« 

a year older than I was, Thomson then being the only po«t I 
knew. Before I could read I was in the habit, on a stomiy day, 
of sfireading my arms to the wind and crying out " I hwir a 
voice that's sp«aking in the wind," and the words " far, far, 
•way " had always a strange charm fur me. About ten or 
eleven Pope's " Homer's Iliad " became a favonrite of mine, 
and I wrote Itiuulrods and hundreds uf lines in the retnilar 
PojH»inn metre — nay, even cmlil ini 

eldoi- brothers, for my father was u ... 

metro very skilfully. 

.\gain he writes : — 

At about twelve and onward I wrote an epic of aix thooand 
linos d la Sir Walter Scott— full of battles, dealing too with sea 
and mountain scenery — witii Se«>tt'8 rccularity of octoayllablea 
and his o<v : ..rietios. T" he performance was »ery 

likely won: . T n«v«r ! : more truly inspired. I 

wrote as much ' time, and us*d to go 

shouting them .k i.trk. Somewhat later (at 

fourteen) I wrote a drama in biank TW«e, which I t»rm 

1—2 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



ikill, and othar Uunga. It mmi to m* I wrot« them all in 
perfoet in«tn. 

Sjircimenfi of Itis father'^ earliest- poetic effort* are 
'.son at th«' end r fn>m 

„ ,iot« are tjikt-n, m  la is a 

scene i , doubtle«« to the blank verse drama 

- ' — ; t.>. , «i the matter there is not much more to be 
ti what always has to be said of a clever boy's first 
udVriug to the dramatic muse. 

Ha : by St. JamM, 
MiiM was no rtilfnir mind in infancy. 

We all know the kind of thing. But the form 
and technique of the piece will rcjiay a mucli closer exami- 
nation. For not only is the metro " perfect" in the 
tense of obser\inj» strict accuracy of scansion, but it is 
singnUrly free from the monotonous prosody which 
onMllv marks the hlnnk verse of the schoolboy. It 
is t • ••n him the 

exi 'y/' b"t to 

" brt«k your lii mnally tor the sake of variety." 

Tliere is mu«... ;.....<. however, in these juvenile 
attem|>t.s than a mere occasional breaking of the line ; 
th> .rns of an almost mature conception of the 

ini of a richly varic*! cii'sura. .Another of these 

piews, •• The Conch of Death," is also ri'iiiarkable. though 
on a different ground ; for, though crude and formless 
enough, it does undoubtedly comjiel some revision of the 
verdict con- ' nnd, on the whole, not unju.stly pro- 
nounotl u] son's first published i»oetic utterances. 

But more of lli»> l.t-reafter. 

On the school and college career of Tennyson 
there is little more to l)e known tiian ha-s been 
gather*-' .iti-.r from already published corresjwndence or 
fttim il references to it in the Tennysonian 

poems, ill- iiicndships with Sj)edding (of the " Life of 
mcon "), with .Monckton Milncs. Brookfield, Charles 
Buller, and. of course, Arthur Hallam, have long been 
matter of literary hi.story, and to have presened the 
tradition of their talk and symiwsia and .aspirations gene- 
rally is perhaps the only one among the acta of " the 
Apostles " by which that academical Ixxly is at all likely 
to have preserved its own memory to future generations. 
Fitzgerald, however, although h*- did not lay the founda- 
tions of his lif^-long intimacy with Tenny.<on until the 
latt'-r l,i,M completed the University course, has left an 
in* account of this Cambridge coterie which is 

given in ti,'  'r from his unpublished MS. notes : — 

The Otr. ^il, with Colfridgo, Julius Hare, Ac, to 

•xpoand, came to reform all our r«ition». I romombor that Livy 
and Jeremy Taylor were the groati^t poets next to Sliakospearo. 
I am not eare if you were not startled at hearing tliat Eutropius 
waa the graateet lyric poet except Pindar. You hadn't known 
be waa a poet at all. I remember A. T. quoting Hallam (the 
great ).••■»•■.■>•-. u pronouncing ShakcKpoaro "the greatest 
nan.'' auch (fic<<i rather )>ereniptory fur a philosopher. 

*' Well, I1.1K1 A. T., " the man one would perhaps wish to show 
aaa aample of mankind to tbooc in another planet. He used somo- 
timaa to quote Milton aa the KublimuRt of |)oote, and bis two 
■imilaa, one about the " (jtmjv.wder ore '' and the other 
about " the fleet," as thi >f all similes. Ho thought 

that " liycidaa " waa a '  I '• of poetic taato." I don't 

know how it is, but Dtyden always aeema greater than he abows 
-inaelf to be. 

Among new particulars of Tennyson's University days 

^ _ _ _. I f : : I I ..11.1 t i 1 • 

V'' ijiparciitly in 

a : .i-r of whidi 

J" ii«. hii«l so much more 

vi' -r of 18.30 he started off 

for the i*y i the company of Arthur Hallam, with 



money for the insurgents under the command of Torrijos, 
and the two young men disaj^iearing from the ken of their 
friends for several weeks held a .secret meeting with the 
heads of the conspiracy on the SjMinish frontier. The 
well-known cloak and sombrero of the jsjet's later days 
would have lent themselves admirably to the purjxise of 
such an exjiedition. 1.^'ss hot-headed, however, than 
Sterling's cousin, the unfortunate lioyd, they refrained 
from any (u-tive participation in the revolt, and instead of 
getting himself shot by a file of Spanish soldiers on the 
esplanade at Malaga, Tennyson happily returned iioine 
with no more compromising document in his jwicket tlian 
the unfinished MS. of " (Knone," the beautiful oj)ening 
lines of which had been inspinnl by the scenery of the 
valley of Cnuterets. 

There is much in the earlier clia))ter8 of the memoir 
and in the picture of the young jKiet's domestic life over 
which one would gladly linger if simce jHTinitted. Hut it is 
with the story of his literary and artistic career that in 
these columns we are more closely concerned, and to this, 
therefore, we cannot much longer delay to pass. 
Before doing so, however, a word or two must be 
said on those portions of this memoir in which 
the twin threads of the biograjihy and of the literary 
history are of necessity intertwined. Surveyed in this 
asjiect it revenls to us a figure which the countrymen 
of Tennyson, though they have no doubt formed a correct 
conception of it, have never yet realized in all the nobility 
of its true pro)K)rtioiis. (ienerally speaking, of course, they 
were aware that his early career was lieset with pecuniary 
difiieulties. His circumstances stand recorded in fact in 
his reluctant acceptance of that Civil List jjension for 
which Carlyle, according to the well-known anecdote, only 
succeeded in enlisting the late Lord Houghton's interest 
by reminding liim tli.it on the Day of .hidgment it would 
not do to lay the blame of the refusal on iiis constituents, 
but that it was Kichard Milnes himself who would be 
damned. But few ])eople prolmbly, either then or since, 
were in a position to estimate the full mejisure of the 
Ytoct'fi needs or the duration and .steadiness of the struggle 
which he had waged with i)Overty. Tiie death of his father 
in 1831 left the widow with straitened means. The eldest 
brother was absent from Kngland ; Charles had his clerical 
duties to attend to ; and ui^m Alfred devolved the care of 
his mother and unmarried sisters. It was under his 
RUi)erintendence that the household was transferred 
from Somersby Rectory to Higii Beech on the liorders 
of Epi)ing Forest, and finally settled after various migra- 
tions at Boxley, near Maidstone. Misfortune, assisted 
in some measure by imprudence on their own |)art, if 
not by dishonesty on that of others, followed their foot- 
steps. A certain Dr. Allen jirevailefl u))on Alfred to invest 
not only the money for which he ha<l sold a little estate in 
Lincolnshire, but also a legacy of i'oOO, in an enterprise 
which seems to have been as uniiractical from the com- 
mercial point of view as it was artistically unsound. The 
calamity, indeed, becomes doubly jiainful to contemplate 
when we consider its cause. Tenny.son, if we are not mis- 
taken, had yet to make the acfpiaintnnce of Mr. Uuskin, 
otherwise it would have given tiie keenest of jmngs to that 
eminent doctor in jesthetics to finrl that a )>ersonnl friend 
and a po<4, promising even then to attain a place among 
the Immortals, hiul wrecked his fortune on a scheme for 
car^ing oak jwinels and oak furniture Iry machinery, 
" The entire j)roject," writes the present Ix)rd T«'nnyson, 
" collapsed ; my father's worldly grKKls were all gone, and 
a |)ortion of the projH'rty of his brothers and sisters. Then 
followed a season of real hardship and many trials for my 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



fatlier and mother, nince marrinfjc xtcmiil (nrtlur oH" • 
4>Vfr." It wiiM, inilff«l, not till IK.'jO tlmi 
jiliici', aftfr nil i'ii;,'ii^'<>in('nt proUiiij^'i-d, ii,i 
of tilt' iiifiiiiH to iimrry, ovtTHoino twelve or (ourtwn y»<ani. 
The iMvtience with which Tennyson underwent thin \iTn- 
traeted delay, and the steady eoun»f;e and jHTHeverance 
with wliioh lie liil)<>ured the while to perfect himself in hin 
«rt, must im])ress every reader of the siiii|>le iiml mntfer- 
<)f-fai't narrative in wiiieh his son has ri 
this loiif^ itrohation. His father's lell. 
references to " the eternal want of i)ence,'' but they are in 
«jvery instance references of a merely casual and uncom- 
plaining sort. No murmur of dissatisfaction escai)e8 hira 
«t the i>r()loiii,'tHl failure of exceptional and :i. ' i 

j)0etical genius to earn even a nxHlest coiniw ; 
possessor ; nor does he ever seem to have shown a 
moment's wavering of the purpose to which he had dedicated 
his life. In short, the career of Tennyson, from his twenty- 
first to his forty-first year, when the tide of worldly succpbs 
turned at last in his favour, ])resents an example of single- 
minded devotion to a lofty ideal which it would not be easy 
to matdi in tlie history of literature. 

To jmss now from tlie region of biograjdiy to that of 
criticism, we find ourselves at once confronted with the 
inquiry as to how far the memoir, and still more the 
])oetical " documents "now for the first time given to the 
world, may be regarded as throwing additional light on the 
development of Tennyson's genius and the advance of his 
art to that uniipie perfection which by the consent of even 
the coldest of his admirers it achieved. A partial answer 
to this inquiry may at once be given by saying that the 
hitherto unpublished "juvenilia " do to some extent abate 
the jK'rplexities of at least one problem long familiar to 
the Tennysonian student — that, namely, of the tndy 
ama/ing suju'riority of the jioems of 18.30 to those 
in the "Two brothers" volume of 1827. The con- 
trast exhibited by these two productions, divided from 
each other only by this brief interval, has been 
always, and with reason, regarded as one of the most mys- 
terious of litei-ary phenomena. That contrast, it will be 
remembered, was one of matter as well as of form ; and it 
is not necessary to assign the various '* numlx^rs " of the 
earlier volmne to their res|)ective authors in order to esti- 
mate the value of its testimony to Alfred Tennyson's 
jwwers, inasmuch as there is nothing to choose between 
them. Their inferiority is the inferiority, not of the 
merely crude, but of tlie hopelessly commonplace. Some 
critics, striving to shut their ears to that whisjH'r of con- 
science which tells them that if they had lieen then " in 
practice" they could not iiossibly have detected the touch of 
the future master in this 'prentice hand, have endeavoured 
to persuade themselves that it is nevertheless there, and 
have sought to exhibit it. But it has been a futile effort. 
There is absolutely nothing, either in the smo<ith conven- 
tionality of their thought or in tiieirfeebly imitative style, 
to explain the stupefying jiaradox that they were the 
forerunners by only thrive years of such a masterpiece of 
sombre imagination as "Mariana," and by only five years of 
so rich and splendid apiece of romantic imagery as " The 
Palace of Art," and above all so matchless a combination 
of colour and music as " The l^itos I"j»ters." It must lie 
admitted, however, that in the light of the.se newly-pub- 
lished pieces the mystery has in one of its two asi^ects 
become less mysterious. The greater of the Two Brothers is 
shown to have done himself injustice by his choice of the 
|x>ems which he selected for i>ublication. If in his eighteenth 
year he had nothing in his jiortfolio less crudely executed 
than his contributions to the volume of 1827, he had written 



i-a«t <>in' ixnTii 



■*m rnmnumpUK^ in pnint 



tlie work ol the yun ' iior, at any 

have iM'en i)ronounc. ..1 of pronii--- ' 

conception "The < 'onch of Death " no 

tl..  • 

ot 

in ilti wurkniansiiip anu 

expression to jxisitive i „: . . 

lurid imagination and a certain vigour of \ ; 

tion which could not but have struclc '' ..i anj cum- 

petent critic of the work of a jioet in 



t of 
rof 
rip. 



Private Papers of WUIlam Wllberforce. (lil.i. .1 
and K<lii<-(1. wiili ii Pr.-fm-c, by A. M. Wllberforce. Uiih 
Porti-aiU. 8vo., 2i5pp. London, 18U7. FiBher Unwln. 12.- 

The ii' -of the T 

among tl • s of K 

administnition of the younger I'itt 

nizetl. Wilberforce had entered tin 1! 

almost at the same time as Pitt ; he sat in it during the 
whole of Pitt's Parliamentary life ; he was i ' ' ' 
without exception his most intimate and aft' 
friend, and, although he was on ' 
sui)])orter, he wa-s by no means a bliip 
inherited a considerable fortune, and sitting tor the most 
imi>ortant county in England, his ]x>sition in Parliament 
was one of great inde))endence, and he soon l)ecame the 
leader of the <li' ' ' ' '. in the If ' 

Conunons, ami "ff to ' 

and ])hilanthropic l|ue^ti(>n.•> than t<> : 
jwrty warfare. He has himself m< : 
occasion of the second sjie*^!! which Pitt made in Parlia- 
ment he voted against him. and '  i-'»— ■•' f---) him on 
more than one considerable ;ie the 

momentous one of the great V 
Pitt never shared the e\.. 
Wilberforce deemed of all things the most tr.. 

im]>ortant ; the languor which Pitt showe<l ii 

|)eriod of his administration towards that great qu<*«tion of 
the alxilition of the slave trade to which Wi!' ' -  
devoted the best energies of his life ; and the shan 
that arose In't ween them at i 
of Ixird Melville — though th^ 

weaken the friendship, at least enabled Wiibf-rforce to 
judge his friend without excessive admiration. It must be 
added, too, that he was himself a man not only of trans- 
jwrent truthfulness and honesty, but also of no little 
intellectiuil ji<iwer. He do*-*; not. it is tnie. in this rp«|>ect- 
rank in th" 
share of tin 

consciousness and exaggerations of tWling, that so fre- 
quently characterized t he early memliersof the Evangelical 
jiarty ; but his eloquence, set off by a voice of sinsrular 
i)eauty. was In ' ' ' ' " ' ' ^■f^g 

accustomed to : md 

Burke ; his social l.  men wiin iiad \> 

sympathy with his < J , . i his letters and _, 

plainly show that he was no mean judge of character. 

The private papers which are now published form an 
excellent supplement to his well-known biocraphy. and. 
although they do not contain any  
imiKjrtance, they throw many highly i . 
on the events and actors of his time. The most valuable 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 189: 



luv aome hitherto nnpnbliahfd letters of Pitt iind a very 
full sketch of his character, which was written by 
Wilberforce in 1821. These itapers fully confirm all that 
has b»t>n said of the close intimacy l^etwit-ii the two 
htati->iiifii. Ill line of the ear" us of their I'nrlia- 

inriitnry lif.-, Pitt, "who was ri !y fond of sloepinij 

in tli>' I oiiiitry. ami wmilil ofn-n f;o out of town for t tint 
puq*»>f ii< hitf iL- clfVi-n or twelve o'clock at night," slept 
at the houm> of Wilberforce at Wimbledon for two or three 
monthx together. 

Seldom (writ*t Wilbcrforc*) bu anjr man had a bettor 
oppoctOBltjr o( knowing another than I have possessed of 
being thorougUjr aoquaintod with Mr. Pitt. For weeks and 
months together 1 iiavo 8|>ent hours with him cvory morning while 
be was transacting his common businosa with his secretaries. 
Hnadreds of times probably I haro called him out of bed, and 
bare, in abort, eeen him in every situation and in his most un- 
reeerred moments. As be knew I should not ask anything of 
bim, aad as he repoeed so much confidence in me as to be per- 
suaded that I should nerer use any information I might obtain 
from hitn - nfair purpose, be talked freely before me of 

msa and . : actual, meditated, or questionable appoint- 

mnita, plans, projects, anil speculations. 

The letters of Pitt are in no degree inconsistent with 
this statement, and they illustrate clearly the simple and 
;•'" ' ' ' ••aled from the world by 

- so cold and unbending. 
_' is tluit which was written when 

\ .- .. . unced his great religiou.s change, and 

when there seemed much danger that the friend.ship 
y - ~ the two young men might cease. When that 

l> had first l)e«?n fornuMl. the life of Wiliierforce, 
 all worl<r rds very blanieless, 

of a y«H. -'iilar, wealthy, wcll- 

r.iMS'' till, and intelligent man of fashion, moving in the 
Ik»i wjciety and looking fonnard to a brilliant ]M)litical 
caiver. He w-as a member of five clubs, his house at 
V" ' ' Ion was a great centre of attraction, and his 

mces included some of the most di.stingui.shed 
un-n iiud some of the most charming women of his time. 
15iit in 1785 he pas,ied under the influence of a great 

- enthiuiasm, which was henceforth to give the 
tau'N'- <<'lour to his life. He declared that his former 
life hatl not been that of a Christian. He wanied Pitt 

' led to remain in Parliament, he 
y man, and he sjKike of his desire 
to retire tnim the world in a strain which foreshadowed 
not only an alienation from his old friends, but also the 
tennination of an active and u-seful career. The wise and 
beautiful let? ' ' p •( uTote on this occaision is well 
WOTtliy of a I 1, but a few sentences will give 

its puqiort. 

I will n'H diagniso to you that few things could go nearer 
my heart than to find myself difToring from you essentially on 
any great principle. I trust and believe it is a circumstance 
wbieh can hardly occur, but if it ever should .... bolie\-e 
me it is impowiblo that it should shake the sentiments of 
affection aixl frien<lsliip which I bear towards you. . . , 
Tb«f are sentiments engraved in my heart, and will never be 
•ffaoad or w«?ak'>r)'-'l. . . Yiti will not susptx.-t me of 

tbiakiii^' motives which guide 

yoo. An . _ .:ik your uii'lorstanding 

or judgment easily misled. But forgive me if 1 cannot help 
..•rt.i..-..iti . n,y i„ai that you are nerertbolcis deluding yourself 
1 which have but too much tendency to counteract 
 i ••n;ect and to render your rutaea and your talents 

- 'tb to yourself and mankind. . . . You confess that 

"is not a gloomy one, and that it is not 
Dut why, then, this pro[<aration of soli- 



tude, which can hardly avoid tincturing the mind either with 
melancholy or superstition ? . . . Surely the principles a» 
well as the practice of Christianity are simple, and load not to 
meditation only, but to action. ... I will ask you, both a» 
a mark of your friendship and of the candour which belongs to 
your mind, to ojien yourself fully and without reserve to one 
who, believe me, does not know how to separate your happinusa 
from his own. . . . The only way in which you can satisfy 
mo is by conversation. ... If you will <ipen to mo fairly tlio 
whole state of your mind on these subjects, though I Hhall venture 
to state to you fairly the points whore I fear wo may .litTor, and 
to desire you to re-examine your own ideas where I think you aro 
mistaken. I will not ini]x>rtiine yon with fruitless discussion on 
any opinion which you have deliberately formed. . . . No 
principles are the worse for being discussed, and liolicve me that 
st all events the full knotvledgeof the nature and extent of your 
opinions and intentions will bo to me a lasting satisfaction. 

In answer to this letter Pitt and Wilberforce had a 
long interview. As might have been expected, neither 
convinced the other, but though their goveniing motives- 
from this time ran in ditierent channels their friendship 
continued as genuine as before, though it jn'rhaiis lost 
something of its former intimacy. Poth Wilberforce and 
his surroundings had changed. Hannali More and Mrs. 
Fry soon took the jilace which had been once held by Mrs, 
Siddons, Mrs. Crewe, or the brilliant Duchess of Gordon. 
Keligious jiracticesand doctrines dominated over all politi- 
cal interests, and the house at Wimbledon lost much of 
its attraction to liis old friend. 

The public (juestions touched in these letters are not 
nutnerous or very important. One letter relates to the 
candidature of Wilberforce for Yorkshire in 1784, and 
shows the great ])ains and the keen interest with wliich 
Pitt sujuxirted it. In anotlicr letter Pitt promised, if 
necessary. to iKistjione his motion on Parliamentary Keform 
for a week or ten da3's in order tlijit Wilberforce, who was 
then on the Continent, might be present when it was intro- 
duce<l. In a third he defends his very dubious jiolicy of 
apjwinting his brother to the head of the Admiralty, on 
the ground that this njipjintment ought to be in the 
hands of a landsm.in, and that giving it to a near relation 
had " the solid advantage of establishing a complete con- 
cert with so essential a department and removing all aj)- 
jiearance of a sejxirate interest." 

His desire toseejieace with France established in 1802 
and his belief that the chnriK-ter of Konajifirte would make 
it imjiossible for that jieace to be jiermanent are very 
clearly expressed. The slave trade, as might be ex]K'cted, 
often apjiears in the corre.sjiondence, and in the early ^'ears 
of the abolition movement the eaniestness of Pitt left 
nothing to he desired. He a])]iears to have jnud some 
attention — though a remarkable |>assage in the sketch 
shows that it was not very great — to the recommendations 
of Wilberforce on questions of C"hurcli jtatronage ; but there 
is no sign that he resjionded to WillK'rforce's ardent 
entreaty tliat among the new taxes reijuired for the war 
should be " a tax on all public diversions of every kind, 
including card-jilaying.'' 

The very interesting sketch of Pitt which follows is pre- 
ce<led by a few biographical details which are well known, 
and, among others, by an account of his first and only 
visit to tlie I t in the autumn of 178."}. Wilber- 

force and Kli' future lirother-in-lnw, were his com- 

j)anions,nnd their journey «-xtended to Paris, Fontainebleau, 
and Kheims. The most imisirtant ]>art, however, of this 
sketch is the matured judgment which, 16 years after the 
death of Pitt, Willierforce fonned of his former friend and 
his careful analysis of his characteristics. The most re- 



October 23, 1897.] 



MTKRATURE. 



mnrkable nppeAH'd to him thi> .-iniiulnr fiiiriicHs niul 
caliniiesH of liis jud^iin'nt. 

Thoy who havo had occiiaion to diaciisM politioal queitiuna 
with him in private will aclcnowlodgo that there nomr was 
a fairer ronsiinor, noror any one more |iromptly ry .■ and 

ailowin;; it« fidl Wfif-ht to every conHi4leratiiin a mot 

which was iii'K(><I againHt the opinion he ha<l omlituccU. You 

alwayn Maw wh<iro you cliirorud fron» him an I wliy 

I nevor mot witii Jiny man who comhincd in ai\ v(\'\ thii 

oxtrnordiniiry |)re('iai(>n of undei-ntundiiig witli tli ntui- 

tivo approhiin.iion of every sha'lo of opinion or of fooling, which 
might lie in<licato(l by those with whom he was cnnveriant. . . 
. . Xo man ever listened more attentively to what wa* itatod 
a^^ainst his own opinions. . . His regard for truth was 

greater than 1 ever saw in any man who was not strongly under 
the influence of a powerful princij>lu of religion ; he ap|>earod to 
adhere to it out of respect to himself, from a certain moral 
purity which appeared to be a part of his nature. 

In his official intt>rcoiirse witli iirofc.'i.sioiial exj)ert.s or 
subordinates it was remarked how ready he was to surrender 
his own jin^eonceived opinions if siiiierior ex|K'rt know- 
ledfie convinced him that lie was wron<j. As Wilherforce 
Acutely observes, many men woul<l thus cliange tlieir line 
of conduct on imiKirtant occasions, but few would do ho 
without som« fretful ness or irritation on those smiill 
ooca-fions " which are not of sufficient moment to call a 
man's dignity into action." 

This W!us a ([uality of intellect whicti was closely con- 
nected with his moral character. Wilherforce beiirs 
emphatic testimony to his unruffled jjood humour both 
in jrreat matters and in small, and to the strongly sjTn- 
pathetic nature that endeared him to tho.se who came in 
close contact with him. The haughtiness which was so 
conspicuous in his public life was, he believed, largely 
due to shyness. " No man appeared to feel more for 
others when in distress ; no man was ever more kind and 
indulgent to his inferiors and dejtendants of every class, 
and never were there any of those little acts of super- 
■ciliousness or indifference to the feelings and comforts of 
others by which secret pride is sometimes betniyed." 
There was not a tinge of jealousy in his nature, and, like 
Fox, he was always prompt and generous in recognizing 
rising talent. 

Wilherforce did not, however, believe that Pitt had 
much insight into individual character or much power of 
foreseeing events. }lis extremely sanguine tem])emment, 
while it freed him from depression in the darkest hours 
of jiublic affairs, often led him to underrate difficulties and 
to give too easy credit to information which accorded with 
his wishes. In the eyes of Wilherforce his cajiital defect 
was the absence of any strong religious conviction. This 
want and his habitual association "with men of worldly 
ways of thinking and acting " dejjrived his (lovernment of 
moml force, induced him to govern by influence rather 
•than by principle, and preventtxl him from " giving their 
just weight to religious and moral jirinciples and character 
in the exercise of his unlimited jiatronage both in Church 
and State." 

In comparing his elo<]uence with that of Fox he 
makes one somewhat whimsical criticism : — 

The necessity under which Mr. Pitt often lay of opening and 
speaking upon subjects of a low and vulgarising fjuality, such as 
the excise on tobacco, wine, <fi:c., topics almost incapable 
with propriety of an association with wit nnd grace, especially 
in one who was *o utterly devoid of all disposition to seek occa- 
sions for shining, tended to produce a real mediocrity of senti- 
ment and a lack of ornament, as well as to increase the impres- 
sion that such was the nature of his oratory. 



Th*" |>oHi< 



im« r*l**inp to 



ist 



Wl; 



' in 

' ~ii- II II. WM 

i« a loni; and 



ll(Ml« \ \^ 11 fl Vt I 



ID 

oh 

he 



I-ly 

1*. 
i to 



is one from Lord I' 
accepting a place u. . 
Ixinl Chief Justice of 
d.- 
)•!. 

the iiii; 
jMirte ^u 

and there are some int 
1814, desi-ribing the gii-ai jt.i 
8tat4'smen and French public opinion n 
Engli^' 
A 
chiefly address4>d to his son Samuel, i 
imbued with religioui* sentiment of the I- 
and it is curious to observe that an '* 
work strenuously " 1 to Wi!' 

sin of tin' win who .: - li»'i'am"- 

ini! 

\*-' 

written in 1831), on the ettects of I niversity education 
which is lx)th interesting in itself and a good illustration 
of the jiractical wisdom of its writer. 

It is curious to obM>rvo the effects of the Oxford •jrstefk 
in priKluring on the inimls of young men a strong prop.-'Tinfty to 
what may be termed Tory principles. From tv. the 

general tenour of our family and social circle, r ^ , ;ia»e 
been supposed that my children, though adverse to party, would 
be inclined to adopt Liberal or, so for as would be consistent with 
party. Whig principle*, but all my three Oxonians an strong 
friends to High Church and King doctrines. The eiToct* I 
myself have witnessed would certainly induce mo, hod I toilocide 
on the University to which any young proUyt of mine should go, 
were he by natural tcm]>er or any other c«fi(t«* t'v* prr.no to 
excess on the Tory side, I should dor: 'f^. 

Trinity ; were the op{>osite the case, i ; lol, 

Oxford. 



History of French Literature. l$y Bdwar 'en, 

D.Litt., LI..1). (Dili).), D.C.I.. (()x..ii.». r.I. I>. I I). 

(Princeton), I'l-ofcs-sor of KnKlisb 1 ity 

of Dublin. (Shiu-t Histories of thi- i ill. 
Edited by Edmund OoiiNe.) 8vu., 4M pp. i> 

William H inn. 6/- 

There is no dei>artment of lettf-rs to which th*" proverb 
" Many men many minds " .i to 

literary history, and, therefo! , , ..: v at 

least, there can hardly be too many literary histories, 
though no doubt from of - • - • •< ^  • -te true. 
It will lie strange if any a liody 

of ' "' -er 

•f' 'ge 

and ability, does not set it in new lights. iJut, generally 
sjienking, there are two main ways of attacking the 
problem. The historian may determine to make his own 
reading and judgment tt • •" ' '■" the 

collections, views, and oj -.ar, 

ail ' i>r he : 

pi' : ly or mii; 

supjilying the connecting stuti himself. The ad\ 

of the former method and its disadvantages are «.,...-.. ^ 

enough, the chief of the disadvantages Ijeinc that it is a 

.sort of counsel of jxrfection ; he wh- ' ver 

hojie to carry it out even to his o\m i .on. 

The other method — which it would be 4uiie uut&ir to call 



8 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1S97. 



oompilatioD, and which mny perhnp^ h#^ be called intelli- 

gc>iit devolutioa or enr ators — admit!! of 

much iiiiwv coniDtfte ciu: -., /. "ii*v, on its own 

ptan, 1 .TfecU 

PioiiNx,, I «..»<li>n, lut he explains in hia Preface nnd 
•hovs in liin hook, has chos<>n a variety of this seeond 
c»ur»»'. ' lie has done wisely. He could not, 

inabiM. t very small or close jirint, have 

f^ven . like an exhaustive account of liis suhject 

on thi- ;.. ; , ..m ; on the second he has been able to 
present an npetx^t, arranpj'd and written with the skill of 
an an'" ' I literary craftsman, jiemiittinjj the exclu- 
•ion ot did nut olnios«» to ijive. and the pn'sent- 

ment a' of jiortions of the 

snbjeci ilK)rtant and interest- 

ing, and ei: v tlie ai'oeptetl and authorita- 

tiv»- ••■•"- ...... 1 ...ill the Chnnsoit. de Roland to 

l.*" 1 which he ha.s chosen as at least nominally 

hi- ' ' " i.i of his fuhject 

sii: 1 not too gaudily 

coloun-*!. nnd cxliiliituii; the ri-lntions of its different juirts 
in a way which will not draw down u]Km him the wrath of 
any prominent sfK-cialist. In his general arrangement he 
has followed the usual, and, indeed (except at tlie cost of 
wilful eccentricity), inevitable plan of five " books " — 
d>' with t' val i)erio(l, the ."^ix- 

t«-' .. and ]•; . Centuries, and the 

last division ot all, which he iias in his case niiule to coin- 
cide with that from the Kevolution to the incoming of 
Na])oIeon the Third. In the ^hnlieval period he has 
avowedly followed the system, and has, we should 
sapfxwe, confineti himself pretty closely to selecting the 
matter of tlie large new Encycloj)ffKlia of French 
Literary History of diffen-nt contributors wiiich M. Petit 
de JuUeville is editing ; in the later divisions he has 
been more eclectic in his disciplesliip, and has, we 
should imairine. drawn more on his own reading. As we 
pr" " • -its to wiiich we have referred 

al" lit. Even the Chanson, dt 

Rolnnd and its hundn-d comjwnion ejncs, even the great 
Artli"r;..ii romances lumiM*d together with the Ramans 
d. -.according to the recent French practice, as 

" I 'Urtoise ■* can lx» afTordwi but .some h.alf dozen 

pn. ; •'ven tlip Romance of the Hose do<'S not 

te; to much ex J Kit iat ion. But the 

in' _ , IS well as the channing work, of 

Fromsart tinds him syni]>athetic enough, and in the 

sixteen'' •■'•iry we have excellent sketches of Kabelais 

and M .Still, we should imagine that tlie 

hi' t aro»s(Hl till he 

c" I which not only 

a]>)H-:ii!i to les, hut lias b<'en thoroughly 

treat'Hl and ;.. ).-.e collalwrators of his who, iw 

he pleaMintly says in the preface, "are on his shelves." 
There can In- no doubt that the l)est parts of the book 
(tlionch we Khonld have mentinne<1 the (icrount of the 
■« '■ iry jjortmits 

"f ' : i'',s<]uieu and 

Voltaire ai. ; of Madame de StA^l, «ith Iht in- 

•ejmnib'-  ! T.il Chateaubriand ; of I^amartine 

»nd Vi . and, alwve all. Huiro. It is on 

"'•   • ,.j|,,,i outlay 

of ; it is these 

wl !en witii the most jdeasure 

t" li. liij r<-aflers ; and it is by 

thene and by the < for them which his 

plan presents that ti.Mi ji.mi, tifx-d as a whole. 

Other parts oftbe book II, me reservations. 



It will in these inevitably seem to the most indulgent 
critic who knows tlie subject rather insufficiently itojf'tt, 
as the French say themselves — insufticiently provided, 
that is to say, with {lositive information. This is, we 
say, inevitable. The sunMth swwping generalizations 
which the French metlKxl loves, and whidi Professor 
Dowden has most successfully adopte<l, accord ill with a 
profusion of titles and names aiul dates, of criticisms of 
individual works, and indications of individual biography 
and bibliography, except in the ca.sc of the greatest 
masters. To illustrate what we mean let us take the 
notice of .Saint-Evremond. No one would ex|H»ct much 
aliout .Saint-Evremouil in such a history ; the twenty lines 
actually accorde<l to him are lil)eral. and the cliaracteriza- 
tion they contain is, in the main, just. But let us (juote 
the passage : — 

Tho gruat name of criticism in the second half of tho 
seventeenth century is Uoili-au. Kiit one of whom Boileau spoke 
harshly, a soldier, a man of tho world, the. friend of Ninon de 
L'Enclos, a sceptical epicurean, an amateur in letters, Saint- 
Evremond (1013-1703), among his various writings ai<le<l the 
cause of criticism by the intuition which lie hod of what was 
excellent, by a fineness of judgment as far remove<l from mere 
licence as from the pedantry of rules. Fallen into disfavour with 
the King, Saint-Evremond was received into tho literary society 
of London. His criticiHiu is that of a fastidious taste, of balance 
and moderation guide<l by tradition yet open to new views if 
they approved themselves to his culture and good sense. Had his 
studies been more serious, had his fooliiigs Inion more gonoroua 
and anient, had his moral sense been less shallow, ho might have 
made important contributions to literature. As it was, to be a 
man of the world was his trade, to be a writer was only an ad- 
mirable foible. 

That is excellently written, and for the most part 
truly said. It *' jilaces," for those who know him, their 
Saint-Evremond neatly and with hardly any unfairness if 
with some omission. But will not the hungry sheep look 
up and say " But what ^m•e • his various writings ' ? " 
" MTkU did he write besides the drama which is elsewhere 
catalogued ? " .And it is surely the duty of a literary 
historian to feed, though not to cram, them with some 
reply. 

Again, though wo fully recognize the truth of Mr. 
Dowden's prefatory remark, " many matters in dispute 
have here to Iw briefly stated in one way ; there is no 
room for discussion,'' we cannot help thinking that espe- 
cially in the Medieval jK-ricsl he has been rather js)sitive 
in accepting cert^iin theories and stating them categori- 
cally. He must be aware, for instance, that when he 
writes " Breton harjiers wandering through France and 
England nimle Celtic themes known through their lais ; 
the fame of King Arthur was spread abroad by these 
singers and by the history of Geoftrey of .Monmouth," he 
is not merely taking one side of a matter in dispute, not 
merely basing a sweeping statement on the slenderest 
evidence, but actually converting a hyjiothesis into a fact. 
A " jierhajw," or a " jirobably," or an " it seems likely 
that " could not have taken so very much room. 

Tliese, however, are the almost inseparable drawbacks 
of the metho<l wbii-h is nothing if not confident, summary, 
and clear, and as Professor Dowden has plainly set forth 
what his metlitxl is and loyally abides by it, there is 
nothing more to 1k^ said. 

We nee<l only a<ld, or reiK-at, in conclusion, that this 
is a very i)leasant book to read, displaying its author's 
usual care, and for the most jwirt avoiding the " precious- 
ness " of which he has som<-tinies been accused. Its orna- 
ment — whether Professor IJowden borrows, as in the case- 



October 2;i, 1897.] 



UTIIKATIRF. 



of Niftard's deRcription of Madame dc S«'-vign«»'»t own jin*- 
ciousiu'SH an " oiu' HU|>crHii<)UH rililMm iti n Minii'l" «ii<l 
flejjiiiit ti)ilct" ; or |iiii'U|iliriiK(>H witlioiit (|i: 
ujH)!! a wt'll-kiiowii Hi-iiti'iic»' of M. Stini 
remark that " Madame dc Stiiel's novfU are ol<l now, 
which meuiiH tliat tlu'v once were youiij; " ; or wltU flowem 
of hiH own, as wliere he definoH Hiij^o's vanity, " if it in 
vanity to take a maf;nifie<l hmken-shadow for oneself antl 
admire its HUjierh gesture on thi* mist " — is seldom iliit- 
agreeable. ^Ve, at worst, douht whether " M. ile Climal 
— old angel fallen " is not a little grotesijne, and whether 
in " He knew how to wing his verse's with a volent (volant ?) 
refrain," " flying " would not have done In-tter than 
" volant." But these are small matters ; and of matters 
smaller still we have only one thing against Professor 
Dowden or his jirinter, which is the luloption of the 
horrible Angli>-French contraction " Mdlle." instead of 
" Mile." Fortunately we are sj):uiil •• Milmi',." tin. ugh it 
would have been only consistent. 



Botii "I irii'-ie nre Well known i 
tiini, and their artii-li-ti niTit i 



•'( the 



A Russian Biogrraphicai Dictionary. Russki Bio- 
grafltcheslci Slovar. Tom I. .Vai-on IniixTnlor Alex- 
jiiultr II. SD-Jpp. St. IVterslMii-K. l^W. Skorolchodof. 

Those who have occupied themselves much with the 
history, politics, or literature of Kussia must often have 
felt the want of a good biogniphical dictionary of distin- 
guished Russians. The want was felt and publicly e.x- 
prcssed by the late KmiK'ror .'Mexander III. at a meeting 
of the ImiK'iial Russian Historical Society, and his 
Majesty suggested that something of the kind might be 
undertaken by the society in question. The TiniH>rial 
suggestion has bonii' fruit. First, n so-called nhornik was 
])repared and published in two volumes, but it was soon 
felt that such a brief summary, though useful enough in 
its wa}', was cpiite inade<|uate for the object in view. It 
was decided, therefore, that a greater effort should be 
made in the same direction, and the president of the 
society, M. Poloftsef, undertook the direction of the work. 
It promises to be of gigantic dimensions. The first 
volume, which is the only one hitherto j)iiblished, is a 
quarto of 892 jmges in double columns, and it includes 
merely, as the title-jtage shows, the names from Aaron to 
Alexander II. Of course the length of the articles varies 
considerably according to the imjKirtance of the |»ersonage 
whose life is described. In the great, liighly centraliztxi, 
autocratic Monarchy, the Autocrats entirely overshadow, 
and almost eclipse, ordinary humanity, and this jx»culiarity 
is reflected in the work before us. t)ut of the 892 pages 
no less than 7.51 are devoted to two Emj)erors — Alex- 
ander I. and Alexander II. — and only 141 to uncrowned 
mortals. 

Fortnnatel}',the lives of these two Sovereigns are very 
well writttMi, the authors having in botli cases examined 
and utilized not merely the best printed works relating to 
their subject, but also a considerable amoimt of hitherto 
unpublished material. It requires, however, a very inti- 
mate acquaintance with the previous literature to deter- 
mine what is inedlt. Ivcause the individual statements of 
fact are in no case authenticated by a reference to the jwr- 
ticular authority on which the statement is basinl. No 
doubt the initiated, by reading over the list of authorities, 
can generally be pretty certain as to the source, but it 
■would have been much more satisfactory if the authorities 
had been cited for at least the more imix)rtant statements. 
As it is, strong calls are sometimes made on our faith in the 
scrupulous accuracy and sound judgmen of the authors. 



more, nnd l>e lesN fn-cjuently oi)lig«-«l to tnuit to that 

of othent, however able and con»cieii'' ■■•- •' •' '-ni 

maybe. At the xame time he i« fi -d 

in an ' ' ' wluit he :u 

written of tli" Pr« it, 

indeed, the I't' itl an 

ofHcial of the .Ml i , v 'iiity it 

wan to see that no {wlitical secretii wei > d, and no 

di]>lomatic indiscretiom* rnnimitte<l. \<<' m- ution tht*M> 
things simply aa farts, and not with any intention of o<jm- 
jilaininL' ■• j,.|, 

the |»ri. in 

archives ot com|»iiratively nn A 

to a control of this kind, and I. _ .: .... -If 

many delicious ]>lums which he would gl < -with 

th<> general jiuhlic. In a country like liuK-ia, wm-n' the 
Kmiwror is theoretir«llv n'>«|xinsible for nil tlie iiinK of 
commission or or iv 

stand convicted. :i . mI 

])rinciples of Statecraft that the pulilic venenaion for the 
Autocratic jtower and the .August jM-rsonage in which it i* 
for the moment incor|K)rate<l should Im- most carefully 
preservt-d. the ]■ ' ' ' ""ssible 

indiscretions of orians 

must Ik* exceptionally  - into 

consideration, and n'lnenv ^ ' _ 'letwo 

Sovereigns described belong to the pres«'nt century, we 
are suq»rised not at the amount of restraint im^iosed, but 
rather at the amount of lilx-rty accorded. We are 
~-eil also by the • " .e 

far tus {Kissible, t in 

ceremonial 1 which is so f: u.^ed in -M-ini- 

official articli .^.; ling not only i ir, but all the 

members of the Imi)erial family. Though the customarr 

stereoty])ed phra-ses occasion " *' - ■'at 

obtrusive, and they are not ig 

after what is known in the Kti !i- 

tical " well-iutentiolietlness " ( u- 

liarity which so often disfigures semi-olhcial Ku.ssian 
literature. 

The article on Alexander I. is written by M. Schilder. 
Of him it will be suflficient to - ■' " he has alrea<ly 
made for himself a well-tm-rited 'n as a careful 

investigator, well U( • with the ] -kI 

events he descrilK's, ;r le ha.s not all' __ _;- 

ment to \h' seriously waqn^d by iiatriotism or preju- 
dice. Of M. Tatishtchef, the author of the long article 
of 507 jMiges on Ale.xander II., we ought, jierhaps, 
to sjx'ak a little more in det.iil, for he wa- ■■•d 

to much greater temptations. A considTabU- .)f 

his life had Inn-n sjient in the Kussiaii >•, 

and he h.id playwl a jiart — allvit a > m 

some of the events with which he has had to deal. Among 
those who played the most imjwrtant diplomatic rulrs he 
had his friends and he had his enemie.s. and he could 
hanlly have forgotten the " ' ' ' ',y 

some of the latter. li»~ .e 

has, with regard to the Kasteni i^uestion. certain very 
strong convictions which he would like to see adopted by 
the public and by the Government, but which were not in 
favour during the reign of .\lexander II. He had. there- 
fore,strong temptations to let his judgment as an historian 
be bia.«ed and distorted by personal feelings; hw -t 

do him the justice to say that he has re.-i- ii 



10 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



temptationn to a WOT xt««nt. T of liis 

namitiv« is nuvly ii i by jx^ln ns, and 

he nevrr adopts a polemical attitude. Here and there 
the reader who is well noqnainted with his diplomatic 
activity or his sulnk-^iuent writinjjs may iH-rhaps detect 
th<- t it i« nowhere obtrusive, and 

it the facts have lieen coloured 

or t to suit forejjone conclusions. What we 

an- i to complain of is that he sometimes whets 

our curiosity without satisfyinf; it. Take, for example, the 
fiunons ' ''■ '** * /'■ to St. Petersburg in 

1866, V uinji to intervene in 

the peaiv i ::\ and Aiistrisj. and 

when M. !'• _ .Mantcuffel mission, 

informe<l his Government that his efforts were fruitless 
Ijp,..,, . ti ,. Pnissians had found support " elsewhere." It 
is V u that Bismarck on that occasion undertook 

ce:  •(« of Hussian diplomatic 

»u; ;ve never Ihm'u divulged, 

an' V it is im to determine how far tlie 

■cii- ixjuently .. 1 against him by Russia 

are well founded. In dealing with this incident 51. 
Tat' ' * ' r 1 > evidently liefore him the diplomatic docu- 
m- ■'> it. for he eives a very detailed account 

of< inteniews with Alexander II. 

aii'i ;. and he does not conceal the 

bet that tl; - at first brought out into strong 

relief the la;. .; _...ism of the two Governments. Even 

the words of the Emjieror are quoted v<n-hatim. Then, to 
our '■ '   . occurs in the narrative, and 

wi uce more in the most cordial 

relaliutis. . . in the intcrA-al, the foundations of 

that unil ■: - Aliich was to j)rove so useful to Prussia 

in her France had been laid, but the opera- 

tion ' .-ri jiiai-e behind the scenes and we are told 
no: ut it. Nor is this bj- any means the only case 
in 'Ms raised and then suddenly 

dr' lion. It would be unreason- 

ab: - we have already admitted, to complain of 

re.--; .oence of this kind. A biograj)hical dic- 
tionary is ex|)ected merely to summarize information 
air' ' ' '■ '  d. It )•• : ' 'v because M. Tatishtchef 
wr: •••nnnni' a mere suinmarizer that 

W' d in reading his long and 

in- lly necessary to say that the 

great majority of the articles awaken no such feeling. 
They are rri'- '•■ ■!• tionarN' articles of the ordinary tyjie, 
and they w i .'ill ordinary requirements. 

^^ ' ing all success, and 

we hoj ^ Diay ap]K-ar within a 

reaaon but we must confess that on this jioint we 

are not »,,,..,,. apprehensions, for among Russian literary 
men it must be difficult to find the metluxiical persever- 
an' uccessful termination a work 

of 



WUllam B1r''W"'"M and His Sons : Tlicir Mnpa/.ine 
«ml Fri.tifi*. the I'lihliKhiiiK IIoiuw. lly Mrs. 

Ollpbaat. •_' V .,., 5224514 pp. I»ti<l<.ii. issrr." 

Blackwood. 42/- 

No ln'tter historian of the house of Blackwood (the 
publishing house) couM have In-en foimd than .Mrs. 
Oliphant. .''he |«>nwsi«-d the lively tradition of a firm 
alw - •• ' • -.,.^ From the beginning, 

th- : lie ]>i-(i])|i- <-oncenied ana 

kind of immortal literary nymph, " Maga," whose contri- 



butors were her true knights. From the beginning the 
founiier of the firm and his successors were the friends of 
their eminent hands ; these early friendsliijis were stormy 
and interrupted but unbroken. A kind of loyalty to i\w 
house was felt, such as Knox entertained for the He)>- 
bums ; the sentiinvnt was Scottish, almost romantic, and 
Iierhai»s unexampled among the clients of Kiiglish jiub- 
lishers. Mrs. Olipiiant, a truly veteran ally and con- 
tributor, had the Blackwoodian sentiment in tiie highest 
degree. Pictures(jue rather than accurate as an historian,, 
in this ca.se she had documents before her and her 
publisher to keep her in the right way. Her book is full 
of interesting literary anecdote, and it is not her fault that 
the early years have often been written of before. Her 
fault is an excess of her qualities. The firm and the 
Magazine are magnified in her eyes, but that is jmrt of 
the humour of her book. She is also too copious about 
things unessential. 

Of Blackwoodian genealogy we have none. The original 
Blackwood seems to have been descende<l- from a burgess 
ruined by the Darien affair, but no links of jM-digree are 
given, and, nearly alone among Scots, Mr. Blackwood 
claimed not to lx» " the King's cousin." He was Iwm in 
177G, and a])prenticed at 14 to a firm of booksellers. 
We are told, more Oliphantico, what the boy " would do" 
in the way of diversion, but, of counse, we know not what he 
did. He then became Glasgow agent to Mundell, the pub- 
lisher of Campbell's "Pleasures of Hoi)e." Part of his busi- 
ness was to hunt out old Iwoks for customers such as " The 
Dis]mtation " of Nicol Burne (1.581), who is so cheerfully 
frank alwut John Knox. For years later, publishers were 
also sellers of old books ; we know " Longman's Cata- 
logue." With a 5Ir. Cuthill, in Ivondon, " famous for his 
catalogues," Blackwood worked three years. In 1804 he 
established himself on the South Bridge, in Edinburgh, 
being then a handsome, well-tlressed young gentleman, to 
judge by his miniature. Fifteen years later his asjiect and 
manner did not i)leji.so Lockhart, nor his friend Christie, 
both fastidious young Oxonians. Ijockhart's familiar 
name for him is unpublished, and maj' so remain ; it is 
eminently disresjieetful. In 1805 Blackwood married a 
young lady " with a king's name," Miss Steuart (of 
Carfin), whom he had long admired. The Scottish litera- 
ture of the early century was blossoming, and .Mr. Black- 
wood went into it, being " rash, but not so rash " as 
Constable. He alone, of these northern adventiu-ers, made 
and kept a fortune by bookselling. Scott was buying old 
books from him as early as 1812 ; he wrote, with onler, on 
that luckless day when he " flitted " from Ashestiel. 
When the Ballantynes and their bills frightened Mr. 
Murray, Mr. Blackwood became, for a time, not a ])leasant 
time, his Edinburgh agent. He himself published 
M'Crie's " Knox," which Mr. Stevenson found so arid. In 

Blackwood's view. In 181G-17, 
with Scott's " Black Dwarf " 



came mto 
adventure 



1814 Hogg 
Blackwrnnl's 
occurred. 

Mrs. 01i])hant devotes much space to this affair. She 
thinks that liockhart, perhaps designedly, told the tale of 
BlackwrKxl's natural discontent with " The Black Dwarf" 
and offer of a hint for a new conclusion so as to leave " a 
disagre«'able impression " of Blackwood. " Except the 
sons of the Ivlinljurgh j)ublislier there was nolxxly to be 
wounded." This is, indeed, to be sensitive ! There is not 
a wounding word in Lixtkhart.'s anecdote (which is quoted 
textiially) or, if any one hml a right to be hurt, it was 
tin I mts of Sir Walter. The sons of Blackwood 

tin furnished I^R-kliart with documents on the 

subject for his second edition. Mrs. Oliphant calls Ix)ck- 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITEHATURE. 



11 



hart's vereion " exactly the kind of Hkilfiil coni|)ound of 

tnitli nn<I iTiiiif^iimtioii whifh hiw ruined the cliaractcr of 
nmny u man." Vet .Mr«. Olipluint addH nothing;, and diit- 
proves nothing, and nohcnlyV " iharat-ter " in harmed. 
Scott was amiL'<in(,'ly toiuhy ; '"' ' 
tactlcM.s. McM, ( >li|)liHnt otVcrs a 

wrote tlie words suMsUtiited hy lmlljiiiiyiin tor tin- tirst 
furious note, " (iod damn liis soul !" IVrlinps he did ; no- 
body knows. And she says tliat Scott has Ix'cn more inti- 
mate with lilackwmwi than Lf)ckhart tliought. At tiiis 
date (181G) I^oekliart liad no ac(|uaintan('c with Scott, and 
hit<'ran uni»ulilishcd h-tter of Scott's to I, 
hookscUcr, sliows very hostile, tliou;,'li d. . 
feeling. 

In business ()uestions relating to the itm,-,, »nn n an- 
given in detail, Blackwooti had much to complain of on the 
jxart of tiie Hiillantynes and, ]M'rliaps, of Sir Walter. But 
the "Black Hussar "and "Black Dwarf "anecdote remains 
exactly as Lockiiart gave it, and could only " wound " a 
jierson sutiering from emotional liypera'sthesia. That 
Scott was irritated by the showing of his work to Gifford 
^which he had refuseil to allow), as well as liy Blackwood's 
2)roiM)sed new end to his novel, is already clear from I^x-k- 
liart's narrative, and is no discovery of Mrs. Oliphant's. 
Blackwctod's letter to Ballantyne is given by I^ockhart him- 
self (Vol. v., p. lo8), and on the afiiiir of Scott's wrath 
Mrs. Oliphant adds nothing whatever. 

The early history of BlackivootVa Magazine (1817) is 
familiar. Owing to some combination of causes it had a 
far from creditalile youth. Mrs. Oliphant may, or may 
not, have worked out the series of savage libels, now 
obscure enough, for which Wilson, Ixxkhart, and .Maginn 
were resj^nsible. These go far beyond " rather cruel 
fun," and often are not funny at all. Wilson's ferocious 
article on Coleridge is, however, sufficiently rei)rovwl by 
the lenient .Mrs. 01ii)hant, and l^ukhart's " Cockney 
School" is justly styled " uni)ardonable." As to the 
(Jhaldee MS., excej)t in a few disgraceful verses, it was 
innocent. Charles Kirkpatrick ShaqK" had been grossly 
rude to Mr. Blackwood, and deserves what he got 
(Vol. I., p. 54). 

Of Lockhart little is told that is new. His notes to 
Blackwood do not reveal the " inmost soul of him," 
which is, and will remain, undiscovered. He asks for a 
sight of a nox amhrosuiwi by Hogg, " that I may j)Ut in a 
few cuts at himself," but he sliows a singular protecting 
<!are of Wilstm's feelings. His butt, tlie Odontist. remon- 
strates in vain ; it is clear that he did not like the fame 
which was thrust uiwn him — the " Jocks," as he sim'IIs it. 
There are two letters, obviously written after the .Scott- 
Christie duel. Ix>ckhart was disinclineti to write for the 
magazine. Scott absolutely disapproved of his doing so. 
Christie pressed him to abstain, and perhajis ]51ackwood 
should have left him alone. LtM?khart kn<'w, no doubt, 
that he could not trust himself t<> abandon satire, and it 
is much to be regretted that he did contribute a review of 
Patmore, John Scott's second in the duel. The relations 
with Lockhart were weakened, but remained friendly, and 
were continued to the successors with all Ixxkhart's un- 
varying kindness to young jx^ople. Blackwoo<h out of a 
laudable but mistaken tenderness for Scott, rejectinl an 
amusing skit of Ixickhart's on Scott's imitators. We think 
that it appeared, as a review, in The Quarterly; and .Scott 
must have been amused, for none of the banter touched 
him. 

Wilson appears as a very sensitive author, and Sirs. 
Oliphant has not sjuired the tale of his terror lest Words- 
worth should iind out one of his caprices. After being 



Wordaworth'g guMt, afU-r • rrnc^al of a brokrn trit-nA^ 
■hip, WilHon imitantly attAcked him violently in Hlaek- 

woo</, and the fact wa« lik' '• • ' ' ' \^ i -i 

wan re<luce<I t«» a kind of h 

IlU 1.. 
th ; n«'' 
wliy. •* W • HMVH JyK'khart, " t! •  i , ■:■>■* of 

one of the .... uum (;>»I .'..r I ;• ,: , ijilo," 

" The prof«i*sor rea! .n* n» if 

he was tnad " is aU' * \vmi 

mutters lip. All I '-M, 



■i not A eiuire'.tcr 
I i» even more 
tiftl with " copy," 



" Life of Clinstoi)hcr North." 1 

easily understcHxl, but ♦'■•• !■'' 

puzzling. Wilson was e.\ 

and Mrs. Olip! ,- r 

oncf ennie to h' 

ill  of her IU>\el. 

dir , < this lady, " ir 

matters, and gift«Hl with a tendemewt for the ancient 

erratic habits of scribblin 'ind. Wil.-^ - ^■•U'T, 

like most of the hero<*8. v and en :is ; 

they all sh- rel, 

excuse, aii<i i at 
work. 

The Shepherd apjjcars in his usual <•!■•••■■■ •••••. over in 

pursuit of a fugitive note for £50. Mrn. ; rather 
underrates tin- 
genius, " the ii 

maud of a sheptierd,"' n*- 

tranged. From James i . I't- 

able things, but from Maga (which gave tl 'rd 

to the world) James had often much to riiuuii-. i>.iiiiin- 
tyne, as jirinter, went b«'Vond his province in criticizing 
an attack on Hogg ; he ' 

Maginn api>ear8 in eljr 

unscmjmlous (he was sorry for having attacke<t Keata), 

lying, laughing, gossipir- ' •-■•'■.  - • *;• ■ii,. i ..,((en 

utterly, and every way rea 
on his own refusal to - 
humorous. He thus ri 
to Ih* concerned in the 
gusted by "that friend > 

every tender and sacred feel i he 

told Maginn. It is curious i;i:i 'to 

take money for his articles. Mn 'k- 

liii' . -   - .|,p 

Q. do 
it, when Maginn would send in i :is liis own! 
Nobody reviewed the Bid lads. Si. „, . .. .. i not toach 
jxjetry, and no comjietent hand could l>e found. 

('•' •■   '  -n, 

after w tor 

some inscrutai)ie rea,son lii»-il«Hi iiim in 'd, 

Coleridge consulteti Crabb Kobinson alxjut n tor 

libel. Ixx-khart, however, won over S. T. C i in 

"Peter's I." " ' -■ •-. more maladroit! is- 

chievously. .i letter of his. » -a- 

tions were . te. 

He replied : _'a- 

zine, and ofi'ered •• t : !ie, 

and character." Col>....^ > iis, 

wandering way, but where is his " Lvrical Tah . s," 

with three.. " " ' " " vie 
he ap])lies t 

The p. iiicevs • -' 

too jiainful . ^ >ii. He >■ , ._ lu 



12 



LITERATURE. 



[October 2:\ 1897. 



artirlr, and nerd* a pound or two; he reveals old nqnalors, 
infinit<*lr liettiT left to oblivion ; he wastes tiim* and 
eneivy in elaUimte, u>' " ~tU's ; lie insnitx Hlatk- 

wood^ ftt'iin^is about •• i " with iutolt'rablc want 

of tact. The letter in Vol. 1., ji. 43.5. ought to have Invn 
omitted, for verv •■onsi.l.u.nis reasons. ^Irs. Oliphant 
contract* with de <; wtivs the literary commer- 

cialism oft ' i-es *♦ per thou." Of old they 

reckoned h\ all tlie unessmtinl diffen'noe. 

We kn>'A •; ' n-ey, and liis jiart of tiie 

bookgn'" 1:.". , . lie. (inlt's also is melan- 

choly, he had but one 8er^■iceable string ; of that, the 
world wearied, and he lalioured on sadly through a variety 
of fiiilures. .Samuel Warren apj^ears with an ebullient 
TBI  ' t his prime successes were great, and most 
91'; to till- mncrn'^itie. 

Kroni ; i])hant turns, in a sympathetic 

manner, t" is domestic life, which was 

pro«|>erous, his quiver being full of sons ready to s])eak 
mith the Wliigs in the jjate. It is amusing to find 3'oung 
Alexander Blackwood, in liondon. congmtulating his sire 
oi)  " " T of Ixx'khart's oontrihutions 

an' -■• in the magazine's "clmracter 

for n- :y " (It<2oj. He does not assert a causal 

connej.; ;.vi'en these facts. The lad was put through 

the routine of the trade from its lowest degrees, " with 
a blue bag on h' ' ' l<'r,'*an ordeal unneeded, but never 
repined at by r. A young man who cheerfully 

carries " heavy l.^iti.'. " through " long visty walks " is the 
right and ran- sort of young man. The vast family letters, 
though highly creditable to every one concerned, are not 
of great general inten'st. 

The elder Blai-kwood died in the autumn of 1834. 
Lockhart t cdote of his deatlibeil. "He 

asked me 1 _ ir." The brief manly page on 

Blackwood's chanw-ter (11., 134) was from l/ockhart's ]>en. 
No other estimate is needed of a man whose chief foible 
was " a sincerity that might be considered rough," and 
wl ' ' ' '1 was concfssion to the excesses of 

til \Ir.Hlafk\vo<Ki, however, was wholly 

of wen' constitutionally " vile," and 

th:i- .- ::jured Ixnng in the ancient brawls. 

"Oh, professor, you will stand by the boys!" said the 
anxious widow to Wilson, who did stand by them with all 
of his ec<-entric vigour. John, who finally became his 
fe' lid not like the " blue bag " and the 

lot. . 

Tlie young Blackwoods reject«>d an early work of 
Tl - ' -— 's, and other pieces 0840), which they must 
h;i -ason to regret. Bmnw<-ll Bronte's verses were 

H' m ; he was a mere lioy, and his 

lei tiad.at lea.'it, " thetem|MTameiit of 

genius." •• i appear to you to be writing with conceited 
asaurance " (he thought he could supply the Shepherd's 
place), "tirf /am not . . . You have lost an aide 
*: " ' " md God grant you niay get one in 

!'• " — Bgpfl fifteen. Branwell sent in a 

pr. " . S<-fne 1." He also offered 

o«t"-j ~ . T, al>out "a wounded 

charger vast and white, all wildly ma<l with pain and fear." 
jf,, .....;.,.. ^.f^J^ t:iken of the unlucky and undeniably pre- 
Cf He was not more alisiinl than Sterling with 

It- 1 thirty or forty numlM-rs, on (i(K'the ! 

<  t only a fierce, but a crazy folk. Their 

v.- re sten"oty|»ed, and are constantly illustrated 

he. . i'he extreme sensitiveness" of (Jeorge Flliot 

leavM iUi mark; she e%-en meddh-d with the profound 
myttery of advertisements. These a publisher may be 



left to understand and manage, while the wise author keeps 
his " puzzhnl dissatisfaction " to himself. 

The affairs of the Kpigonoi are not of exciting 
interest, and there are certainly far too many long 
letters which might have b<*en reduced to a few 
jiaragrajths. This error has liecome common to all 
biograpliers : the letters interest them, are their own 
discovery, as it were, and also fill space. But this book,, 
like almost everytiiiug of the kind in recent years, would 
l)e better if it were terser. Wiint could not be In-ttered is 
Mrs. Olijilmnt's short jH^rsonid note, which concludes the 
stH-ond volume. Her courage — " absolute foolish courage 
in life and Providence " — the melancholy which fate 
forced on her, her humour, her tenderness are all here, 
and the last lines of her task are worthy of her genius in 
its freshest hour. Hers was an example of all manly and 
womanly virtues. 

The interest of the Memoirs will doubtless revive with 
the reign, in the third volume, of Mr. John Blackwood,, 
whose literary and social sense was powerful and jKJjjular. 
But this volimie will not be from the hand of Mrs. 
Oliphant. Her earthly task is done. This ))ortion of it 
was well wortli doing, for Blackwood and iiis circle, though 
Time has overtaken much <d' their work, lighted and kept 
alive a vivid interest in literature, especially among the 
young. Many men of letters might repeat the cimfessions 
and acknowledgments of a great debt, which are rather 
prematurely ofl'eretl by jKior Branwell Bronte. 



Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion, based on P.sydio- 
\og\ an<l Ui.story. liy AugUSte Sabatier. Authorized 
Traiislalion by the Rev. T. A. ^Se(■<l. Cruwii Svn., xv.-t-:tl.S |tp. 
London, 1S07. Hodder and Stoughton. 7/6- 

This is, on the whole, a striking book. It does not 
profess to be a systematic treatise. In form it consists of 
a series of short sections dealing with jMirticular jwints in 
the hi.story and philosophy of religion ; but though these 
seem at first sight to be wanting in strict connexion, a 
certain sequence is obsened in the treatment of the 
subject. The Iwok is divided into three jiarts, the 
first dealing with religion and its origin, the second with 
Christianity and its essence, the thii-d with dogma and its 
nature. 

The first part contains much that is suggestive and 
admirable. Tliroughout his treatment of the jisycho- 
logical conditions in which religion finds its origin, 
M. .Sabatier writes with the lucidity, candour, and fresh- 
ness of a man who has clearly thought out his own jwsi- 
tion and who has become conscious of the limitations 
under which thought addresses its«'lf to religious jiroblems. 
In his endeavour to account for tiie constancy and \)er- 
petuity of the ri-ligious sense, the writer betrays his- 
de])endence on Pascal. Thus he tells us that religion 
bfgins with the unsatisfietl sense of contradiction between 
the diild of self-consciousne.ss and the exjK'rience of the 
external world, a contradiction leading to th<' recognition 
of a third term, in which the two op|M>sites are reconcile<l. 
This tenn is "the sense of tiieir common dejxMideiice on 
God" (p. 24). So far M. Sabatier's conce]iti(m of religion 
apj)ears to Ije that of Schleiermaeher, but he is careful to 
correct this impression by ]K)inting out that, in so far as 
religion imjilies "a conscious and wille<l relation" between 
the soul anil the jmwer on which it fimls itself dejiendent, 
a n'lation expressing it.xelf instinctively in the form of 
prayer, religion becomes " a movement of liberty " and a 
venture of faith. It becomes a free act as well as a feeling 
of dejtendence. 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



13 



It iM nei'dlesM to illiiHtmte in detail M. Habfttier'ii point 
of view. Tlu' (i])plicnti<iu of ii juircly iM<ycliolo|{ictil or 
Oartcxiiin method to tlie ultiiiintt- jiroliieniH of religion 
aitiH'urti to liiiH to be the mont hojMiful line of treuttm-nt ill 
view of tiie rcHultx of criticiKin and hi.Htorieul n 
There are, of course, danf,'erM involved in the t<>" 
adherence to this method. There is diiii;;er of the content 
of reliijion lieing uudtdy narrowed ; there is the tendency 
to subjectivity and arbitrariness in deciding probli-ms of 
authenticity. Thus .M. Sabatier tells us that there is only 
one criterion 1)V which an authentic revelation may In? 
recovjnized. " Kvery divine revelation," he says, " every 
religious experience fit to nourish and sustain your soul 
must be able to repeat and continue itself as an actual 
revelation and an individual e.xi)erience in your own con- 
sciousness " (p. G2). That this kind of individualism 
leads to occasional arbitrariness in dealing with the records 
of revelation was sutticiently manifest in Dr. .Martineau's 
Sent of Aittliority. It is not surprising indeed that M. 
Sabatier appears to overrate the function and value of 
historical criticism in relation to the Christian facts, 
and that he lays undue stress ujs^m the right of indi- 
vidual judgment (j). 179). 

The second and third parts of the book are less satis- 
factory, in sjiite of many suggestive and acute remarks. 
Christianity is the perfect religion, "the absolute and 
final religion of mankind," because it claims to rejjrotluce 
in men the consciousness of filial relation to (iod which 
was nianifested in Jesus Christ. The third part consists 
of an attempt to formulate a theory of religious knowledge ; 
but M. Sabatier does little more than jHiint out certain 
jKJsitive cliaracteristics of religious knowledge as contrasted 
with the " knowledge of Nature." It is, he tells us, sul>- 
jective in the sense that it finds its dota within the soul 
of man — viz., in the immediate consciousness of relation- 
ship to GckI. It is teleological. " Kvery teleological 
affirmation respecting the universe is a religious afKrma- 
tion " (p. 318), for it passes beyond the domain of mere 
scientific investigation. It affirms the sovereignty of 
spirit over matter, in which affirmation is implietl an 
initial act of faith. Further religious knowledge is 
necessarily symbolical owing to the inade<juacy of 
language as a vehiclt> of thought. 

A certain one-sidedness is apparent in the last two parts 
of the book. The writer's view of Protestantism strikes us 
as too highly idealized, and his criticism of Catholicism as 
somewhat trite and Imrren. The optimistic tone of the 
bot)k reaches a climax in the seeming jwradox that " Not 
only has Christianity never lieen better unilerstcxx) than in 
our own day, but nmer were civilization or the soul of 
humanity tnkeu in their entirety more fundamenUdly 
Christian" (p. 180). Lastly, it should he notwl that as 
a study of Christianity the Iwok does not adei^uately 
recognize the fact which gave to the teaching of Jesus its 
unique significance and |)ower — viz.. His incomimrable 
mond authority. M. Sabatier regards Christ as the 
jierfcct iMittern of religion — that is. of filial dejK>ndence, 
sufuuission, and trust. " What was there that was so new 
and i>otent in the least of his discourses ? The treasure of 
His filial consciousness" (p. 161). Had the writer 
entered more deeply into the essential characteristics of 
Christ as a teacher of mankind, he would probably have 
done more justice to those aspects of Catholicism which 
he ignores or misjudges. 

With these limitations, the book may lie recom- 
mended as likely to aid perplexed minds, though it will 
not guide them to a just estimate of historic Christianity. 
The tiranslation is on the whole excellent, though it is here 



and there disfigured by imlecinD*— «.^., " riitoalttie*," 
•• phenomenium, " hienurhiawl,'* " psrallelly." 



Ecoent and Coming BcUpMeH. liy Sir Nomum 

Lookyer, K < II. lit s. •'i... xn. • urn |.|>. Ixtnlon. 1*7. 

Marmlllan aod Go. 6 • n. 

It haa nlway-^ in 

event of KtTind in , JT 

nhnwi UN ttiatone of t)ii> ohioi iluticii of tti' >«r 

WM to |)r««lift the cx-curreii' n i.f nu. h a i i . ^uod 

that soientirK- exiMxiition* in « to otturre 

it, bat that the nation* mi(il.t .". "... • ' ind 

penance, to at'ort the wrath to obrio' art 

of the pmU. K'i) ' • "f 

mora revulled, aivi '•!( 

the laiul unawar' of 

eliange.ntiil tln'H-" to* 

frfim H. y* 

boen t<i ^i . >io« 

as a tril>ut« to the interoat which 1't< alfain 

of tbii inconsiiloralile |ilanet. The s.l , . •••mm 

among the leM civilised races. A. recent trarollor d' w, 

in the mitlat uf the horrors of the sicgs of Plor-" of 

the moon took place, and the Turks " were act iv* 

with an ancient sii|>er»titioii when they tired <>ii cvitv avnu.ibia 
gtin, Iwlieving that in doing so they would scar« away the 
monstrons animal which was eiii!' 'ver 

(juocn of ni(;ht." Sir Norman I. in 

1871, hia obaervntioiia " woulil Imvo !■•  od 

imjiosaiblo by tlio amoke of f- : roa fo fr .ajr 

Rahu.tho Dragon which i« m; : i :> . >  v -wallow- 

ing the sun. if there ha<l not i • • n a ■•ti' i.^ :..:i-.- .. -irv and 

police present to extinguish them ; and in Kgypt in ! ut 

the protection of the soldiers, a crowd of Kgyptiaiis ^ .ire 

invaded the camp." As fur as one can make out from history, 
the shepherds of the vast Chaldaean plains were the fimt to free 
theniAoIvos from this fear of an eclipae, and to calculate ite 
approach without emotion. Perhaps the " ' I'ir 

superiority lies in the fact thit not oi [«>• 

morphic of theologians coulil « U>aS, lUv gods 

would take the trouble of ,, 'tin in •'Hrr to 

predict the death of a valuable ram or 'ad 

lambing season. Yet any one who ha- . •• — 

it is a rare experience amongat mo<lern I •<, and 

none has been visible in Dritain since 1715— i.i; wonder 

that this most striking of celestial phenomena should have 
excited awe and even worship in its ! ' ' ' -- at all stages of 
the earth's progress. Even the mmlcr; ler. »h<> has done 

much to pluck the heart out of the iii.\ ' ■• . i--" iho 

glamour of the spectacle. " There, in ::■ ^ed 

utterly clo^idloss sky," writes .Sir Norman I><h ', ;«e 

of 1871, " shono out the oclipswl sun I a wort ds 

and men. There, rigid in the heavens, was what struck orery- 
Ixxly as a decoration, one that emperors might fight for : m 
thousand times more brillinnt even than the Ktar of India, where 
we then were ! a picture of surpassing loveliness, and giving one 
the idea of serenity among all the activity that was going on 
below : shining with a sheen as of silver essence." 

The business of the astronomer, however, does not allow him 
much time for contemplation of the weird beauty  ' ' : se. 

His mind runs chiefly on the fact that the ad-. of 

our knowlo<1ge of tl; »\ by auak^gy uf 

that of the other .-: measure on the 

use he can make ot the two or three minutes during 
which, twice or thrice in a decade, the moon veils the in- 
tolerable splendour of the solar disc and reveala its atmo- 
sphere and apiwndages to the myriad eyes of science at gaze. Into 
those few minutes has to bo crowded a quantity of work whoee 
very descri]>tion with its tale of highly specialized instniiaente 
would appal the untechnical reader, to whom it hardly 



14 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



Uwt to mneh eMi poMibly b« doo* daring tho brief duntion of 
th* totiJ pbaM of the •elipae. Bran the trkinott obiierver knows 
that good reoulU e»n only be obUuned by the mod u&rufully 
ocdM«d plan and  •yitvmatic drill which leaves no openinf( to 
florry, and no time for confuaion. It is t«i this (<nd, with the 
•oUr ccliiiee of next January in rivw, that Sir Norman Lockyer, 
tiian viioai w« hare no hig' er authority on the subji>ct, has pub- 
Miahod tha axoellent volume now Ixtfore us. In it he civea a full 
aaeoont, baa*' -'tt, 

«t tha alab". . .ns 

whieb vara naile by the expeiiitiuti sunt to Numsy t<> study the 
ae lip aa of August 9, 1800, as well as many brief liut instruotire 
remark* upon the discoveriea made in oitrlior eclipses. He notes, 
indeed, " how often it has happeuMl that the chief scientific re- 
ault seeured at any eclipse was hanlly tlreamt of by the orga- 
niaers of the expedition." liut none the 1e«s it is essential to 
have the plan of campaign laboriously thought out beforehand in 
arafy detail, and Sir Norman Lockyer's descrii.tion of his adniir- 
abla arrangements at Kio in ISiMi ought to bo studied by every 
astronomer, amati-ur or profesaional, who pro|>ose8 to be in the 
track of the moon's shadow next January. Such students ahould 
eapacially nota tha hint that " tinio-saviog devices are of 
tba higbeat importance in eclipse work, and too much attention 
cannot be given to tliom." It would be idle hero to attempt to 
aiunmariae Sir Norman Lockyer's account of the chief ixiints in 
aolar pbysica on which, by increasing the dispersive power of his 
apactroaeopcs and prismatic camoras. he hopes to (;et fresh light 
in January. His own wotds must be rood, as 'hey will Ix; read 
wit:   V all who take an interest in one of the 

m<' ').•» of astronomy. The only fault one can 

':e style lacks the polish and even at 
ii one is accustomed in the author's 
u:: :^-, but that may bo excused in what is not so much a 
iri ..'.i^i- OS a collection of practical notes. 

Before taking leave of this book, one may call attention to 
the very interesting account of the remarkable a|>titude which 
tba officers and crew of H.M.S. Volage showe<l for astro- 
nomical work at the ecli{>te of 1806. Many astronomers Imve 
prariously felt that in such expeditions as that to the Varangor 
Fiord "a warship at tine's hack mokes everytliing easy," but it 
does not seem to have ocoiirre<l to any one before Sir Norman 
Lockyer that its crew ; :i large staff nf observers. 

An (■• lii =« is .in .. ■'.isi : i-h useful work can bo done 

hy . When Sir Norman asked for volunteers, 

be ^ - _......, 'ise as if it liad lieen a tpiestion of cutting 

oat a hostile cruiser or boarding a slave-ship. More than 70 
Tolnnteers of all ranks were enlisted. (Groups were formed to 
akatch the corona, to note the stars visible during totality, to 
raeord the colour -changes in the landscape, and to do much similar 
work that, whilst iiovful to itcience, was l>eyond the scope of the 
astronomer* engaged in more intrirate duties. The training which 
went on busily (or some days b«-foro the eclipse proved both 
aailora an'l officer* to be apt pupils, and nt least one of the most 
delicata instrumenU waa intrusted to their solo care. When the 
aelipae had come and gone l)cliind a bank of cloud, Sir Konnan 
Lockyer replie«I to the captain's condolences by asaaring him 
that a moat im]iurtant di^oovor}- ha»l actually b<!en ma<lo. " He 
had damon«tate<l that with the minimum of help, and that chiefly 
in tha matter of instruments, •uch a 8kille<l and enthusiastic 
ship's cnmjw 1 be formwl in a week into one of the 

moat tremen<; astronomical research that the world 

haa *Tar aean; so titat ti the elementa had b<>en kind all previoua 
raoorda of work at one station would have been beaten." 
Whan we raoMmbar what highly-complicated piece* of 
machinary our aodarn war»hi|i* are this U-stimony to the ease 
with which the crew of the Volago t<Jok U> the manipulation of 

dalicata and unfamiliar inst -  ' -Ips to show that, in spite 

of tha peasiroisU, we hare f. t sort of men in oiu- Navy. 

Aa tha abipa hare become idoil cumplicate<l, the men have 
grown more ingenioua. And one i* encouraged still to aay 
of tha British aailor, aa was said in Armada days, that he baa 
not hi* equal anywbara for skill and general haudinoaa. 



Are we to go on with Latin 'V^erses ? By the Rev. 

Hon. B. Lyttelton, .M.A., llea<l Miuster of HaiU-ybury CoUi'Ke. 
t'n>\vn Svu., IWJ pp. London, l.SS)7. Long^mans. 3/6 

This little l)ook is a eontio ad e/rrum,anap|)eal by a schoolmaster 
to his brethren of the craft to reconsider W-foro "it bo too late 
the educational value of an exercise that ia fast disappearing from 
the curriculum of our secondary schixils. Latin verse com|>osi- 
tion is (ot Oxford at any rate) no longer a niuf i/ud non for col- 
lege scholai-ships cr the highest classical honours. The increasing 
pressure of subjects for which r<H>m has t<> be found at public 
schools involves the gradual crowding; out of tlmse which are m 
least demand or are supposed to be merely ornamental. Such 
subjects Iwcomo the luxury of a few. The verdict of tlie teach- 
ing professiim and of the general public condemns them as a 
necessity for the many ; and once condemne<l, to restore them is 
ditlicult if not impost'iblo. Mr. I..yttelton, as becomes an Etonian 
brought up ujKin a surfeit of Latin elegiacs, inider a system 
which used to be irreverently described as giving the tnarimum 
of trouble to masters with the niinimt(m of result to boys, makes 
a gallant attempt to st«'m the tide. He claims for Latin verse- 
writing even in its most elementary stages the credit of an in- 
tellectiuil discipline, civin^; sureness of vocabulary, perception of 
rhythm, and the genuine siiti.sfaction of overcoming a difficulty, 
of visible achievement after effort. The schcKjjboy who after 
many searchings of heart and of his " (Jradub " has jirodncod a 
line or lines that will scan and have no grammatical fault looks 
upon the result, we gather, much as Touchstouo speaks of 
Audrey — " a poor virgin, Sir, an ill-favoured thing, but mine 
own " ; and this fense of proprietorship and successful effort, 
by enlisting the boy's interest in Latin verses, is 8up|>o8ed 
to enhance the intellectual profit of the exercise. 

With much that Mr. Lyttelton says of Latin vcrse-mnking as 
an aid to the imagination and to the correct use of language we 
agree ; and it is true that, as he puts it, " a boy who has to trans- 
late an English poem mustread it, ' ' and make some effort to under- 
stand it. To many of us the most abiding and fruitful result of our 
Latin verse coini)osition is the familiarity with miicli good English 
poetry. Hut granted that one of the best tests <if proficiency in 
a language, dead or living, is a facile an<l idiomatic employment 
of it in composition, is not such pnificioncy as well attained, and 
more accessibly to the average learner, bv the employment ot 
prose '^ Mr. liyttelton says not; and repudiates Latin jirose a* 
an educational instrument in comparison with Latin elegiacs — 
to which, by the way, he seems to confino Latin versification, 
almost ignoring the ranch higher branch (as wo should call it) of 
hexameter ver.ie. But Mr. Lyttelton's view of the whole question 
is, we cannot help thinking, somewhat narrowed by his educa- 
tional environment — by old Eton suiwrstitions of constant Latin 
elegiacs as the best educational instrument, and bv the Cam- 
bridge tendency to ignore, as comi)ared with O.\for<i scholars, 
the great value of Lotin prose composition — an exercise (to quote 
the words of a great teacher thereof) " so absolutely intolerant 
of imperfect knowledge, such a stem touchstone of obscure 
thought or superficial work." Mr. Lyttelton. wo fear, will not 
roll up the stone of Sisyphus, or sweep back the sea. Things 
have gone too far for that. Hut if he helps to preserve for good 
scholars a graceful accomplisiiiiicnt, and (wo would add) one of 
the purest of intellectual i)leusures for tliose who ore able to 
enjoy it, bis book will have done service, though not exactly in 
the way he hoped. 

As a practical appendix, Mr. Lyttelton prints nineteen Latin 
elegiac versions of a smoothly iUmiiig but rather vague poem of 
O. \V. Holmes, full of loose mi'taphors. the grappling with which 
has Iwen the chM difficulty of translation — Latin, as is well 
known, being much les.s tolerant of metaphor than English. Mr. 
Lyttelton pleads— ahd some of those translators agree with him 
— for a more liberal use of metaphor in I,atin. Hut of these 
versions the most suoceBsful, in our opinion, are those in which 
its use ha« been restrict)-d. Take, for example, the metaphor 
*' Time's grey urn " in the ojieniiig lines : 

Y«, lifHT de|iart<nl rhiTJalipil <l«y«, 

CouM Mctii.iry'n hnml rmtorc 
Your tnoniinp lljhl . vmir •'%'«>ninK rays, 

Kr "■ : tice more. 

Such renderings : uma, aetnt iritliii ut urrui, 

rftuii iirlntif vitin, ... , , ,,,1 this ^ "grey"?), r/rariji 

i/ifi'i, and the like, are unnatural and unmeaning, u translation 
of i'lniil'tm ;«i iiunhru I'rofessor .lobb, whoso fine taste for 
•cholnrship k .-liko in Latin ns in (ircek, thus renders 

it, simply but \y, in what strikes u* as the best of these 

versions : — 

Tempom prif*<Titn<- p^nit-i" delectji iuventae, 

O ■! " \ri' iiiilii. 

f?i ill' viHre *fpu]to 

QUU'l 1 lnr>lllljrtt llfl1>At. 



October 23, 181)7.] 



LITERATURE. 



15 



Wlint the avorftfje 15-yt.ar-<)l(l «ohool-l>oy woiilil make ■)( »ii. !. 
a i>««»unii »o sliuilUnr t<. tliink. Mr. Lyttolton can hurdly int«.i..l 
it iiH n aiioriiiieii of whiit >li<>iil(l bo put before him aa ao edaua- 
tiuiml inatnnnuiit. 



Siom on the Meinam, from tho Otilf to Avuthln. 
toKi'llicr Willi 'Ihrcc ItiniiJinii-M illiiNlnttivi' 
/mil Custoiiis. Uy Maxwell Sommervllle, I 
toloKy, lliiivui-Mily of I'i'iiii.sylvaiiiii. Willi .,\ nm.' 
Loiulou, 1««7. Sampson Low, Mi 

A book ontitlod " Uruut llritaiii on thu Thames  
Nore to I'ntnuy-briilgi)," coiiipiltxt liv an amiablu ami < 
gentleman from China, unaccinaintoil with thu Knfjliiih : 
or with \Vostl^rn thonglit, wimld hunlly bo expoctol t" 
very rtilinblo nccmint d the Hritish ImU-s, «r of tli i,f 

thuir inlmbituiitH, uvun though it iiliouUi bu ohm ii*- 

tnito<l with photofjrapliB fioni noif^hl" r . s, and 

ombellishod with ii littlu piiljin Kuf^lith • ,lly. In 

the saiuu way Mr. Mn-xwell 8oinmorvillo'» ,^ ,. ^ i.im nnist 

not l)o oxpoctod to l>o nthciwiso than a oi>lli'rti..n of v.ry riU;,'li 
impressionR. Mr. Soinmorvillo diil u ciTtuin iiiiuibor df llm 
Biglitti of nans;kok, iind went fifty inilus up rivor in a paKsoii^jt.r 
Btoanior to tho " jungle " of the old uapitid, Ayiithiii, wliuro ho 
spent at least a day. In tho short time ho was able to dovoto to 
tho sul)joet<)f luH book ho certainly unod his considerublu pnwora 
of observation with od'oet, and the scenes of nativo groupiii);*, aa 
they present themselves in tho every-day life of tho city and the 
rivor, are ;;iven not without some liveliness and evident apprn- 
cialion. As a Kuide-book to the ba/.aars and H'aU xt iiangkok, 
Mr. Somniorvillo's work may rank with Carl lk)ck'8 and Frank 
Vincent's. More than this wo cannot say. Tho book is hastily 
written, the information is inaccurate, tho grammar is often 
faulty, and tho style is poor. The nativo words and names are 
apelt wiih no rej^ard to systum, and there i.i nothing in the 
volumo which may not bo found fur better considered in tho 
works of I'ldlegoix, Crawfurd, Howring, and many othein. Tho 
illustrations are from j)hot<i);raphs, most of which are familiar to 
Bangkok residents, and many of which are so charming that they 
go a long way towards redeeming the book A large proportion, 
however, are not Siamese at all, but arc Malay, Shan, ami 
Burmese, and many are given fancy titles by the author which 
rob tliem of muoli of their value. 

With regard to the " original romancea " at tho end of the 
book, intonilc^l, as tho author informs us, to illustrate " phases 
in Siamese life and customs, combined with the history of 
tho river Meinam and of the people of tho northern pro- 
vinces " which they " aro intended to portray,"' we can only 
remark that they fail completely in their object. The idea 
would bo an ambitious one even for a careful and experieniHid 
studont of the Kast and of Indo-China ; carried out a.s it h.as 
been it amounts almost to u prartical joke. Tho hero, the 
viceroy of a largo province, travels across country alone, with 
three servants, on mules, maintaining u pace of twonty-tlirce 
miles a day for many hundred miles ; tho envoys of tlio King 
aro made to travel tliirty-six miles a day at least when thoy go 
abroad ; Muang I'imai, a juiiglo village in the Kor.: .is 

illustrated by photographs of Bangkok. It is not to 

say more to show that the stories are valueless as imi' tr iiions 
of the life of tho country ; nor, unfortunately, are they Tory 
interesting. 

The character of tho book is well illustrated by tho map 
whicli forms the frontispiece. A largo proportion "'f tin. imnies 
are wrongly spelt. A roil line, designated *' tli. - of 

Laos," separates the northern Lao States of (. i md 

Nan, both of which aro in reality inhabited by tho same race 
of Lao, and also cuts the Korat plateau into two parts, althoui;h 
the Lao extend south of it for noarly three degre«»s of latitade. 
Inter alia, tho I'ichai river is calletl the Nam t'at ; the import- 
ant towns of richai and Nan are omitted altogether ; ami two 
high roads are marked as extending across tho country in a 
N.N.W. diroction to tho Salwin from tho neighlxmrhood of 
Paknam Po. Those are apparently designed to illostrnte the 
very " original romance " at the end of " the book ; thoy have 
no existence in fact. Below is the inscription — " The most 
recent and eompreheusivo J!ap of the Interior of Siam." Wo 
wonder if this joke will go down in .\merica ? No one in this 
country aui]uainted with the many surveys which have l>een 
made in the Meinam valley or with tho maps of Pavio and 
McCarthy, or the publications based on these which have from 
time, to time been published by the Riiyal Geographical Society, 
can be askotl to treat it seriously. 

Tho author a))|>ears to have approached his task with a leTity 
and lack of industry and study which, in literature at all event*, 
seem somewhat out of place. 



som 



The Barth ' 
0)x&in., Ul pp. I 

Lyrlcii. Hv 

llo-lon ; C 



MINOR POBTS. 

ulhtrr 



aimI 

n. 



PiM>ui». Hy 
John Lane. 



A. B. 

aon. 



.. ..a L<ane. 

4 en. 

Mlnusoula. Lyrica of Naturs, Art, and how. Uy 

BVanola WUllam BourdUlon. 0-4iin.. 112 pp. I.<.ndon. 

IMn. Lawrence and Bullen. Ltd. 6 • 



Our 

sri iinw. 



hmj^ p">e'ii Ih.it " t' " 
for them. Purlinpi i 
public is not for ti.v kh^; 
acciue uur ndnor poota ot 
are of the .!■... "...-> ,o mm- 
" Volumo " .. . them  

aro tho lyn '  I" 

snatcht'S, hke the '■ 
is still." But h' 
birdlike in the ! 
brief though it 
apprehonnion of thu t<ii;s •.: 
" Th'< ^j^rth Ilr..iab.' 
chn' 
of 1 
attr 
■h' 

it w.- - . •... 

of study. But hia style i 

Hanil"'\>iot ""\ 1" ' " ' 

eX] r 

ma; 

posed to deviate into i < 

of the little poem •' Ti. 

The hett\' 

Ki>ndle w. 

A now ei! 

What is r 

!■ 



rilo 

'•r 

1 . 

u n<.t 

at tiia 

■*n 

oa 

rm 

<>. 

in 

•>u 

ia 

*•/ 
.lul 

u. 

rMpondinjT Mitin-ty tn thn 
nta 
rial 

if 

n 
y 

He 



BTor flies 

-■ ' SODlu l!p.l- 

ave rcacbetl 

v.. .. ,...„. 



Mr. .i ... 

vidiiality. His litt 
a «<•(■■•"' i..1iii .11 

til.;, ,.« 

stun , <>r 

piquant it may be, or of a | ha 

" *|natrain," which is 8<j ooiu! >c, 

or encomiastic, becomes in Mr. Tubb  haiidii au <.-}ktf«ui«ly 
gnu'ufnl poem. " Tho Mid-Day Moon " ia a cbarming 
example : — 

Behold, whatever wind prerail. 

S'  •   .1- 

'I ^ 

i ii I  1 1' 'ii'. I , I '111 :i 
Again, in this quatrain oi 
conceit ; — 



we haT* a prat^ 



It iH 
• 6vo " i 
mctiical ii i m lua-- 



Not all of tlioAu t|Ualtiiiii!i, 
tho l)ook, srp s" ni'atlv lurni'<l 

Mr. i 
proviou.s 

addition ot j-ouio in 
alli>vre<l his sieve to 
have almost every deiii i mr.i. 
third esi>«cially — 

Now IV**''> ^1." '>"ni*<'r ,<.nT- f..t-.T^* fl..^n 

And 
is a monuni, 
that Mr 
classed :i- 

A clearer bhelley*i< who tl 
could not 1«. tHldlv ii 
" Joy's Way " — ia tho frosl • 
that is new in the book. I 
songa are extreme' ana " ul :n :■ 

reputation as a « both with n. 

song. 



I'iich I't vihiuh adoma a pa^ of 

a** tbeM». 



I 



cb 



an it he 

.1 t 
ra 

all 
ai 

iiiiiin'a 
vera of 



16 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



dillhitc Doi:i5C5. 



Where run your eolta at patture t 

\fTtfre hide your vnaret to breed t 
'Mid bergs a^inst the Ice-cap 

Or wove Sargossa weed ; 
By lightleiis reef and channel, 

Or craftjr coastwise bars. 
But most the deep-sea meadows 

All purjJe to the stars. 

W%o holds the rein upon you T 

The latest gale let free. 
Mliai meal i« in your mangers ? 

The glut of all the sea. 
Twixt tide and tide's returning 

Great store of newly dead, — 
The bones of those that faced us. 

And the hearts of those that fled. 

Alar, off-shore and single, 

Some stallion, rearing swift, 
Neighs hungry for new fodder. 

And calls us to the drift. 
Then down the cloven ridges — 

Ten million hooves unshod — 
Break forth the wild white horses 

To seek their meat from God I 

Girth-deep in hisaing water 

Our furious vanguard strains — 
Through mist of mighty tramplings 

Roll up the fore-lilown manes — 
A hundred leagues to leeward, 

Ere yet the deep hath stirred. 
The groaning rollers carry 

The coming of the herd ! 

Whote hand may grip your noslrila — 

Your fordock who may hold t 
E'en they that use the broads with us 

Tlie riders bred and hold. 
That s])y ufion our matings 

That rope as where we run — 
They know the wild white horses 

?*rom father unto «on. 



We breathe about their cradles. 

We race their babes ashore, 
We snuff against their thresholds. 

We nuzzle at their door — 
By day with stamping coursers, 

By night in whinnying droves. 
Creep up the wild wliite horses. 

To call them from tlieir loves. 

And come they for your calling f 

No wit of man may save. 
They hear the wild white horses 

Above their ftitlicrs' grave ; 
And, kin of those we crippled 

And sons of those we slew. 
Spur down the wild white riders 

To lash the herds anew, 

H7(/t< service have ye paid tfiem, 

Oh jealous sti^eds and strong ? 
iSave we that throw their weaklings. 

Is none dare work them wrong. 
While thick around the homestead 

Our grey-backed s(|uadron8 graze — 
A guard behind their plunder. 

And a veil before their ways. 

Witli march and countermarchings — 
With press of wheeling hosts — 

Stray mob or bands eml)attled— 
We ring the chosen coasts : 

And, careless of our clamour 
That bids the stranger fly, 

At peace within our pickets 
The wild white riders lie. 



Trust ye the curdled hollows — 

Trust ye the gathering wind — 
Trust ye the moaning groundHwell— 

Our herds are close Ix-hind ! 
To mill j'our foemnn's armies — 

To bray his camps abroad — 
Trust ye the wild white horses 

The Horses of the Ixjrd ! 



|0>»rrt(kL U*r bf R<adf»d KI»Unt. 



RUDYARD KIPLING. 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



17 



Hinono iii^ Boohs. 



A COLIiOQUY OX CRITICISM. 

Tliore iM,a)x)»it this we are pretty well certnin, nothinf; 
more unenriifoi-tahlc and rlisqiiifting to the onlinnrv good 
fellow — and unless ymi adopt a Ntundanl of excellence no 
hi;;h as must damn the whole British Empire most of the 
sons of Aflam are j^o(mI fellows — than to find himtielf at 
loggerheads with his neighlwur al>uut anything. 

The ])eople who love to differ are the minority — they 
may he found, no doulit, if not in every hamlet, certainly 
in every townshiji, hut for all that they are the minority 
and only distantly resemble the kiiuUy hosts who love host 
those songs which have a chorus in which all can join. 

As a proof of this I would instance the unhappiness of 
finding yourself positively disliking and despising some 
book written, it may be, by an a((|uaintance, which is 
enjoying great jwpularity. To take it up only to find 
its " jMithos " repulsive, its " humour " disheartening, its 
" merriment " offensive, and then laying it down with a 
groan to read, or, worse still, to lie told by some honest 
fellow, of its strange power, its dramatic grip, its enormous 
sale. All this is sheer agony. The ordinary sorrows of 
life, however crushing, are shared with humanity. Tombs 
and monuments remind you of other men's bereavements ; 
— the list of bankru])ts gives you a feeling of kinship with 
half the town ; but this inability to enjoy what apparently 
all the world is enjoying is intolerable. 

It is no use saying de jiistlhun, &e. In the first 
place it is not true. Burke long ago jxjinted out in his 
Treatise on the Sublime and Beautiful that mankind are 
more generally agreed about Virgil than they are aliout 
Aristotle. These things cut very deep into life. Were 
jou to be condenmed to spend three months at sea in a 
small cabin with a stranger with what easy comjxisure 
would you hear him, the first night, declare himself a 
Hobbist, but how would j'our heart sink within you were 
he to aver that he never could see anything funny in 
" Pickwick " ! It is a very serious thing to ditfer nidically 
on a ([uestion of taste. 

And so it comes about that the life of a Critic in these 
times is well nigh intolerable, and, indeed, it is not with- 
out emotion — genuine emotion — that to-day I see launched 
a new critical adventure. It makes a brave apjM-arance 
as it pushes otf, friends wave their handkerchiefs, the 
captain is on the upper-deck, the crew (well-tanned 
veterans some of them) wave their new quills — it is 
indeed a gallant sight ! Yes — but look ahead to the sea 
where the ship must go, to the far off ocean, whose vast 
tides jMint dumbly passionate with dreams of all the Ixwks, 
as yet unwritten, whicli Literature must review, and of the 
authors, jiassionate but not dumb, whom we shall, if we 
do our duty, most grievously offend. Duty .' the word 
instantly arrests one, just as did the word '* delicacy" the 
great Journalist in Frii^ndship^s Oarland, " Delicacy," 
he murmured. •' surely I have heard the word, in the old 
days before I learnt to call llepworth Dixon's style lithe 



and »in»<wy and Ix-fore i«vit I wrote for thin curnMl [wppr." 
So at the wonl " Duty," I xtand at attrntion. What are 
the dutini of a Critic ? 

No dooner i« the ijueMtion njik)-d tlian t«Mn|>«'nnnent 

utefM in and makes everj-thing difficult. ' ' ' •■ tn- 

I>erament leadu him to magnify hiit ol! to 

minimize it. Pom|M>iiity In tlie UiM-tting nn of the one. 
cynicism of the other. Of the two Mr. Cynic i* the mor» 
agreeable while Mr. I'omiio«ity do*^ the leaitt harm. It 
is to avoid " glatutes " and to wee thingit with the 

nak. .. . ... 

Can it l)e Haid that to ri>view new book* tM they 
appear is a ]iublic duty? The fiu-t that it i 

privately proven nothing. Until 1870, in 1...., 

duty of educating the young wiui diiicharged by the Hritinh 
and Foreign School .Sx-iety and the National S<K-iety, 
whilst for many a long day the duties of nurxing the |ioor 
and visiting prison* were left to individual charity. The 
maintenance of the Fine Arts is, after a lieggarly fajihirm, 
recognized by the State, and there are those who «erioU»ly 
advocate a National Theatre. Ouglit Criticism to be esta- 
blished and eiidowe<l ? Sluiuld t ' ; with a 
Litenu-y sup]ilemeut ? t)n the w.. . . . it. 

But if Criticism is a matter of private enterjirise it 
should be unil t. The famouji 

motto of the L , !. . .uis too much. A 

Judge is not self-elected, neither does he chooae hia 
calendar and condemn whom he wills. T' 
secutes, the jury convicts, the Judge -• 
Brougham, if it wan liord Brougham, owed no duty to the 
public to ridicule John Keats in the K<l' 
Ijidy K;istlake had no better right to - 
Bronte in the Quarterly Review than has any evil-tongued 
woman to revile her neighliour in the mjii" 

The duties of a Critic are those of a iiftsman 

who takes money in exchange for an article of his inana- 
factun-. He must do his Itest to learn h' iid, 

having learnt it, to go about it diligently u 'ly, 

and in a spirit of humanity. He must avoid the error of 
imagining his opinion to be a j;' 
entitled, if his criticism Ih' printi ^ „ 
it as if it were of no moment whatever. 

Critics an> sometimes accusefl of for i- \ni\>- 

licity, the almost awful publicity, of tlu , ^ rrt<>, 

and of scattering abroad in the lightnef^ of their hearts all 
kinds of winged wonls ancl ]>oi.'»on«Hl arrows. 1'- y? 

You have only to compare the trenchant am; .. ..;iist 
valuable criticism you hear at a dinner table with 
the tame, ema-sculated uttenmces of the Press to realize 
how iMiralyzing is publicity and how imftosnible it 
is to say in print what you may utter with per- 
fect propriety in pri\-nte. NoNxly ' ' ' "v assert 
that harshness or brutality is a chai j.rcsent- 
day criticism. Whether it be wise or foolish, important 
or insi '. it is at least good-natured. B<H)ks are 
lilx-ralr ;tere<l with praise, and the rarest gifts of 
the gods are affected to be bestowed upon writers of the 
most humble endowments. F' ' ' - eaaily 
kindled. Nobodv, as I have alrt.; » differ 



18 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



with hi« neijjhbour, lewt of all to make his diflVn^nces 
T ' ' •• " ' tie and let the world go by " is ft maxim 
. one very generally obsen'ed by wise men. 
Bat how is the jjoor critic to olwerve it ? A iwpular 
nov. ' -ular volume of theology, and a jjopular ]K>et 

an- i for review. He reads, and as he rejuls his 

gorge rises. They are, so, at leaat, the unhapjjy writer con- 
ceives, . -' fiction, religion, jKx^try ought not 
to be ; V. H' niiturol is forctnl, what should be 
devout is vulgar, what should he felicitous is ill-expresswl ; 
grace, dignity, delicacy, charm — of no one of these (juali- 
ties is there so much as a trace. Of course, the reviewer 
may be mistaken. But, if he is, his whole outlook ujwn 
this world is mistaken ; all that is alwut him is mistaken ; 
his library is all wrong; every estimate he has formed, 
every lesson he has learnt is all wrong — everj'thing is 
.... ;.-.i ,,, ix)oks lieanvthing but the ixwr trash 
im they are. But is he to say so? 
The novelist is • friend of his wife's sister, the 
divine and the ]«•<■> m.- club acfjuaintances of his own. 
He cannot say what he really thinks of tlieir i)roduction8 
— their " work," as they love to call their lucubrations. 
Unable to say what he thinks, he proceeds to say as little 
as he can aU)ut the books before him, and to fill up his 
apace with general reflections, which are deprived of all 
\-aIue liecause the writer does not apjjly them fearlessly to 
the matter in hand. Tlie result is deplorable. 

AUGUSTINE BIRRBLL. 



up: ' 
hi> 



FICTION. 



St. Ives: H<MiiK till- Advent iin-N of II Fi-ench Prisoner in 
EnKlnixl. Hy Robert Louis Stevenson. ChapU'rs xxxi.- 
xxsvi. by Mr. Quiller Couch. 7i>:5.1in. .1I2 iip. I»ndon, 
VSBfi. Heinemann. 6- 

Thi» poiithumnas romance of Mr. Stevenson will liardly take 
rank with hii ittronfjest work : but it has all tliat charm of the 
intensely characteristic, which, in the case of any writer of 
dseply-marked and attractive individuality, renders the reader 
almost onconsciuus of defects. With the author of " St. Ives," 
ind«c<I. ttiL-y are so essentially the defects inseparable from 
" f ' that it is hanlly i>ogsibl» even to wish them away. 

Tl.. thf^r^ " .Adventures of a French Prisoner in 

En,.' "De's admiration for the unflag,:ing 

spirit . te Anne de .St. Yvos rclaten them, one 

IS cnntinusl 'K-<1 of the singularly loose thread of 

plot on wbicii .... LToat'ir has strung them together. .\nd 

the picturaaquo rigour with which the French prisoner himself is 
d«lill«at«d only serves tw render more conspicuous the sketchy, 
not to say shadowy, dmftsmaniihip which is all that Stevenson 
haacarwl Ut bestow on Flora Gilchrist, one of many heroines so 
trsatad by him, or rather, one miirht nay, the subject of a 
tr«stroont « ' Catriona can be 

•aid to hat There are indeed 

timas whan ut aiul > '>i this very vaguely 

aduiii^rat'il u.iti Iv 1  ri'il, sharftlv oiitline<l, 

••>' 111 almost feel ax if we 

w«: .......... .. :... . .1. .eas and thexliodoof his 

wifa. Until tba Vic' m actually embracing Flora 

throa^b tb« op«n cott .« lo that very prettv Jove scene 

ia tb* rain, «• can h.i <'v« that nha will not elude her 

lovw's claap, aa th« ghosiiy urensa aluded bar husband's, jtar 
Imibiu fCiUts, totnerique limittima tomno. 

To thass oontraata, bowaror, between haroas of " thraa 



dimensions " and homines who represent merely a plane super- 
licies, all good Stovensonians are by this time well aocuHtomed, 
having, indeed, been moHtly disciplined into submii<siou to them, 
if the truth nuiybe whixperetl »<i/r<i rftrimdii, by no loss o master 
than Sir Walter himself. Inured, too, they are to the loose- 
jointud narrative, and to that slow evolution of plot which ia 
only emphasized by the briskness in the succession of incidents. 
All these things, as bas l>een said, have the charm of the charac- 
teristic. Thoy are " Stevenson all over." In this last novel of 
his they are more than usually in eviilencu, though as easy to 
forgive as over. For instance, there is really very littlo reason, 
on the face of matters, why the whole story should not ci)me to 
a premature close with the escape of St. Ivcs from Edinburgh 
Castle. There is, at any rate, no reason, excei)t a Stoven- 
Bonian one, for his prolonged ond harebrained tramp 
over a large portion of Great Britain with a hostile kins- 
man ot his heels and a price on his he*d. Every well-wisher 
whom he meets with, from the girl whom he loves down to the 
family 8oIicit<ir, deplores his obstinacy and rashness, and plies 
him with argument* for an immediate flight to France which a 
candid reader recognizes a.s unansworablo while he rejoices that 
they were disregarded. For the consequence of this disregard is 
that we accompany the escaped prisoner through a succession 
of the most stirring adventures, as ingeniously invented and as 
brilliantly narrated as anything we have had from their lamented 
inventor and narrator since he carried us breathless, with David 
lialfour and Alan Breck Stewart, throufih the stirring pages of 
" Kidnapped." 

Apart, moreover, from the excellence of the story-telling, 
the fortune of the romance would be made by the masterly 
portraiture of its hero, who ranks high in our opinion among 
Stevenson's nio.st 8ucces.-.ful studies of character. Never, perhaps, 
have the fascination and the foibles of the typical Frenchman 
boon studied with such humorous insight, or hit off with such 
easy felicity of touch. To compare it with the " Brigadier 
Gerard " of Mr. Conan Doyle would of itself bo no light praise, 
as all who are familiar with that brilliant little piece ot portrait 
painting will admit. But the later of the two heroes has in 
more than one resjioct the advantage of the earlier. There is 
the same foathor-lioaded courage, the same invincible cheerful- 
ness, the same gallantry, gaiety, vanity, nairete, in tbft 
one as in the other, but Stevenson's horo is tbo 
finer by certain superiorities which he wouhl naturally 
and of right possess and also by certain ipialities 
which were the gift to him of his literary creator, 
and which have no doubt intentionally been le.''t out of 
Mr. Doyle's creation. The Vicomte is a polished gentle- 
man, which can hardly be said of the worthy Brigadier, and 
he indulges in a delightful cmdiuir of. self-criticism, of which 
that other efpially high-spirited but still slightly woodon-headed 
soldier of the Empire would huve been wholly iiicapalile. 
Mr. Stevenson's hero in fact is, through and through, an 
adventurer after Dumas' own heart, as dashing as D'Artagnan, 
as chivalrous as Athos, as amorous as .^ramis, as 
genial and jovial, if, of course, not quite so muscular, as 
Porthos; and we follow bim through the whole series of his 
enterprises by floml ond field, and even by air, for ho finally 
gives his enemies the slip in a balloon, with unflagging interest. 
The dialogue is of Stevenson's Ix'st, for in a certain sentcntious- 
ness of humour indeed it often recalls some of the ijuaintcst 
cidlo.piies in the " Now Arabian Nights," and pjiticularly in 
that most fantastically droll among the stories in that v<dumo, 
" TheKajah's iJiomond." Excellent too is tho picture of Old 
E<linburgh, and of the works and ways of tho French prisoners on 
itsCostle rock; whileforeraostainong i>assagesof tlielattor kind ia 
the description of the fatalduol with scissors Wtween the hero 
and the ruflianly but staunchly loyal Goguelat. "You have 
given me the key of the fields, comrade. Snn* raneune," said 
the follow when he had got his mortal wound. And Victor Hugo 
himself, at his best in " Les Miserables," would not have dis- 
daina<l to sign this passage, in which tho dying man, who haa 
firmly refused to give up the name of bis slayer, bids him final 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



19 



farewell, with the nsHurance that be will carry the tuerot with 

him tu thu gruvo : — 

Hunl l>y ill a little boil lay Oogimlat. Tli« nunburn hail ii-«t 
yotfiiilud from liia iucv, and the iitaiii|> o( doath waii alrua4ly 
thuro. Tliuio was somothiiig wilii and iiiitiiunniali in his siiiilo 
that timk mo l>ytho throat ; only duutli niul Im-o havu over so«'n 
it. And wbun liu ipoko it i>nly ito<!iiu<<l to itliame his conrsv t^lk. 

H«) hold oiit hin uriiw at it t" oinlirm'O nut. I drew iii<ar with 
iiiorodible Nhriiikiiigii, and HiirrundurtMl inyii«lf to hi* anna with 
ovurwhelmiiig diHguot. hut he only drow my ear down to his 
lips - 

•• Trust mo," he whispered, " I'll take it to hell with me 
«nd toll thu duvil." 

A wonl of cninmuiidation inu.st bo added on the work of Mr. 
<juiller Couch, to whom was intrustvd what Mr. 8t«.'vuniioD's 
literary exi'cutor rijjlitly calls " thu ddicato tu»k " of supplying 
thoao concluding chaptors of tlin romance which thu author, who 
had toniporarily laid aside " St. Ives " to tako up " Weir of 
Hermiston," did not live to write. To du.scribe the style 
adopted by thu continuator as an imitation of Stuvoiison's would 
bo iioitliur correct nor, in our judgiiiunt, complimuntary ; since, 
the real authoraliip of these chapters Ijuiiig known, it would be 
the reverse of pleasing to thu judicious reader to have his atten- 
tion continually solicited by ony duliU'rate and obtrusive 
mimicry of thu original. All that was really wanted was moroly 
to spara him distniotion from the exactly oiipf)site caumi, or, in 
othur word.s, to maintain such a general conformity with 
the Stoveiisonian spirit and niannur as to prevent the reader 
from being conscious of any abrujit break in the style of 
the narrative. This condition Mr. t,>uilU>r Couch's continua- 
tion quite satisfactorily fultils. In cases of this kind there will 
always bo those who think that " the unfinished window in 
Aladdin's tower unfinished should remain " ; but assuredly nono 
«vun of those objectors can in this instance complain that there 
is anything in the urchJtooturo or tracery of thu ooiiipluted 
window to oflend the artistic eye. 



What Maisie Knew. 

Ijondoii, LSiW. 



By Henry James. Hvo.. :«>» pj). 
Heinemann. 6;- 



Mr. James's other works must boar the burden of " What 
Maiaio Knew," for this is hardly a book to enhance his great 
reputation. There are, of course, almost as many ways of writ- 
ing a novel ns of " constructing tribal lays," nnd for tlint reason 
we sliiiuld hesitate to ONpres.s a sweeping opinion on the merits 
and <lomerits of the Iwok. Besides, it is well understood in 
these days that a modem novel may dispense w^ith a great part 
of the machinery, and many of the virtues, that nred to be 
thought necessary. Plot, incident, humour itself, is superfluous 
if only the author be sufticiently expert in portroit-painting and 
analysis. Mr. James himself is a proof of this. " What Maisie 
Know " is not amusing, not exciting, not lii;m<rous: it bns little 
or no plot : it neither cheers nor inebriates ; and j-ot it is worth 
reading. The reader, we know, will not expect ordinary novels 
from Mr. James, or find fault with him booauso his qualities are 
not those of other writers. His work has never been in the 
least degree commonplace ; he has had his sjiecial public, and 
has been content to appeal only to educate<1 people. 
But, as even a highly eduoate<l palate sometimes longs 
for plain fare, so the most fastidious lover of fiction may 
prefer something just a shade wholesomer than this particular 
book. The plain truth is that wo do not like the atmosphere of 
the Divorce Court, and pant for the breath of fresh air which 
comes, in a vogue and inferential manner, in the very last page. 
From cover to cover one is bewildered by the complicate*! and 
promiscuous immorality of the characters, and by the unpleasant 
situations which the author elaborates and analyzes. The threail 
of the stor}- is tolerably simple. l)ealo and Ida Farange, 
Maisio's father and mother, are divorced, both being oquolly 
guilty, and the child spends alternate half-years with each of 
them. It need not bo said that they hate each other 
heartily. In each of the hostile camps a governess is found 



for MabU, • young govariMM by bar fatlMr, an akUrljr onm 

by her motbar. liar fatb«r then warriaa th* ycani; s<>veni«aa, 
while hor mothor niamos Hir C'lauiU. All th« mun ax* band- 
■omo, and, except the uld»rly gorurnaas, notta u( tli« womao ara 
virtuous. TliBm marnagas, Uwrokm, turn out aa badly aa tb« 
original Farange allianca. Maiaio 's uwn (laranta f» (rum bail io 
won«, ami a tiai«' '  ia, 

betW4M*n Ura, >■ . ■>'( 

attcond wife 
{•art-nta, is til 

Thora is no blinking tlio fact that this ia about as unpromia- 
ing a story aa could well be invontad. Indaod, with the wboU 
field of human como<ly bafore bim, one faila to *•• wby Mr. 
James shouhl insist on taking i.^ '^ ti this alough of 
immorality. It is true that be way thrvuKb it 

with extreme delirary, but it is a coac of corrupt 
all the same, and it may l« d>>iibt«xl wbHh^r • - 
greatest artist is justi' ui 

design and otitliTiK. I tho 

picture, it m 

not the objc i; , - - , , -.- . - nt 

child Maisie herself and her governess Mra. Wix. It is ' ' i ' > > 
that Mr. Jamed has expende<l most of his akill. Maio.t-, »!••• 
was in a position to know a good many ttrange things, raniaina 
charming and childlike in ' ' ' 
Hor natural cuardians hav, 

a glimin .il sense ul i 'hs. 

Wix to .do an>l her s ide, 

except thai he is tarred willi i brusli •• 

the others, ia quite an a^'reeablo j • Mrs. Wix, 

however, is the Iwst-drawn character in the book, and ia 
thoroughly human and lift like. Wu have said that tho book 
is not humorous, and humorous in any large sause of the 

word it certainly ia not. But there are fr '• ' • • ■• r<ins 

touches in it which go far to light up the ur: a of 

the narrative, and these have the distinct ' ' '>od 

writing. The early description of Mrs. t.d, 

with her poor appearance and poor • : e"-.- 

ing— a lady, reo enough to Mr. •,:-•- 

laughe<l at and then endowed with cuuraga buii »( 

character, so that flu- triumpha at last by ral 

superiority. Ida too, Mr. Farango's firat wife and, 

BO to speak, Mai ._ ....i mother, " was a person who, when 
she was out — and she was always out— produced ovcrywhero 
a sense of having been seen often, tlio sense, imleecl, of a kind 
of abuse of Tisibility, so that it aoiild have l>ecn, in th« 
usual places, rather vulgar to wonder at her." On : " I'Ut 

only on reflection, one knows thut kind of ladv, au ./ea 

tho aubtle truth of the ' »t; 

the only thing is tlin: ha 

has found thu secret of mai> ire 

sotting. I*erh:ip;t wo may . .eaa 

and of expri- tax tho 

reader's intei , . -,. i "t b« 

quoted, but it would bo uncrocious to do so. '! ird 

reading and, we should imagine, not c*sy writing. ••■,<, ii..n ia 
more or less true of the whole book. It is a aoriotts study, and 
the reader who does not mean to study it had batter leara it 
alone. 



Jerome : .\ Poor Man. By Mary B. 'Wilklns. Cr. 8vo.. 
500 pp. Ixndoii and New York, IM»7. Harpers, ft'- 

This novol will do mueh tr> increase in this c^riTifnr the 

who has, chi .;h 

•< ear of a di .ng 

circle of readers, i. .s deacribe a novel aa a 

" pretty " one, and th hungers for the stronger 

meat of tho " new fiction " is too apt to make a mental note of 
such a book aa one to be avoided. Miss Wilkina's novels are 
" pretty," but they represent tho glorification of prettineaa. 



20 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



Har okBTM MltuiU of no f^>u rMlitm ; her pietnrM are idyllic, 
eonpomdad of pore deli<»t« tints and graceful harmonio* of 
•olow. Thejr apeak of lore and uf aorrow ; but tlie love haa 
Bolhil^ to do with illicit paaaion or tl)e problem of aox, and the 
 d i T tH i makM its :. : >! human pity without brand- 

iag ita mark up<': iron. The world deacribod 

ia • aaaall on«, but it u lookud u|M>n with a very kindly eye, and 
ita mot* gloomy phaaea are uatxl only aa a contraat to thi«o 
wiueh M* happy and agrakablo. \Vi< arc, imltHxl, inclined to 
•ak whathar this New Kngland rillage of Cpham can n^ally i-xist 
•ajwbere bat in the world of romance ? These hunioly maidens 
wbo are ready to giro up all for love, theao toiling villagers who 
hare nerer heard of Silrerism or of " Coins Financial School," 
thaaa mstio gentry with their aooostral homes, high breeding, 
and gaatla ways— do they really hail from the States, do they 
rote, do they raa4i their Xetr Yurk Utmld ? We can only reply 
that Miaa Wilkina lives, we believe, not far from lioston, that 
aba daaeribea the life around her, and that Uostouians are de- 
ligfatad with her novels. At any rato. the setting nf her story is 
a highly picturesque one, and for Englihh readers it gains some- 
thing from the fact that life in an American village is in certain 
reapaeta mure like our own than life in an American city. 

"Jerome " belongs to the class of novel which may be de- 
aeribed as biographical. It starts with the hero at the age of 
thirtaan, and leaves him happily married and settled. Tliis 
kind of story labours under some disadvantages. It docs not 
lend itaelf V) a dramatic arrangement of events, and it almost 
always anggests the same motif, a struggle upwards, like that of 
David Grieve, in social i>osition or in character, or in hutli. 
Circumstances, however, force Jerome to take his place rather 
prematurely among those whom children of his age speak of as 
" ;• ^ " ; and a okilful handling of the dnimatis per- 

$o.. . .ertain unity to the plot. Jerome Edwards, his sister 

Klmira, and their mother, are left in crinding poverty liy the 
head of the family, «nd make a hard fight of it for a living. But 
the main interest of the story does not arise until we reach the 
ooortship of Elmira by the son of the rich doctor, who annexed 
field to fielil by taking a<lrantage of the ailments of the poor, 
and of Lncina, the daughter of the Squire, by Jerome. The 
situation could hardly exist onywhere but in rustic America. The 
etirinna democratic cistoms which make such courtships possible, 
and the arist'wrstio or, perlmp", " tiniocratic " prejudices 
wl I fortunate combiniitinn for 

til- r . Iilemishes in Miss Wilkins's 

m a nag ement ot the plot. Jerome wlio, like his fellow-villagers, 
toils at unprofitable manual labour, manages to save dollars 
with a rapidity which must have ap]M>are<1 to them positively 
atartling, and the disappearance of Abel £dwanls, the father, 
who was working on a farm twenty miloa off whilst his friends 
anil ' .* ; Ming a funeral service for him. is hardly 

CO! his resurrection at the end, though the 

inctUciits of it i»r«.' well conceiveil, seem ot all necessary. But 
tba eranta of the tale are well <levelopcd ; and just as the 
autboreas doea not drag us through the minutiie of cliild-life in 
the opening chapt<.-rs, so she does not mar her denouement at the 
end, and knows t" a minute when to draw down the curtain. 
Wa must in paoaing give a word of criticism on the writer's 
•tyla- Perhapa we ought not to complain of an ocouiional 
Yaokaaiam, aa " Dnring Jaroma'a absence, Eben Merritt's wife 
oama aeruM lota to the Edwards house." But we trust that 
Mias W ■• 1 not let 1. y of thought lead her into 

obacuri- ts " All ; . .t in straight parallels of 

•word !■ lal yieUiun of nature to the sinipiest low 

olfTn*- .oul." There is, indeed, high authority 

•"f  but we cannot oiiooiirage any writer of 

■«■- ' ' ^' ' '-idity is the Jirst law of a literary style. 

Tha real rirtna of this book lies in its sketches of individual 
*JTas, in its lore of the pictures<pie, and still more in its sensi- 
tira touch uprwj mind ami nature. Jerome himself is a fine 
Btody, eren if he inelinea a little to the ideal. Bovm) readers 
will perhaps doqbt tha possibility, apart from religion, of any 



adequate motive for the renunciation of a fortune of 25,000 
dollars by a " poor man " who is only debiiiTed from marriage 
by his jioverty. It was due in a great degree simply to pride — 
the rigid Puritan inde|>ondence of the New Knglander — a <iuolity 
of which, in its effect on others, the reverse side is suddenly 
brought to his eyes at the end of the book. Miss Wilkins's men 
ore, wo think, more successful liure than her women, aiul tlinu 
the men in her other stories. Lmina and Kiniiru somewhat lack 
individuality, hut nothing could be l)etter than, for instance, 
the kindly squire Eben Merritt and his three bachelor friends, 
or than the humorous persimist Oxias Lamb. But a pleasant 
picture, too, is that of Miss Camilla, the Squire's elder sister - 
the opposite of those hard-working, middle-aged women whom 
Miss Wilkins is fond of jKirtraying— seote<l in her garden of 
roses and box in a shawl scented with sandalwoiKl. There i» 
hardly a scene or character throughout which has not its touch of 
picturcsqiieness, and the same eye for effect shows itself in 
countless telling cameos from nature, such as these : — 

" The robins were singing all about. Every now and then 
one flow out of the sweet spring distance, lit, and silently 
erected his red breast among some plough ridges lower down. 
It was like a veritable transition from sound to si^dit." 

" Uod cows in the meadows stannl at him as he passed, with 
their mysterious abstraction from all reflection, then grazed 
again, moving in one direction from the snn. The bliielicrry 
()at<'hes spread a pale gr< en glimmer of blo.saoms, like a liheen of 
satin in a high light : yoimg ferns curled l)Cside tha road like a 
baby'sfingers-^raspingatlife: the trees, which were late in leafing, 
also reached out towards the sun little iosycltts]iing fingers whereby 
to hold fast to the motherhood of the spring. The air was full 
of that odour so delicate that it is scarcely an odour at all, much 
loss a fragrance, which certain so-called scentless plants give out, 
and then only to wide recognition when they bloom in multitudes 
— it was only the simplest evitlence of life itself." 

But Miss Wilkins is a uaturali»te dca r.spn'f.1, and seldom 
looks at nature as a descriptive artist only. It is for her closely 
interwoven with human feeling. The groat merit of her work i» 
her keen insight into temiH.>ranient and her quick grasp of its 
more subtle changes when touched, however lightly, from without, 
and especially when under the spell of wild nature. Jerome going 
to bravo the tyrannical doctor enters his avenue of pino trees with 
nervous trembling. 

" However, halfway up the avonue he came into one of 
those warmer currents which sometimes linger so my.steriously 
among trees, seeming like a pool of air, submerging one as visibly 
as water. This warm-air bath was moreover sweetened with the 
utmost l)rc?ath of the pinewoo<l8. Jerome, plunging into it, felt 
all at once a certain soufo of courage and relief as if he bad a 
bidding and a welcome from old friemls. There are times when 
a quick conviction, from something like a sjieciul favour or caress 
of the great motherhoo<l of nature, which makes us oil as child 
to child, comes over one. ' His pine trees ain'l any difFerent 
from other folk's pine trees,' flashoil through Jerome's mind." 

We might quote many other passages of real beauty showing 
the same keen obser\'ation and delicate handling of niontal moods 
under the softer influoiices of nature. It is this viviil apprecia- 
tion of the finer spiritual aspect of things, never approaching any 
crude effect or jarring note, which gives to almost every page of 
this book a pecullni- rliarm. 



In Kedar's Tents. By H. Seton Merriman. 8vo., 
axjpp. I>>n>lnn, isir?. Smith, Elder. 6/- 

Mr. Merriman shows a tendency, becoming common among 
a certain class of novelists, to imiM>rt into fiction the urtiflces of 
the stage. He relies much on " situation," and conceives his 
plot in a series of vivid scenes on which the curtain falls just at 
the point when tho conflict of chance or fate with human desires 
has implicated tho i/r(im<Ww ;«T.wii<r in an inipflw, which, as tho 
reailer well knows, will be duly solve<l in the final cha]>terB. 
Picturestpie pro|ierties and stage setting, a crisp and pointed 
dialogue, a cessation of movement when some incident per- 
tinent to the plot has closed, and a material object round 
which tho interest is focussed — in this case a mysturioua 



October 28, 1897.] 



LITKKATUKE. 



21 



letter, patising from hand to hand, and affecting in differwit 

woy« the f.>rtiiiio» of all coneei i. • aro tho stock- 

in-tra<lu of the playwright. 1 ho h- .Iv <.f miiincr*, or 

tho still riioro prolix aiialyHis uf teni[«jr iiii.l i„  ,t; to the 

oppoHito school of novulistit.nnchoul which Im . injon lo«« 

high ill popiiliir favour. This novel rcinimlH imof the inuthiMU of 
tho " I'riBonor of /mulu/'or of " t'nder tho Hw\ llobo. " Onco 
more wo havii an advuiitiirous hero, laiiilod anion,; ■i'vnos un- 
familiar to him, phingod unox|)oi twUy into a world of plot snd 
oountiirplot nmmij} strangors in whono fortunos ho is called to 
take a luudiiif; part, and bocomin),' perforno a puhlio |N^niona|;e 
with a »hnie in the iimkiidc of history. " In Kodar's Tunts " is, 
roughly sjieaking, in Four .Vets -1. Uonynghnm'M rooms in tli« 
Templo ; '2. Tho Wnlltxl Garden at llonda ; X Tlie Caiin del 
Aynntaniionto at Tolodo ; 1. Tho Wallod (lardon at lionda 
again. Tho action, it will bo soon, takes placo almost entirely 
in Spain, and tho author ha.s oloarly studiod to somo profit l)oth 
tho Spanish country uiiil puoplo. Ono UooH'roy Hornor, of whom 
wo should like to hoar Homuthing more, but who passoa out of 
sight at tho end of Chapter 2, has unintentionally killed a man 
in a Chartist riot. Conyngham, with an Irishman's (jiiick 
generosity, iindurtakes to divert suspioiun from Homer, who 
has a wife and oliild, by a sudden flight to Spain. Hem ho pro- 
poses to fight agaiiiHt tho Carlists, but his good-natured promise 
to deliver a letter, purportin;,' to bo a love-letter and in reality a 
rovolution.\ry documoiit of momentous import, involves him in a 
web of dillioultios and dangers, which becomes the more intricate 
when Sir John IMoydoll, tho father of tho youth murdero<l by 
Horner, makes a sensational appearance upon tlio scene. It is, 
we 8upi>oae, by an oversight— though a curious one— that 
Ploydell, a solicitor and colliery owner, develops, after his 
orrival in Spain, tricks of manner, due, so we are given to umler- 
stand, to his long training at tho Common Law Bar. 

Without alfectiiig any eccentricity of typo, Mr. Merriman 
hero shakos himsulf free from tho rather conventional figures 
to which ho introduced us in some of his earlier book*. 
All tho chief characters are thoroughly well conceived and 
on tho whole consistently depicted. Conyngham the jrnne 
pt-emier, Concha the Spanish iViest, Concepvion Vara the 
contrahanili.ita, iiarraldo the Carlist are all excellent, and 
we doubt whether anything in recent fiction equals the 
vivid and interesting portraiture of Cenoral Vinconto, or 
the masterly scone in which £stdlla his daughter, in obedience 
to her fatlior, and in tho prosonce of her lover, impersonates the 
Queen Uogont and faces the fury of a Spani.sh mob. Thi.s inci- 
dent, like many others in tho book, rovoals a keen dramatic in- 
stinct, but tlioie is sometimes a failure to recognize tho essential 
difference in the conditions of the spectacular drama and of the 
written chronicle. Tho author lets himself forget tho time- 
honoured maxim " Sognius irritant," &e. A spectator is more 
wrought up, more keenly attentive than a reoder. Much more 
can be loft to hi.s imagination, which is for the moment actively 
stimulated, and ho has no time to analyze results or weigh pro- 
babilities. More than once wo have the light switcho«l off from 
a situation at a critical niomont, loavini; tho actors grouped in a 
highly effective manner, but arousing in the mind of tho rea<Ier 
a perfectly reasonable curiosity as to their next move and a feel- 
ing that truth is Iwing sacrificed to effect. A faithful narrator 
cannot isolate events like this, or avail himself of methods which 
are justifiable and even necessary in another sphere of art. The 
close of tho chapters in which Conyngham reveals his identity to 
Sir John Ploydell, and in which tieneral Vinconto dies, illustrate 
what we moan. What did Kstella say to Ci>nyngham over her 
father's death-bod ? Mr. Morriman is also still a little too fond 
of tho sententious apothegm, sometimes of a cynical character. Ho 
introduces it, as it were, to call attention to the knowledge of 
human nature displayed in his narrative : — 

" The little fountain plashed in the cotutyard below ; a 
frog in tho basin among the water lilies croaked sociably, while 
tho priest and tho beautiful woman in the room al>ove mode 
history. For it is not only in kings' iialaces nor yet in Parlia- 
ments that the story of the world is shaped." 



*' Julia ■t'Kwl Innliin^ from nn» |a th* 

"in M noUiIng ta 
!.M(Umm HMa or 

woiiiiiM h' ' mil' ri r\ 
Too iTitich ol t 



But tkara i* not 



iinaii bwDgB commanding botb 



HufiTh Wjmne, Pre« Quaker, MiinHitii" Krr-vft T.im. 

I on Ihi- .StjilT of hi« Kx 

H y S. Weir MltcheU, M.D., L . . 
and liiii'Vjii'd. C'r. Hvu., 48.*> pp. Illiistratitl. I>m 

PlBii %kn. 

The {wriod of the rvrolntionary war haa of lat« attained 
groat prominence in .Vmerica, and rolume a/tvr vo|um« of 
memf>ira and letters has bevn adde<l to the store of hiat'tio 
material. In " Hugh Wynne," whi' ! ful 

and acctu^ta picturo of the old «.! .oe 

use has :  i fiction 

gives n! 

to- 
bio .,ig- 

ton a start. The fact that Hu^'h Wynne  «tylcd " Krwi 
Quaker " rofjuires some explanation. .For««veral year* bvforv 
the War of Secesaion mai^y members of thu Society of Krieada 

thought that paasire reaist.-!- '" -• - n duly. On 

the other hand, many mori' mre, even to 

bloo<lshed, was justifiable, im- i:itt.T view i.-d lo th' <• ;■ :"<ion 
of many able and uonscieiitioiis men fmm thu Soci- - i.yot 

whom naturally drifted into tho re ' ••• 

of tho war th so disown'-d Frieixls : ibo 

diatinct sect of V <.. 

Perhaps the I.: ^ i i ugh Wynne waa of WoUh and French 

blood cauaod him to be apparently more Free than Quaker. Be 
that as it may, the (act that he was a bom soldier i.i msile very 
apparent ; and of tho final struggle which ragc<i round Ptiita- 
delphia the details are so vividly given that a i;-* ' ' ' nW 
would appreciate two or throe good maps. One i is 

inserted, and a small/ 1 th 

a pen, but there is not at 

the present day. ^ ,o, 

some Irt miles uw;i lal 

issue of th'.> great war bet a v«a 

fought out, tliough tho actu te 

further south. 

Many of the greatest fi,;>.,, .. ..; .American bii>^.-.< - >. p,-- 

through these pages — notably Washington, who is carefully and 
somexrliat critically drawn : and wo seem to see, dearly 
silhouetttHl against the picturesque backtrroiind chosen by Dr. Weir 
Mitchell, tho impetuous V' '"lrt<. Sir William 

Howe, tho darling of the •• ■•." snd Hnmil- 

ton. The writor <loue full ju*iicu to tha ati ^ al 

element which played »<i great a part in «i iry 

Pennsylvania. IndetKl, Hu^h Wynne looks on at us 

Mischianga ball, giveti by tho •• loyal dames " in h >ir 

William Howe, in tho old country seat of that grave Friend, 

Joseph Wharton, the " Quaker Duke." There, peep i,r...,^t, 

a window, Wynne saw the brilliant scene, thi • », 

curtsies, and bows of the Bristol ofiicers and the I hia 

belles being rcflecto<l in the great mirrors which c^: the 

walls of tho dead Quaker's ^i' 

To tho two women " oat a put in " Hugh 

Wynne " tho b<x>k owes, greatest charm. The 

winsome French mnthnr is ;<; d in the grim worlil 

where she fo<: We seem to see her as she leans on the 

half-<loor of tl. :i house at the end of Walnnt-atreet wait- 

ing for her little boy to come from hia first day at school. 

" This sweet and most tcmter-hearted lady wore, as you 
may like to know, a gray gown and a blue chiuts apron fasteneil 



oo 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 189; 



' Um •hoaliler* with «rhit« h«ka<U. C>n her head warn k very 
bro«d>farimmwl «' >t, low in the crown, and tiiMl by 

•ilk ooitU nnder ! hail a creat i)uantity of brown 

hair, among which was ouc wuli« atraml o( pray. Tliis nhe hnil 
from her youth, I hare be«n tol«l. Tliis robuUioii* hair (->irle<l, 
Mid ah* t*"** •eriona bine rv -' birge and wiilu oiien, •<> that 



tha oiaar whit* waa aaen al 

look a* of p—*'" -■■:•—-• — 

wall roandr 

whataror »L- _ ^^ 

Fraooh way, mad indeed aba i 
apvech thai) waa common amon, 
gOudnaaa aeema to me to have bw 
naadod naithar thought uor etfort. 



he liliiv. aiul won- ii constant 

I •■' nho was still pliant anil 

of fresh prottinoM in 

''t. Soiiio 6ai(l it wati a 

: « tiRO of her hands in 

 of British race. Her 

instinctivo, and to have 

Her faults, as i think of 



them, wat« moatly aneh m ariae from escasa of loving or of noble 
mood." 

Small wonder that she foare<l no one, neither hor grave 
hsahutd nor the crimmeat of inquisitive committoes of Friends. 
Wyonw's own lady-love, who, though she had not one perfect 
feature, had, notwithstanding, a countenance " so variously 
•loquent that no man saw it unmoved," ii, if less original, a 
charming portrait of a lady. 

The story of the hero's varying fortunes, till, the war being 
anded after several years < :' ' ' , Hugh and Darthe became 

man and wile, and live<l s i worthily in the threat stone 

hwn St Ml i lii.it Uio interest at no time flop's. 

Dr. Weir W. ^ our thanks for an ailmirablu piece of 

work. Apart ir^ e as an historical novel, the book 

raraala certain u i ^ : ...sin American life of which the 
modem generation are acaroely conscious. 



Marietta's Harria^. By W. E. Norris. Svd., vi.+a%pp. 
I»ndon. 1^4)7. Heinemann. 6,- 

The excellence of some of Mr. Norris's early stories, the fair 
view they i>resented of human nature, adorned with much skill 
of characteriration and a somewhat cynical wit, encouraged 
ni . : ^ to welcome him a^ a coming Thackeray. L'nforlu- 
n  :ia not ahown himsvlf able to maintain the position 

« find the reader of his later works can only 

ai.i 11 in the wn-e in nhirh Dumas _^/.i called 

Seriba itHkakaptan dt* omhrff ^Ir. Nnrris, if he is to be 

oompared, as the fasliion is, t- • ly, can only be called a 

nackoray of mArionettc-a. His pupjots dance gaily enough, the 
dr » a» o s are lively and appropriate, ami the showman's running 
commentary on their actions is clover enough ; but the breuth 
of life and the touch of spontaneity are wanting. At the i>aine 
time, it must be added that Mr. Norris always writes like an 
e<? oiitlcman, and his clever and well-bred work is 

m thn average level of th»> modem novel. It is only 

wiuiii < m witli til and immortals that his 

tnforii'i i that he uij-s tempt the reader to 

that comparison is a testimnny to hiH ri'al ability. The story now 
Iwfora lu i* a good example of his later manner. It deals with the 
married life of a beautiful girl, half English, half Italian, who 
weds the heir to an Kngliah peerage. " She is ambitious in an 
nimlese sort of way," her lover's father warned him, " she is 
greedy of admirr* - -! she has not l)eon broken to harnes.-!, 
like tile average linhwman of your own class." Further, 

■a the i .Is U!, " her nature was so queer and so ill- 

r»(rnl»' le was quite incapable uf distinguishing l>ctwe«n 

ri ,'." Withal, she was nut by any means a bad 

w npel tn the type whiih is apt to find a husltand 

*^ and to pose as the fcmmt infomj/riu 

I'T : men. Mr. Norris handles Marietta 

with hi* ttsnal akill, and has made a very entertaining book of 



the e« 

"If J 
of you 

yon the iiri.i 

Strahan arr . 

aiiaprint haa c-r«pt into | 

verted into " below," wu 



-ri are a<lmirably skot<.-lie<l. notably 

 ■>od, 8t. Quintin, the mon who, 

'im what he thought 

■"Uffering by telling 

•■ h..\ilinisli IJotty. Itoland 

■lly s<i convincing. A curious 

lori! '• i-Hkiw " has Iwen con- 

■vliat ludicrous effect. 



A Week of Passion ; or, the Dileninm of Mr. GfM>rge 
Barton the Younger. By Bdward Jenkins. Svo., :fi\) pp. 
London. Xtif!. Bliss. Sands. 6/- 

It will be a comfort to most jioople to know that " A Week 
of Passion " belies its name. To give so good a sUiry such a 
title is unwise, for it suggests a class of novel to which Mr. 
KdwanI Jenkins has never been, and is not likely to be, a 
contributor. The l>ook is, in fact, a capital detective romance. 
There is a dark mystery in it, and if the reader ski]>s the 
chapters explaining what the mystery is all about, ho will find 
the unravelling of it very entertaining. No one save a highly- 
placed wrangler or a chief cashier could Ik) expected to grapple 
with the pages of figures and financial details in which the 
affairs of Lord Selby are sot forth ; but as a comprehension of 
these is quite a work of su]ierorogation, no one need complain 
of the author's having exercised in this harmless way his mathe- 
matical ingenuity. It would, perhaps, bo the more correct to 
say that there are several my.iteries, the most soiiHational of 
which is the blowing-up of a highly respectable person in broad 
daylight at Itogcnt-circus. When wo add that the detectives 
who figure in the story leave nothing to bo desired in their eoal, 
professional keenness of scent, and cuiinrng, and are as far 
removed as possible from the dilettante semi-amatour kind of 
person who has been so much with us, the soekor after excite- 
ment need hear no more. Once started upon it, he will need no 
spur. The fine melodramatic plot will keep his attention firmly 
fixed, and when ho has reached the close and shoil a i|uiet tear 
of satisfaction over the union of the middlo-closs hero with the 
noble heroine, he will find time to reflect upon the neat 
character-drawing, and the fact that the story is well written in 
addition to being well told. 



Stapleton's Luck. By Margery Hollis. Two volmneB. 
8vo., 57;) p]). I.oiuli>ii, lart. Bentley. 12,- 

Miss Hollis gives us a bad five minutes towards the end of 
bar second volume, when, for the space of a chapter or two, it 
looks as if " Stuplelon's Luck " waij going to turn out ill all 
through. Posiil'U' '^'m 'niy have liesitateil herself. Do not the 
fortunes of our • ulion ^0Inctillles hang tioinbling in the 

balance, just as <i "f niore Kiilistniitial beings? Can wo not 

picture an author saiidled with a ruspnn-'ibility akin to that of 
the Home Secretary when the question of a reprieve or commu- 
tation has to be faced? Shall the hero recover consciousness 
after the injuries tliat the villain has inflicted, or shall hu pass 
awaj' and give the author a chance of a han-owinp death-bed 
scene? Shall the heroine abandon hope of hor darling's reap- 
pearance, and in d. inurry the other man ? What 
wonder if novelists 1"  urely ago<l when tliev have to 
decide siicli matters 111 mc nml death every day of their lives! 
F'ortunately, in this case the duath-lwil is spaied us. anil the 
story enils cheerfully amid the ring of bells, with all reasonable 
prospect of a prosperous future. That this Hlmuld strike a 
reader as fortunate is good enough evidence tliat his sympathies 
have been aroused. Miss Hollis has a hajipy knack nf telling a 
story, and Ralph Stapleton's fortunes can l>e iollowed with 
pleasure. Tho pictures of provincial lifo among the petite 
bourgeoisie are clover and amusing, and both incidents and 
clmractors are luitural and interesting. 



The Son of the Czar. By J. M. Graham, (r. 8vo., 
•11>S pp. I>(iiidoii and Now York, 1808. Harper & Bros. 6/- 

Aloxis, tho son of Peter the Groat, is tho personage who bears 
the title role of this l)Ook. It is perhaps worth noticing as a 
serious essay in historical romance of tho kind afTectud by Lord 
Lytton, in which the plot is drawn from the actual events 
enacte<i on tho stage of history, and tho characters are the lead- 
ing actors thomaolvoa. As a incaiis of iinprpssing facts upon tho 
raind •■ '■ ' ' ' ' i certain value, oven if 

their tho scientiliu h.storian. 

But Mr.' ■r.iiiiiiu IB ;iu :i i.\ iL i ii .^i-i. i : ond his story, u gloomy 

ono at the best, has little of the |>icturenque or tiie humorous 
to giv6 it relief. Tho knowledge which might bo gHined from 
this book of tho latt«r years nf Peter's roign wimlil be better 
than no knouleilge at all : but some passages, as thn iliisitrijition 



October 23, 18D7.] 



LlTEltATUUE. 



23 



of Eudoxia, the Trnvr's finit wife, in n-' 
publiu uuknowliKt^iiiunt of Catliorino lut Uvi 
oain|iiii){ii oil tliii I 'ruth, uru, to aay tl 
liiHtoiy, whilii ttie (li|;iiilio(I uixl courtly ' 
boarH iiH littlu rusumblaiiuu to the rMkl l'«it«r an i i j^.un 



and of 

iluriiii; 



th« 
th« 

.r,l« 

u Katjrr. 



thu 
Poo 



The Dorringrton Deed Box. liy Arthur Morrison. 
IlluNlnitcd. Kv..., iv.+:«>M pp. lA.mlon, 1«»7. 

Ward, Lock, and Co. 6- 
The Crime and the Criminal. My Richard Marab. 

lUuwtraU'd liy ll.inild rilTunl. Hv..., vi. (-:{|(lpp. I/.iuloii. lHjr7. 

Ward, Lock, and Co. 8 

What Mr. St«vuii8on callud " thu ilutixtivi) tlint IhiTu in in 
all of us " purlmpti iiccoiiiits for thu ptiruiiiiiul voguu >>( thu talon 
of crimo which thu olovumoss of ouo or two writvrH haa lati'Iv 
again poriuitted to find a pittcarioua footing on thu !iIo|M" 
literature. In the form of what thoy call in .Aniuriou " t 
dimu novel," indued, thu dotuctivo story is alwayx with uh. Tliu 
Beorut of its popularity ia udundmitud in the wull-known 
anocdoto which roprusentB the tyjucal Btruut urchin as 
to invest in a piipur with " a nilliistrution and a . 
murder " in it. J<ut it ia only ut occasional inturvnU llmt 
detective story n.scoiids from thu hookKtall of the cutter to 
oirculnting liU-iirv, nnd evun thu ehelvus of the hook-lovor. 
in .\nierica, (Jaboriau and Uoisgohuy in I''rancu, Charles Kuado 
and Wilkiu Collins in i'liigliiiid havu all shown whiit can ' i ■■•■<■ 
with flioso records of " coniplicatod but iiituiisuly int 

crime." Thu inventor of Sherlock II oliiies may curtail.. 

to find a plaou liosi<le thoiii, although the ingenuity of his con- 
ception has buuii somewhat olwcurud liy a crowd of inoro or le*s 
succuNaful imitators. Mr. Morrison, however, ha.s hit upm a 
comparatively new dovicu in the volume now before us. Hitnerto 
the detective of fiction, Dupiii, Loco(|, or Holmes, has ha<l for 
liis aim " to defend society, to deracinate occult and powerful 
evil," as I'aul Somerset describes it. Hut Mr. Morripon's hero 
is a privatu iiKpiiry agent, somewhat akin to Wilkiu Collins's 
Bashford, who uses his detective ability, with entiro f ' 
from scruples, in thu interest of his own pocket. His  
object was '■ to got hold of as much of other people's |'ii>.iii- 
business as possible, and to know exactly in what ciipboanl to 
find every man's skeU'ton." He is certainly an amuiting 
Bcouiulrel, and his adventures may ea.iily boguilu an hour .«r two. 
Mr. Marsh has also invuntod a novel form of hero for his book, 
which contains a Murder Club based on the Suicide Club of the 
" Now.\rabian Nights." The story ia more extravaganza, but It is 
ingeniously constructed and cleverly written. The hero is even 
syinpatliutiu, in spite of his singular lack of any moral sense. 
Mr. Marsh kuups up tho thrill throughout his book, which is 
likely to be read with avidity by all who bi-gin it. 



There need be no fear tliat any story by Mr. Guy 
Boothby will be lacking in incident. '• SiiEii,.\ McLkod ' 
(Skelfington) is not so full of lurid sensation us the Dr. Nikola 
books, but it is a cajiital tale, packed with exciting scenes 
and situations strung together by a iiractisod hand and seldom 
failing of their elfuct. Mr. Uoothhy gives us a picture of Queens- 
land in tlio early days of thu colony, and what with horse-stealing 
and lioniicide, Uush-tiivs and floods, steoplecl.asing and tisticutfs, 
with a little love-making thrown in by wav of yoast, the lover of 
adventure pets full value for his money. — fevery ospect of modem 
life is rellect«d sooner or later in fiction, and tho revival of 
interest in the getting of gold has naturally credited a certain 
demand for tales of the diggings and tho lields. Afr. H. V. 
Macllwaino in " Thk Twii.iomt Rkek *ni> other Storie.s 
(Fisher Unwin) supplies it as well as most writ<'r8 in thi.i kind. 
He tells in a racy style of incidents in the rush for fortune, 
and in tho life of camps and half-baked communities, and most 
people, being unable to judjre of its accuracy, will be content to 
accept his picture as siifliciently true to nature The prospect is 
not so alluring as to increase greatly the number of passengers 
for Klondike, but the stories are read.ible and come at an 
opportune moment. — Lady Helen Craven's '• Notks ok a Misir- 
LovKR " (Ik'utlev) arc notes in the form of short tales, mostly 
about the opera and operatic singers. In their way they are 
well done, and Lady Helen Craven is. like the supj>osed narrator, 
an enthusiast who knows her milieu For the unniiisicol there is, 
perhaps, a little too niu:;h music, but as a set-otT to this (which 
to many people will of course be tho main charm of thu bot»k) 
there is a good allowance of story, and here and there a welcome 
touch of humour — a quality that enthusiasts too often manage 
entirely to disptmso with. 



MILITARY. 



Ry Charles 8. Ryan, m n.. 

John 8>n(1— , M .\. <ix<>n. 

Murray. O/- 



Under the R' " '" 
U.M. l-^lin., ill I' 
aixolin., tlTi pp. l...U!l.u, !'<',. 

The Battleflelda of Thenaly. Uy Sir Bllla AahmMUl- 
Bartlett, .M.l'. (i|x511n.. MOpp. Luudun. UiUT. 

Murray. O,- 

Reflections on the Art of War. By Briirr.-Oeneral 
R. C. Hart. V.C.. C.B. 71 xWm., :*ll pp. Limaun, ixn. 

Clo'wres. 

No phaM of tho Husso-Turki*h War arouaetl so genoml an 



,1. t.. ( 



iiad a rmiltni dultko tu » 
tho long Jiege have Immti 
side. In " 'ihu I ' 
W. V Hnrbort.a  

in :> "' 

treii 

ip to the timu mIi 

■■- •' "- 

»)rk 

Cr. 

iiiu > 

yoi. 

see 

of t 

horrors ui ll>u lu- 

resources weru s 

of thu Turkish W' 

and thu cheerful < 

Ky. '  

stu 

was 111.1. i.i_. iiir-. >.Min- ,w..i.i» 

organi/.mg pouer and directed the v 

^l,i. I. 1 L-.. fl, .,..., ,,1 S. i... .l,.l„,l «, :. 

oft 

SOI: 

Afi 
man 
the Ivrt I 
form. 'I 
trtxips (! 
ftagea. ! 



I.I. 



ot I'luviia M 
_•«! in the n . 



iMaooa 
od ; It 

' ti.'>ri«» 
a- 
tia 

of 

l.Ot 

■Ir. 
rn 



^h 

it* 

to 

.uudors 

Tho 

cal 

'«• 

'•, 

Mr. 



lid 

>T. 

re- 
, re 
«d 



W 1 1 > 1 •-' I 1 .111 

apondent of 



whom he li.: 
joke which h- 
was to find u gruve in 
book is thoroughly i 
charactvr uml 
In "The 1 



 T till' I 

Id thr. 



\^ 1 i 1 1 1 O I 1 <  1 

to tell, and 

fl -t ■.»-, 



hii. 



ill oye-w'i 

■e It 



tion t<i most i>eople t" 
the if'^'< 'T ni'ic^imi of : 
adv to have 1 • 

ina: ..ief. " 1 

delay ' ' ou the frontier 



1 



after dinner ... in tli. 

were ov. 

Marshal 

to press I'M lo i'Miri:a\ ^ iil 

Larissa, •' I venturetl to urge 
with his left wing upon Va!--" 



.i \l.sit : 
voral of 1. 



m- 



;ho 



tho 
aid 

llartlett 

-in.' a 

wo 

•tlo 

of 

w- 

ra- 

la- 

tt 

bis 

m- 

.le 

iir 

>ho 





• the 




:od him 


• 'HIT-. \ I f r i ; I'  


* n of 


Edhem Tasha to , 


,rd 


,..« -Mid Volo. The .• 


...... did 



24 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



not diMgne wit' - . " ; but be had a schemo nf his own, 

And " li«*dl«M t 1 M>h»m» WAR piitirvly futile." When 

«t length the ] -'" Ottoman nrmy, with a 

reneaUng rifb* a: taken fri>ni tho enoniy, 

fell into tlM bana* •>! tnv «.jr(>«K nnry, .tnu>nt be 

mx fm m tetd oaa only be deerribe<1 as a ^onerous. 

The eaptvre was, howprer, a Rreat antuUii^t' t» the 
Ore«k canae, ainoe Sir Kllis was enahUnl to ex)<rvs.<i liis 
" MBtiBMnta " nt "•"■■•> >..... th to the Kinc, and hi* •' jilan 
in almoat all i i with his Majt■^ty'f< ajiproviil, 

aitit in »..in* p>'. il approval." At ConBtantinojilo 

t- waa r»ct 1  a (list'nction which, as ho |M>ints 

«•! '. -. alwavs . I Amba!isaclors : I ut nlthouch the 

SultMi " eeemea w aa was c<>rtainly natural, the 

" plan " waa lees fu in-oiveil than at Athens. Whilu 

'■The Battlefields of liiuM-aly '' cannot Ut said to udtl to the 
•um of our political or military knowU-d^-e, transparent simjilicity 
and unconscioiu humour combine to render it distinctly 
attractive. I'nforlunatoly nothing is nuite so simple a.t the 
Eastvrn question an'! " <luct of military operations appear 

to Sir Kills Ashmeai< 

Thes«c->nd and (•ii:..i_..'i . <liti»n of Kricadier-General Hart's 
excellent '• KeHections «n the Art of War "is a welcome 
addition to military literature. In breadth of handling, 
•oaad oonunon-sense, and wi<le research, the book supplies 
• needed antidote to some modern tendencies. There is a 
•ebool which appears to recard the lessons uf the Franco- 
Oermnn War as all-sufficing, and seeks to base military teaching 
HI' -idemic analysis of selectetl epiiuKles. Colonel Hart, 

oi r hand, re<-ogiiizes fully that the tirst object should 

b' :.-ate principles, that circumstonces never exactly 

r< ; elves, and that tlieancient masters of the art of war have 

not !"'<M cii'ihrone<l by the adojition (f , • riHcs. If Najioleon 

could learn from Ciesiir, Scipio, and . so can we, and it 

mi •'■* '  '-iriy argued that the lon.mioTi-i under which the 
li: y is accustometl to make war approximate more 

ct •■«•' ■• ''■• ■■!■( world than to the exigencies upon 

w Ueen brought t<> bear. It is, therefore, 

a . . the author endeavours to construct by 

f t references to the exiicrienco of all ages. It 

rt Mso of Bcalo ifi infr'«Iuce(l in military operations, 

tl • replaces tact ~is, and that moral qualities 

a.-' eiiorni'iiis in , to which they are entitled. 

Coloui;! Hart eren includeit an interesting chapter on " The 
Fortune of War,"' in which he shows that accident may ruin the 
U-" ' md ilctermino the issue of a cam- 

p-i itioii might perhaps have been 

•Ji :.>■.  i fiu L'"ncr:il," wrote L<inl Wolsoley, 

'■ " mind's eyt- . ~' • • f. re him the whole scene 

tl  ...^..n rt. who cannot, as it 

W' dissolving views, 

all . , .,j^.; . , ,iy, an attack on an 

*'i . lacks a 1 which no amoant of 

at V." It 1 : t no general, however 

this •• natural quality " except in the most 
 could possibly liavo picture<l in a series of 
t lie ■• phases " of the attack of the positions at 
or (Jravelotte ? What study will enable the 
'■e the tumultuous movements of masses of 



br 
ill 
di- 
Wnt 

iti 
ni' 
n> 

u. • 

who may Im- 

Sho 
I. 
Ik 



I. 



los of country — movements liable to be 

' '1 at any moment by the enemy's action or by 

t*! commanders ? Only in a formal advance, 

" ;tll front in open ground against an enemy 

U[>on to remain pnsitive, can succe.tsivo 

•• f'fm a mental picture. As an intro- 

r and a summary of iirinciples which 

-tive conduct of military oiMjrations 



nothing eouid be better than these " Reflectiotu." 



LAW BOOKS. 



(1) RullQf Cases ; urr>ui)fi-<l. annotated, and edited by 
Robert Campbell. M .\.. I{»rnsi4-r.at-I^w, and Advixnte of 
*•"■ ^ • '■>' other iiieinlM-rH of the H«r ; with 
•^""■"' _; Hmiw ne. Vols. I. to Xll. ( Alwuidon- 
nient Iml.-ninity). I'nre Zim. net prr vol. Addenda, Table of 
<■«».•«, and Index to Vol- I i- X. Priw- 2flM. net. I»ndon, 
Btfxttut and H<>ns, Ltd. 

(2) The Law of Torts, iiy Sir Frederick Pollock, 
Bart. 6tb FUlilion. I>>nd<m, Ht«?%-en« iiml .Sons, ]^t«l. IhJiT. 
Price Ss. 



(») Rogrers on Bleotlons. Vol. I. Ile>ostrntion, Parlia- 
montnry, .Municipal, and I>k«I Uoveiniiifnt, includiiiK the 
I*mrtice in H.gistiation .\p|..al.-i, with Appendices. &o. 10th 
Kditlon. Hy Maurice Powell, llairisteiwit-ljiw, one of the 
HevisiiiK Hanistei-s on the Soulh-l<ji«tem t'inuit. London, 
.Stevens and .Sons, Ltd., IWi. I'ri<-e 21s. 

Mr.Oanii bell's RvLiHo Cares (1) is one of the most ambitioua 
and oui;ht to Iw. when it is complete, one of the most generally 
useful legal works which the present century has produced The 
leading case methinl of exhibiting the theory and practice of 
the law has always been a nopiilar one with the legal |irofossion 
ami with legal authors both in this country and in America. But 
with the exceptions of Comyiis' iJiijnit, the last edition of 
which was published in 1ST2, and," to some slight extent, 
Saunders' tifporU, of which the latest edition ajipeared in 
1846, no Olio has attempted to cover the vast lield of 
English law quite on the linos on which Mr. ('am]ibcll is 
working. Mo.^t of his forerunners have conlincd their attention 
to special deimrtments of law. This is the characteristic, for 
exainplo, of such well-known standard treatises us Smith, White 
and Tudor, and Finch. Again, the general practice has been to 
take one leading case after another, without regard to the 
alphabetical arrangement of their subject matter. Jn respect of 
each of these points, Mr. CumplK.-ir8 work is justitie(l by an 
important difference. He applies the leading case method to the 
wholedomain, not only of Knglish, but also— with the compe- 
tent aid of Mr. Irving Browne— of .American law ; and he 
imparts cohesion to the entire |>ublication by treating the heads 
of law, c<miing within its purview, in strictly alphabetical onler. 
The advantages of this hitter part of the plan are not inconsider- 
able. It is logical : it jirevents any subject that deserves dis- 
cussion from being oi'erlooked : and it makes information as to 
all the great hoa<l8 of law rea<lily accessible without troubling 
tha reader to ransack his memory for the names of the " ruling 
cases " relating to them - a point on which not a little diver- 
gence of opinion might exist — or to consult an index, always an 
irksome task, oven when it is such an excel lent one as Mr. 
Mansoii has prepared for the first ten volumes of the scries. 

And if the conception of Jlulin;/ Ca»e.i is good, the same must 
be said for most of the matter contained in it. No better work 
of the kind will be found anywhere in Knglish legal literature 
than the not«'S on •'Administration," " Agency," " Carrier," 
" Contingent Uemainders," dealt with under " Estate," 
(by Mr. A. E. Randall), "Dihtress," " D<vmicil," " Kase- 
ments." " Evidence," " Highway " (hy Mr. Austin F. Jenkin), 
aii<l " Husband and Wife." Al first sight, the bound which 
the work takes in v<d. XII. from " Executor " to '•Indemnity " 
strikes one as rather precipitate. But a reference to Mr. 
3Iaiison's Index, which not only deals with the grouiul covered 
by vols. I.-X., but indicates the headings in subsequent volumes 
where matter not yot disposed of will bo treated, has satistied 
us that, so far, no subject of importance has been jiasaed 
over. Mr. Irving Browne's notes on the American case 
law are in general excellent. Those appende<l to Thr Qufm 
r. Tol'on (vol. VIII., pp. 41-(>U) are particularly valuable 
as a statement of the American law as to »7i<-ii.i rra. There 
is, however, discernible here and there in liulinij Caxrn, an 
element of hasty and inaccurate workinanshii) which ought 
to be eliminated. The most generous allowance must bo 
made for the difliculty of editing such a work as this, and no 
critic would lay stress on incidental shortcomings, eiTors, nr 
omissions. But it is rather startling to tind such a familiar case 
as .Viiiuoni r. Dowjlut figariiig as JHniujinif r. huvijUis, both in 
the text (vol. I., p. 2t>5) and in the index (p. 158), and tho case 
of The Tahinutcte I'ermaneut linililiii'j Hocietii r. Kiiiijld cite<l 
(vol. III., p. 427) without a word of allusion to tho pro- 
visions in tho Buihiing Societies Act, 181(4, which get 
rid uf it, so far as incorporated building s<K'i«tii*8 are con- 
cerned. Moreover, it is ditlicult to justify tho failure of tho 
author of the notes on contractual cajiacity (see vol. V'l., p. 74) 
to allude to the question whether, in view of Lord Eshcr'a 
judgment in Ttkt Imjirrial Loan t'onipany r. iStmie (| 1892] 
I Q.U. 609. anil duly noted in vol. VI. at p. 74) the distinction 
drawn by Mullim r. C'urnruUj- — which is solecte<( as the '• ruling 
case " — l>otween executory and exocute<l contia*;ts, when the 

"■■■■'"*■' ''act is in issue can any longer Ix' maintainu<l. 

there for the staUtment (vol. VIII.,p. 41) that 
..._ -. ,- .sc<l by the .Iiid ■..« rin Macnaughton's case), 

" establish that the respo; .,{ «,] insane! person must 

depend utxm his y>ower to li u between right anil wrong." 

\ note of this kind is worse than useless. In tho tirst place, 
the few critical words in the tost of responsibility i)re8cril)ed 
by the Judges in the case in question are terms of art. They 



October 23, 1897.] 



UTI'IJATURE. 



25 



oannot be paraphrasoil, ami they ought tint to b* oit«Nl without 

referunois to tlio oontrovurnioii m to their ^ 

rity, iinil iico|)u, in which tho Into Mr. 

took HO proiniuunt ii purt. in thi.> hi<coii<I ,.,„<>, inu .hk 

riun which mulcox tliu criminal ri<i<poii>iilii|ity of thu iniuiiio 

(loiwml upon " tho power to (liHtin^uiiili rij^ht anil » >■ 

won luid down by Sir .>ami>N MaimliKld on tht< i 
ItollinKhani, in 1812, for tlio murder of Mr. I'orooval, 
in roulity sot asido by tho " viowB " which aro alluKod in 
the noto to havo oNtabliiiluHl it, and which suhiititutml for it thn 
Bouudor modern tc«t- viz., did thu pri«onor know thn • 
and ijuality " of thu particular net with wliich ho wax ' 
\Ve call attention to thcMo matturs in no Hpirit of caj)ti.ai;i 
oriticisui, but fruiii a sincoro desire that thu utility of a nioHt 
valuable work nhould not bo niarrwl by liloinishcii which . ' ' ' 
avuidu<l. It only romaina to lio adilcd that tho priii' 
bindinK of liutinij Cimp.'i aro as oxcullunt as its plan nu'i ii^ 
general oxocution. 

Of Sir Frctlorick Pollock's treatise on The l,\\v or 
ToitT.s (2), which has run tlirough four inlitions in ten years, 
and is now entering on a fifth, it is Bu|icrflu>nis to say auv tliine 
by way of );eiiertil criticism, save that it is not only ini- 
bly tho best work that has been written oii the subject, 
a contribution of i>ermanont value to the history, tho philonophy, 
and tho practice of Kn^lish law. In tho present edition all 
the current leadinj; doci.sions relative to torts havo been 
noti>.'Bd down to and including those reported in August ; and 
Chapter First— dealing with the nature of tort in general— has 
been recast in a simiiler form. This is a clianj^e which will be 
welcomed not by those students alone who a|)pr('a('h the book 
for tlie lirst time. In tho earlier editions .'-ii- Frederick Pollock 
elaborated his dotinitiou— or rather " normal idea "—of a tort 
by a 1 rocoss of nej-ativo exhaustion. Tho motho<l was strict ly 
soientitic, and its application, one need Fcarcely say. was illus- 
trated and fortified by a skilfid use of the wealth of historic 
loarnlnK which Sir Frederick Polb ck has at his command. Hut 
the train of reasoning could not 1)0 perfectly followed without a 
dogreo of concentration of thought which taxml the ordinary 
professional reader's energies .ind tinio somewhat severely. In 
the new editi'vn the lending conceptions are stated more directly 
and simply ; and the reader lias the advantage of commencing 
his stiiily of the chapter with a general view of tho field covered 
by tho law of torts before him. 

Ill spim of the somewhat unconnected manner in which new 
edition.s of its several voliimi'S apjiear, and, it may Ik- added, of 
a certain want of system in the arrangement of the whole work, 
K<MTr.KS onFJi.kitions (;!) is deservedly recognized as the standani 
authority on all ipiestions of election law. How emphatic its 
approval by the legal profession has lieon is demonstrate<l by 
the fajt that Vols. 2 and :'., which aro edited by Sir. S. H. Day, 
and which are a complete treatise on the law of elections and of 
election petitions, have respectively leached a 17th edition : 
while tho 10th edition of tho lirst volume, for which Mr. Maurice 
Powell IS responsible, and which is concerned solely with tho 
registration of voters now lies In-fore us. Since the publication of I 
the last editiiin of this volume, tho Local ({overiiment Act. 181(4, 
lias imssed creating a new class of parochial voters, who now 
elect guardians and the members of the jmrish council, and, in 
tho Metropolis, the vestrymen and auditors, and. except in 
boroughs, the menitH'rs of the <listrict council. The present 
volume includes the law as to tho registration of these electors. ' 
Several other changes of importance have Iwen made. The deci- 
sions of tlie old election committees, which are useless as pre- ! 
cedents and have been largely superseded by judgments of the * 
superior Courts, have been omitted. On theother hand spnce has 
been found for Irish andScotch decisions, to which the Engl i.i he 'I'Urt 8 
in administering tho registration law now attjich very con.siderable 
weight. Some new forms have been added— it would be an im- 
provement, by the w.iv, to subsequent editions if tie headings 
in the appendix of forms were set out serintim in the table of i 
contents. And last, but not least, the dates of all cases referre«l 
to are given either in the text or in the foot-notes. The new- 
edition of this volume is a piece of thoroughly "ood workman- 
ship. 



tlM. 



nmmut. am 



timltmOf 

*■ .tloo to» 

.1 ,>l 



but two 

wliat nt; 



'r«, was Ii 

public 



and his lii.it pl.ue iik 

I.yttultoii) present hin 

strictest 

study oi 

mailn no |h i riaif m > 

logians, too, mav often 

ahoiiWI I.-. v.. t.A.,,, „ 

tro, 

ioc 

. far more in 
He was an : 

All! 

" li 

of 2th) boy.',, or even 
should tie a school of 
animate<l Van ' 
shi|> of Ha:: 
same conlidetn ^ 
master had a tb ' 
his rule school !..» . 
tinguishetl in letters 



I tu us OJI 



in, 
. cIa 



of 
Chr 



or in 



diato pupils. Hut it w.is not 

historj- or re I; 

found their S' i 

work on the itetimon ( ' *v tan 

critical scholar. Pnt n .wn the 

— marked always '■■ 

severe -which he p' 

to show that he b" 

life. PerhnfM it 

evenness of ti :  

alwoliitely iiii 

and in one »<■ 

rather than d' 

at thu l>ase 

res|>ected among the N' 

of LlandatI', and yet tin 

on the ground that he k 

in doubt as to his ki ' 

protested warmly agalll.^t Ih. 

the hcadmastership of i^iigby 

" P^ssays and r " But he 

Churehroan <•'  of his 

As »i»h • " i of 

wore br.i -ners 

mn-r- •■■ ^ 

divii 

nient. , : 

was civen to the worUI on the cl:i' 

death » as-announced. Neither I. 

lism could tind a congenial h' 

himself not as a student < r 

of the ttosnol. It was as a Ciiri.stiau 

lalxMired (or so ninny years in tra-i 

ministry. It was no less as a Christian 

took the Mastership of tho Temi)le. A' 

talents of a brillian* ■'■ ' - *' - practical 

ail exact and of cl 

literature were ' j ut t" 

influence on his i was pr 

direct. Hut in 1: v lii' h i 



Lin. 

of a 

l-ttl 



d by Umc 



ar 

. . ^.-n- 

leam- 

h.it aaa 

i.d 

■.a 

T 

it 
rit 

h» 
d- 

■■r 



in 
' rs 



> s 
-h 

IS 
Hi 

I.* 



ill 

:it 

f l.-ft 

. Ha 

I't Tcmplu from 

his sliaiH in tbo 

..I 

y 

e 



Qbituav^. 



THE L.\TE DE.VN OF LLAXD.IFF. 

The death of Dean \'aughan removes not so much a great 
figure from tho world of literature as a living example of the 
practical value, whether to the individual character or to 
society at large, of the liberal and balanced judguient which is 



yet prolo'indl> wiiioli » 

remarkable p. . . but a 

value to theological htcratnre. 



PASCUAL DE GAYAKGOS. 

Tlie death, on the 4th inst., of Don Pasoual de Ctaviingos y 
Arce is a vesy serious loss to Anglo-Spanish literature and 
bibliography ; and the net result Ol his life-long labour, as 



26 



LITERATURE, 



[October 23, 1897. 



in hi* pabliahad rolnmM, is auch m to Moure him a rerjr 

hifh pl«M in th« Ut«r»ture of hi* eountry. II. ' mat 



8«rill« on Jnn* 21. 1800, tha 
Mcbot, a Spanish offioer. ^" 
Tnxye* to complet* hi* ed 
wards at Pari*, whar* I. 
8ilT««tr« (le Saojr. Whc 
*n<l il itiii:.' Iiis ((av lioro : 
«i 

M:. 



*on of Don.Joat< 



UIW 111'. 

retojn^-l iv 
\\ 

U' 

>. 
H V 

nr .-. : 

A  :  

t. : M : 

l,s; . . M .r 
of ' ': ;.■:.• > I- .11 

M.. : 

1> 

t 

ill 

111' 

li; . - ;■. : ,•■ 

Ik. ...t ;..■-. :r..i 

an.! • .>■.■:.. 
Adoipti Ik-: 
fiimancas r 
rerjr gr«at i.~.. 
•ana* Qayingos 
to 1896, juicioN 
and form a 
alao catali', 
whieh four votumu* 



.18 y 

. i.t to 

.>]r and after- 

il K'cturoK of 

d for a time, 

I'll, of Koiincl 

. on his return to 

' .kHury, and in 1833 

•> liiu Kiiiei^'U oUioti, a post which ho 

, wtien political events and the t'arlist 

to return to England. He resi.U-d hero 

inir t4> ma4;aKinea. roviewg (inclMilin^ the 

' '' 'of literary society. 

.. and fornuKl the 

•■ ^- lisli liite- 

iho Koval 

.: s ■' H'is- 

in two volumog, 
|K)int<.>d Professor 
the University of 
in 1881 ho became 



h. 



:•: .\ .r. .it.-il at 
nlii .1 luui. 1S72 ; 
lion, but held the post »idy for a short 
. having elooti-d him Senator, which 
l»irector8hip. The great work 
r.iti, the work least known to the 
.0 c'.uluiuation of the " Calendar uf Letters, 
te PajK'rs." relating to the negotiations be- 
'urve<l in the arohivesat iJimaiicas 
li. work was commenced by Gustav 
• .1. iv death at tile wretched village of 
It, would have indefinitely |>OBtponed a 
•(li..,Y l,.ii for Don (iayilnfjos. To this 
. lumes, w hich date from 1873 
II 7,*J00page» imjierial octavo, 
oi affairs from l.'>2.~> t^i 1542 Ue 
MSS. ill the itritish Museum, of 
cotupnitini; about 3.000 pages of matter, 
appeared fr-^m 1S«7 t<> 1W)3. To Owen Jones's work on " The 
Alhambra < ' '^'4, he contributed an historical notice of 

the Kings - ^ ; f"r the Hakliiyt Society he translated, 

in 1888, " Tlio filth L<>tter of Cortes to the Emjieror 
Gbarlaa V." ; and he e<lited John Foster's " Chronicle of 
JaBMS I., King of A.ragon," 18.%). The foregoing form the 
£nid>*h portion of his life-work. To Spanish literature he was 

a •  • -:i..,.„.. vii'ludinp, in adilition to the translation 

<,• ued, •' Memorial del Moro liaris," 

J- ■" F.^i..ii..l" in 11> volumes; to 

A pafiolos" ho contributed 

tl,- . , ,,, Biblioiilos E8i>afioles," 

of Madnd, he contribnt«<i eight mora. 



SIR PETER LE PAGE RKN'OUF. 

Sir Pet«r Le Psjge Renouf, who until 1801 was Keeper of the 
Kcrptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the Britisli Museum, was 
ofa (ttiamaajr family. During his Oxford career, in 1H42, he 
joined the Roman Church, and his first work, written at the age 
of 19, was a book on " The Doctrine of the Catholic Church in 
Knjiland on tha Eucharist." " He began, however," to quote Tlie 
Time* ot October 18, " to pay si>ecial attention to Eastern 
laniriags* ; was in 1856 appointed by Dr. Newman to a profes- 
•Ofwiip in tha Catholic Lniversity of Ireland ; and about the 
time ha became one of the editors of the Home 
'■ '' '  ' . ' 'ize his ctudies, 

.'ted much time 
■• of Ancient 



] 


1 by ills i 

'l'<7«). 
• to 
.1 mi 








 1 ■» rl ,!,#, t* f ..f 


1 
>" 

t:. 
asK» 

Mow 




•< on ' The 
u nmoiint ol 
■.fa <lop 
nd \ ifnt 


*I blll'.'lll. 01 

'. <.no of her 
ars later, on 

i 
ii«ilgIOIl of 

a<lminiBtra- 


Aneici. 




live work » 
gT«at mtiM< 


in «• 


•n !■• 


artment in a 

• for serious 

1 faoiimilo. 


« 




11 of Aiii 
 iate<l with 


in • . 1 • . 






TlCn- tt. •< 




the moHt 


)>*«lillflll nil.. 


iiifc«..i"-' ' 








:.wii,' was 


obtained (or tb« Mn^ 





IRotcs. 



In the First Number of Literatun it is fitting that we should 
gratefully recognize the cordial greeting accorded to our project 
by the majority of our contemporaries. If wo make special 
mention of any it is only to note with peculiar satisfaction that 
the Daily News and the .S/<ir have reoognir.ed so fully that 
" Letters know no politics." 

« • « « 

This First Number contains 32 (lagos do7oto<l to literary 
matter, and, in order to meet as far as possible publishers who 
desired tu advertise in the first number, we have oxtendud the 
advertisement space to an equal number of pages. We regret 
that we have been coinjiellod to refuse moro. Future numbers 
will contain a larger proportion of literary matter in compari- 
son to advertisements. 

The amount of literary matter will depend on the number and 
importance of books worthy of review. It will naturally be larger 
during the winter months than the rest of the year. 

• «  » 

It is hardly necessary for us to say that Literary matter and 
Advertisements will in every way bo kept wholly unconnected. 
While welcoming advertisements, wo assume that they are sent 
us OS business transactions and not as favours with a view to 
influencing reviews. To put it tersely, a book advertised in 
five pages of Literature will receive precisely as much or as 
little consideration as if it were not advertised at all. 
« « « « 

Authors and publishers are desirous of prompt reviews. They 
are presumably equally desirous of careful reviews. The two are 
inconsistent, unless the critic can rocoive the liook some days 
before publication. 

But it is urged by Publishers that it is not an infrequent 
experience for them to find on secondhand bookstalls almost on 
the day of public.ition, or before it, books which they have 
submitted for review. 

The delivery of review copies is an increasing tax upon 
author and publisher amounting sometimes to 10 per cent. Our 
entire sympathies are with any attempt to prevent this alleged 
abuse, and we ask that books sent us may be legibly marked on 
the title page with the date of publication and the pripo. 
« « « * 

Books sent us for review will be acknowledge<1 in the list of 
books at the end of the journal. If they receive no further notice 
they will, as far as possible, be held at the disposal of the 
Publishers who may send for thom. We cannot, of course, be 
responsible for possible miscarriage of a volume, but if a book is 
not roturno<l it may be assumed that it is held over for review ; 
the person calling should iireseiit an authority to rocoive such 
books as may be given him. 

• » «  

The woll-known publishers Messrs. Brockhaus of Leipzig 
have undertakon the agency of Literature, in Germany, 
Austria, and Switzerland ; and Messrs. Harjier and Brothers 
of New York will publish an American edition which, so far as 
the literary matter is concernod, will correspond exactly with 
the English edition. 

• • « • 

All books and magazines may be subjects for review in 
/yi<<?rafurc. We do not treat of the Drama, Art, Science, or 
Music, except so far as books dealing with thom may be 
published. 

 • » • 

We invito corrospondenoo on any literary subject, or on any 
subject treato<l of in a book iliscussod from a literary point of 
view, but we do not desire to mnko the publication of a book an 
excuse for the discussion of a subject not intimately connected 
with it. 



October 23, 189 7. J 



LITERATURE. 



27 



W(i iiiKltTdtand that H«r Mi»ji»ty hu now givon har final 
appiovftl of tlio work on which Mr. Richard tlolmxii hui boail 
t'ugagetl, ontitlotl " Qmiun Vioturin." Tim .In|iniitiKe jiniMir 
oditiiiii of Uie work will bo publiiihoil by Mo-mrn. Ontipil »l tho 
l>ogiiiiiinK of Novemlior, »iul tho fine-papor •dition will bo imuly 
about throo wevks lat«r. 

• « • • 

The Duko of Athnll hiui rocoiitly oomph't<3<l a work 
ontitlotl " Clironiolus of tho AthoU iiiiil Tiillibnnlinu Fiimilio!*," 
ill four vohimos ({iiartu, printed, wo uiiilorxtaiid, for private 
circulation only. 

  • • 

A facsimile of tho Trafnlnar numbor of Thr Timm which 
apponroil on Novonihor 7 in lH<)r> has btxin issuud from Thr Tiinr.t 
Ollico for tho Navy Loiiruo. Tho fiioilitios thon cxistinj; for tho 
despatch of nnws across land and soa oidy allowed tho Ailmiralty 
to roroive aftor an intorval of 1(5 days tho news of a victory 
which criishod, not indi'od tho power of Napoleon, for Trafalpar 
wa.s (piickly followed by Austorlitz, but tho oMonsivo i)ower of 
his Empire against England. 

« « « • 

Tt was not, however, tho victory of tho British fleet that 
fiUod tho minil of Admiral Oollinewood when ho ponno<l tho 
despatch given in full ni TIf 2'iiiK-.< of Novomber 7, or, indood. the 
mind of the llritish nation, so much as, to use tho words of tho 
do^piiton, " tho loss of a hero whoso name will be immortal and 
his memory ever dear to his country." 



Tho rest of tho papuT is tilled with reports from Europe, qiving 
details of the movemonta of armies and tho policy of (iovurn- 
monts in the face of tho groat oomuKm danger from Franco. 
Foreign politics, in fact, were at the moment so urgent that 
they occupy tho first leading article, leaving tho victory of 
Nelson and his death to l>o dealt with in tho second. It is worth 
noting th:it there is nothing in tho p;ipor to show that the 
English public took, at any rato at that particular moment, tho 
slightest interest in literature. 



It is not an inauspicious coincidence that our 6rst numbor 
appears on tho annivorsarj- of the birth of Francis Lord 
Jert'roy, tho chief i>ionoer of indopemlont criticism of contem- 
porary literature, and, as Mr. Leslio Stephen has called him, 
one of the best mlitors that over managed a Review. 



JofTrey was not indeed the founder of the Review with 
which his name is connected, and which has called into being 
such a vast numbor of similar periixlioiils. He dedicated his 
collected essays to Sydney Smith as the " the original projector 
of tho Kdinhuri/h /iVi'ifiii. " Nor was he editor from the first 
beginning of tiie Review. It was originully nuinaged " in com- 
mittee," and if anybody could be ciiUod the Mditor it was. again, 
Sydney Smith, who insisted on tho conspirators repairing 
singly and secretly to tho oHice, which was " a dingy room off 
Wiilison's printing oftico in t'raig's-close." Hut it was found 
necessary to appoint Jed'rey solo responsible editor in a very 
short time. Its success was immediate and striking. Published in 
1802, its circulation in 1808 was about "J.OOO, and in 18U ha»l 
reached 13,0lX) — a very considerable numlwr for a periodical 
published in the nortliern capital 89 years ago and devoted to 
serious criticism. 



The completion of the third volume of tho Historical English 
Dictionary roioived a fitting recognition at the dinner civen at 
Oxfonl by the V'iee-Clianoellor, on tho llth iiist. Dr. Murray's 
account of the inception of thii Dictionary from tho year 1857, 
when Dr. Trench first pointed out the necessity of such an 
undertaking, down to the year 1882, when Dr. ^lurray himself 
began the work with the help of the Universitj- of Oxford, the 
Clarendon Pre.-ss, tho Philological Society, a multitude of co- 
adjutors in ditl'orent parts of tho country, and a store of gonio 
two million quotatiiuis pigeon-hole«l for use, iias already been 
recorded more or less fully in the daily papers. We join in the 
congratulations which tho public owes to Dr. Murray and Mr. 
Henry Hradley for the sound judgment and indefatigable 
industry they have <lisplayed, and in tho sntisfac'ion which all 
scholars must feel at tho wisdom of the I'niversity which has 
devoted its funds to so valuable a form of research. 



In ' 

Boiui, II 

an •' 

,\ I ill the 

.1. 1 ,..• 1,;, 

ti. 

ni . ' 

or thor* is a want oi atiout 

draporv ; and, if tho thii .^ "b" line - 

n ;l oltoct pocultiii 

a '!at nnd dull. < 

ti 'ntain muih ■> 

i " IUp« of ' 

l^ 

ai 

St7.U in li lie. it, lli.1.1'" iMiiLi '11 ■.[ t.i.n. I'w I) J 

lioonard Smitheni. 



 V ibr MmM. O.Bali aivl 
titar R«Mcb, wa hava 

.„.. ..I,., ...It ,.f ( I, A 



AiKOTiL' oxniiiiiles of llie a<1.>rniiiii:t nf t' 

leas Re 

pubti.li 

tions to " Uud A|' 

Mr. Haroittb Hundry 

doSno»l as " Childmn ot all ^ ■••<.■■ It is 

childron "f tho m^is of from throe to t<-i 

d   • 



It miiiiiior 



,-.. . 



book will appjal to " children of a larger growth." 

«  • • 

It w i,ti.!.,liK' not -'eTieiiLlIv tri'-wri that tbo rt>\ived infer, -it 

in his 

of til - t. 

Director ot ti v, to take »tvp» towanls an univarcal 

catalogue of hi i.ortrails in tho country. \ cimjOeto 

catalogue of thofo inloresting v- 

valuame publication, and Mr f'n i 

inventory which liax i 

the view of oncou' * 

;i'  ' country lo r » 

1 of such a c.i * 

I ,..,.1 .... .1,.. . .. 



I.. ... 
Sons. 



I 



In the c«talog\ie of a onlleotion of miacellaneona booln 

i.tly by >t " .. . - . .. ,^^ tj,^ 

entry : 'rago. 

iM.M. ,., !•• " '•■ Th» 

first bid  was 

Is., but it ; o -lit 

nior>', for Jli [ton's 

t^lwanl King " cont lin 1 

the book (ona of t 

year a copy sold at "^ t 

more. 

• • •  

There is at the present time a groat demand for old sonc- 

l..,..l-« Tle.f ■• Tl... ITive •■ 1.11'. lis', O.I Ml l",,iir .Mi.in v.,i,K .., 

' 1 -it 

I • .1 

1 ictive of much un: it the < .f 

t ,> of the poriixl -r nf-e. " '! s 

I Dolighl," 1744, is a small t' n 

I the rare ooen«ion« on which r n 

topers th'i » 

I in sock. > s 

1 of il ;i» •• i:;.- i.r 

I •• T; en " and " 1'. 

I nali.tii  -"'feet. In ion. 

alt old si  love of sport or 

help to li.. - ..,((...1,1 

• •  • 

The Society for Pni ^ 
an Historical Church A 
and Western Chri8tonii..m unti 
the Anglican Communion until tl 
MClure, M.A. 



II 

II, .UmI t::.it of 

By Mr. Edmund 



28 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



•r»>-> •^rivl by Mr. Lvti«1«ii» nt ihe ,>W (question " Shkll we 
-,, iM—tt ' r* of Calvirloy hi« 

5, , oa Alex: which i» instinct 

^. . «>( Uio Lovvr k'lUU i'otm. It Wgan, if we 

rv: . in this vein : — 

Irr, vir rliiru«, »ixit io orbe, 
. nu puKnaril, robot* forti*. 
onl of the conqueror's career in a spirit of 
<n. thus : — 

:•■ . •lericto* morte trsmendm, 
not, carte mors borride re* e«t. 

• • • * 

;- ;. ;., •1,.. «tyle of " Tentavi muinlum" (" I've tried 
,!• Ixiv who, no doubt untirelv to his own 

^:. 1 " ^\'■o knew tho nierrj- world waa round," 

■IucuimIuu mundiuu cognovimus eue rotunduin. 



tl. 



As an apt commentary on the work on his father's 

life wh- '■ ' •' '"  '— " •"■<( comi>lete«l comes n little 

^rork < vson, published by Messrs. 

li fi..' isly with thf great biography 

« II." '• The Ago of Tennyson ' 

is i^h Literature, edited by Pro- 

feMor Hales, ami it has bei-n iirecode 1 by similar v<ilumeii on 
Milton. Dryden, Pope, and Wonlsworth, or rather on the perio<l8 
in which each one of tho.'^j poets was tho chief literary figure. 
Mr. H. Frank Heath has undertaken the »;;e of Alfred, Professor 
Halea himself that of Chaucer and SlmkesiHjare, and Mr. Thomas 
Seocombo that of .Johnson. 



' '" ijihy which we notice elsewhere, 

f. his father showed as to the spell- 

11 I. HI. Ill -j. .iking of the early poems ho calls 

t. did the author of them on the titlo-pago of 

ti.. ..i..^^ ..  "i'lished in 1R42, containing '• Morte d'Arthur, 

Dora, and i." Hy 18r>!t the form Idyll was adopted ; 

but it is ci.r t in the line in the " Princess" : — 

I bflanl hrr turn the \»g« : ahr found a small Sweet Idyl, 

the ■■••ril li.i-i .iln-.ivs rimaiiicd as it was first written. 



Mr. 1. i,,|.l.- .Scotfs • Ii<H.k Sales of the Year 18:»7 " will be 
n.iily 111 >•■<• tid^r. It will contuin indexes of names and sub- 
jecf. peni- 'Mi-tion, notes, and, as a now feature, a notice 

of three . American book sales. The publishers are 

Messrs. George Ivll and Sons. 

• • * « 

" Hollandia," a Dutch weekly for all Hollanders abroad, 
will be I ir  ' .t 110, St. Martin's-lane, London, W.C., on 

Satunlay, 6. It will be conducted by Mr. J. T. 

<>rein, and jii^>!i ./<>,ianua Volz will be tlie asaistant editor. 



T List Diarv and Naval Handbook, anew pub- 

licati' : to form a S'aval Annual, in conjunction with 

I>«an'a Koyal Navy Ijist, reeonling the progress of the British 
Navv. It will contain a Summary of the Year's Naval Progress, 
by I*rofe«sor J. K. Laugbton, the Navy Kstimates for 18i)7-U8, a 
<'alen<larof Naval Kvents, the Naval Honours and Obituary fur tho 
Year, a Full Account of tho Celestial Phenomena for 1898, with 
notes, tables, articles, &c. 



Messrs. Macmillan announce for publication ''The Scientific 

Paiiers of T. H. Huxley," in four volumes. These will con- 

► ' * ' t!io most port'' ' from tho journals »f scientific 

jnafAxiuwi, ar jiiblications. They will bo 

troll.' > I'fofeMor Mieluivi koxi^-i. 



Mr. Bernard P. Grunfell, who, in conjunction with Mr. 

*">••' >^ II..... -K 1 .!.„ .. < ■' our Lonl," has 

I. tho mo<lorn 
r " yiiccliUB, for the 

lion Fund for 
1  ' (four chapters 

entury. Mr. Froudo 
I by these authors, 
" '■"» - o Logia,'' apiwara lu the current numlier of 

Md.lurtt . 



Messrs. Macmillan bare issued a little pampblot describing 
the new premises they are taking in St. Martin 's-stroot. The 
site is an interesting one. Onoe there stiod there an old 
Kalleriml inn, tho Nag's Head. Stryj* (17-t>) describes St. 
Martin 's-street as " fronting upon I.ieico8ter-fiel(ls and fulling 
into HedL'c-lano, a handsome ooen place, with very good build- 
ings for the generality, and well inhabited.'' It was in a house 
on tho east side of St. Martm's-stroot that Sir Isaac Newton 
lived lietweon tho years 1710 and 1726, and in the same houso 
Dr. liurney resided at a later periixl, and his daughter, Fanny 
Bumoy, wrote " Kvelinu " there. 

»    

Mr. H. J. Morgan has long been well known in Canada as an 
exjH'rienced and capable cluonicler of lives and of events, and 
probably no man in tho Dominion has done more than ho has 
in the deiiartnient of biography and bibliogropliy. His 
" Celebrated Canadians " appeared nmro than a ipiarlor of a 
century ago. He is now issuing a '' Canadian Men and Women 
of the Time," which should prove a serviceable book of reference 
both in England and Canada. 

« « • « 

Among other architectural works Messrs. Hatsford announce 
a book on Stained and Painted lilass.by Mr. Lewis Day, entitled 
" Windows." 

•   • 

Mr. H. M. Stanley, in his few words of preface to a new and 
cheaper edition of In Dakkkst Africa (Sampson Low, 58.), 
says his principal object in consenting to this reissue of his 
fascinating narrative has been toextt)n(Tknowle<lge of Kquatorial 
Africa and to enable a wider circle of readers to take an intel- 
ligent interest in '" the developments that are being constantly 
matle there by tho Congo State, Groat Britain, and (iermany, 
tho three Powers that aro now in ixissession of the legions 
traversed by our expedition." Mr. Stanley does not think the 
work in its new form can be '' remunerative to either author or 
publishers," but really there does not seem to bo any need for 
B-.:ch a gloomy and self-denying forecast. On the contrary, tho 
venture ought to pay well, tor there must be a large class of 
readers stilt unacijuainted with " In Darkest Africa," as well as 
many who road tho book at tho time of its publication, but will 
be very glad of the opportunity offered them to possess it. It 
is unnecessary now to sing the praises of this striking record of 
awondciful achievement. All wo need do is to mention that it 
bas been subjected to thorough revision and ]iarti.ll re-arrango- 
ment, with the result that tho interest of the story of Kiiiin 
Pasha's relief is now sustaineil even better than when it first 
appeare<l seven years ago. 

« « « « 

Signer Negri, whoso new l)ook of essays is included in our 
listof publications, is one of the most brilliant of Italian essayists. 
He has, in addition to his literary reputation, considerable 
political influence, having for many years been mayor of Milan 
and a Deputy. Ho is now a member of tho Senate. His essaj'S 
have recently been placed on tho Index in spite of their author's 
tendency towards clericalism. 

« « * « 

Hermann Ruhr, tho Austrian critic who has espoused the 
cause of Maeterlinck, and preached it with much iiersuasiveness 
to the German-siioaking world, has recently |>ubli.ilie<l a volume 
of critical studies of mo<lei-n writ«'rs under the title of " Renais- 
sance." He represents the progressive nuKlerns, ospocially those 
of Vienna, since ho api oals in the first jilaco to the literary 
public of that cajiital through his weekly journal. Die Xeit, and 
endeavours to kindle its enthusiasm for his liberal ideas. Some 
of the most int I .Miys in the Iwiok are those which deal 

with E. T. A. I , Sailier Masocli, (ieorg von ()mpte<la, 

l.«ura 3Iarholiii, .ioiiiiiina Ambrosiiis, and Kikarda Huch. 

 « • « 

Readers of Oormon fiction will lie intcrost<«l in a series of 
stories by Austrian writers eiititlo<l " Er/.alilungon aus Oestor- 
reich " (Leipr.ig ; H. Mover). Tho finst place among them 
roust be given to Adolf I'icliler with " Allerlei Geschiditeii 
aus Tirol," ond " Jochrauten," which contain very faithful and 
living descriptions of the Tyroleso. 

• « * • 

The literature of peace has lieen much Bcofrc<1 at in Germanv, 
but it is already considerable in that country, and is constantly 
growing. Tho last accession to it is a volume entitled " Pax 
Vobiscum," by H. Newesely and A. Ronk (Munich and Loip/.ig : 
August Schupp). The little book includes a number uf {jucms, 



October 23, 1897.] 



MTKHATURE. 



29 



lei;t>nda, viaionM. and to forth, kll pointing ths Mm* roormi— 

that war and ciiiullin); hIiduM bo aloilinlu-d. Hnnn of Ht-rr 
Itoiil<'M iiotiinH huvti nireailv bcon traiislutixl into ^'^l>noh and 
Engliah by aymiiathiKoiH wit^ liis viuwa. 

« « • • 

Thti extraordinary rovivnl of intoreat in Nnjioleon liiinaparto 
is l>y no nieanM oxhau.ite<l. Fn?clt?rio ManHon lini< bruiiiiht out 
(lUirol.l'ariB) a voliimu ontltltKl " Mariu WawluHka," in wliicli arv 
published a numbur of lutterH written by Na|Milcon I. to thu 
PoliHh Countens wlio bfcann- the ninthrr of C'l'iint Wawb'ski. 
Tliti voluiiio iH illuRtrati'd l)y Harold and Nittii. ami iiiajiiHirvntly 
tho first of a sorius to \tv i-ntitltHl " Loa Maitrus««» du Nap<doon. 
« « « « 

It ia pr>d)al>lo that " TiOv Hoia do la Kuo," the novel at 
which (lyp ia n^w working, in another nnti-Sumitiu aoriea of 
skntchua, for thu C'ointooao do Martul, ourioualy ciinu;;!!, ia one 
of tho moat uxteciniMl authors of tho gruat oublialiinK houao, 
Caluiann Lovy, but tho tirin, tlio jMirlnors of wliich liavo alwaya 
i)Oon Jowish, do not caru to publish violi'iit uiiti-Suniitic litora- 
ture. Accordingly wlionovor tho vorsatilo uuiliorrHS of " F'tit 
Bob" wishes to nave a tilt at the Jewish linan'-iers who play 
such a part in niodorn French life, she teni|Hirarily tranafvrH her 
business to M. Faaquello, who is now the head of the Maiaon 
Charpentier. 

« « « « 

It is not generally known that the brilliantly clever. If 
occasionally coarse, illustrations accompanying aomo of fiyp'a 
satires on I'aris life, and sij;ned " P'tit Hob," aro really her own 
work. Thoro is little doubt that, had she cared to dovoto hcrsulf 
to art instead of to literature, she might have made a great name 
among Continental caricaturists. Kvon now she spends many 
hours of each day in her sttidiu, hor literary work all being done 
between the hours of II p.m. and :{ a.m. 

«•»■»» 

The Rente <le Pnri.i announces among its forthcoming publica- 
tions the following novels in serial form :— "Qiiinzo Ans de 
Mariago," by Alphonse Daudet ; " La Sevo," by I'aul Uourget ; 
'' I/Ilo d'Amour," by .\natolo Franco ; and translations from 
Gabriel D'Annunzio and George Gissing. 

*  « • 

A capital translation of Edmond About's amn.sing tolo Lr 
Jioi ilc.H Miiiitd'incs has been made by .Mr. Richaril Davey, and 
"Tho Kinq of the Mountains" (Heinemann) is sure to l)o road by 
many to whom tho original is unknown. The fact that (iroeco 
has l)oen so much to the front lately, and that wo have all littcome 
familiar with the names at any rate of the <listricts and places 
whore brigands once tlourisheil, makes the issue of the book at 
this moment singularly opportune. Mr. Andrew Lang con- 
tributes an introduction, in which ho compares brigandage in 
Groeco with tho outlawry and organized roliln-ry which at a not 
very remote period of history made tho Highlands of Scotland 
<langerous travelling-ground. 

» « « « 

It should bo specially interesting to snch English readers as 
follow most attentively tho literary movement in Franco to 
hear that tho famous little series of M. Gustavo lielfroy's 
volumes of art criticism " La Vie Artisticpio," which M. 
Dontu used to publish, has been taken over by M. H. 
Floury, tlie bookseller and publishor recently e.stabliahed in the 
lloulcvard des Oapucines, and that henceforth it ia .M. Floury'a 
name which is to appear on the title-page of tlieso volumea. The 
fifth series, indeed, which has just come out, l»oar* tho name of 
H. Floury, and is still published at 6f. in tho samo form and on 
tho samo jxipier de hire as were the four earlier volumes. It 
contains a lithograph by Fantin-Latour, and the most notable 
of AL (ioU'roy's articles of the past year. 

« « « « 

The famous " Essay on Comedy," by Mr. George Meredith, 
has just been translated into French by Mr. Honry D. Davray, 
and printed in tho September and October num)>ers of the 
Mercure de France. Re-read in tho language most congenial 
to the comic spirit, the essay seems even liner than in the 
original. The French tongue invariably gives a larger signifi- 
cance to all hut the happiest phrases of tlio few artists in style 
who speak in other languages. \n illustration of this can !)« 
found in tho French translations of Ryroii, where some of the 
most careless jingles, transposed into the statelier rhythm of 
ood French prose, become reminiscent of the music of the Old 
.'estament. A good instance of this is to he found in the thirtl 
canto of " Childo Harold " in Daniel Lesueur's translation. 
Tho atmospliere is tli.it of Oberniaun or Ossian, even at times of 
Job. 



!; 



BIBUOORAPHT. 



THE HATTLE OF TKAFAUSAR. 

' bven iliaciiiuu 

.(:.!;-ar, and f. .. 



to 

u tiiaa 
In ths 

>AI.IHIH». Ol TIIK ll^ilH or 

. M.D. IiW7. ZiiU Ed., 1006. 

\'li'*-Al>MIIIAL Ia>KD Vlaiot-NT 



("larko and John 
?hrr. 1813 



h 

of 1 
mm 
giv. 

t«ttlu flOlll 

round thu mil 

A  
Nr. 

A li"|u oil l'\ 
DKaFATi'lli 

Nelson I'. i. 

out! arra 

LirK > 
M'Arthiir. 2 rola. ItMf. 2nd hd 

Lire or HoBATiu, Loan Nn -I'x 
(a |M>pular lMH>k, but tho i -nm 

uDtrui>tworthy aourcuit). An . .ed 

in IHiH), and tho Life was uicluUcU in Uw li!ia|>iu Lloaalcs in 
the sanio viiar. 

«'. '•■ •' ' .in'a Imlikn«« nr 8ka PowKk npr<n th* 

Fri Koipiro. >' vol*. 1803. Lira or Nklsov. 

2 V 

I': I K. Laughton'a " Sroav of Tuatauiau." 18B0. 

Nki ,...,jli'<h Men of Action), 1806, and Thb Nsutosi 

Mkmoui «i., 1MN>. 

Mr. Altrtxl Morriaon'a Hamilton axd Nklsos pAraaa, 
18i»-18l)4. 

DiiTioNARr or Natiokal BiofiHArBT. Kelson, Collingvood, 
Hardy. 

Tub ANRUALRKaisTKR. 1«0R. Chap XVTIT. (p 2i:»). 

CoMnAT nr Tkatauiak. V y i ado to 

the MiniHt<.'r if Marino anil cms, in 

command of La }<■''' a. 

CoMBATK DR Ti: .1 a vin- 

<lication of the .'^|i.oi;:)ii .-«il\\ .i_ m.^i III*' ' oijuiii'UA aaaor- 
tiona ' of M. Thiers.) Publishotl at Madrid, 18uU. 

Other works aro : — 

HisToiuK iiKs Combats k'Ahoi kih, i>b TnArAi.ii\K, de Liksa, 
DC Cap Fimsti^rb rr di PLt'siciRs At'TKCs bataillbs xavalbji 
DBPi'is 17U6 4usqv'bk 1813. Par un Oapitain* de Vaisaoau. 
1820. 

HoHiTio VistoisT ^ Hy Verita. 1801. Written in 

connexion with tho Nu. .lion of 18UI. 

LiPB or Nklson. liv M. H. Itarker, tlie '• Old S*ilor." (A 
large collection of anecdotes about Nelson.) 

Memoiu or THB LicB or AuMiKAL Sib Eowabd CoDKixoTus. 
By Lady Uourchier. 2 vola. IWCt. 

Pi ULii- AND Pkivatk Lu K or N- •■ * '' ■- ■' iiolf, bis 
Comrades, and hia Friends. IK '1. 

<;i.i.,v- NIaKITIUKS DE Li ti ... Vol.2. 

Bo 

C > nr.Ni-B or Vk'b-Admikal LoBoCoiuxowooD. By 

G. L. Newnham Collingwnod. 1828. 

J. Harrison'a I..irK or Neusos. 1A06. (Written under the 
dictation of Lady Hamilton.) 

Naval History op Gbkat Britain from the Declaration of 
War by Franco in 1793 to the Accession uf George IV. Bjr 
William Jaiiios. U vols. 

Naval UioaBAPUv or Grkat Bbitaix. By James Ralfe. 
4 vols. 1828. 

NeL-SOS AND the NaV '■ '■' '" vND. By W. C. 

Ruasell. (Heroes of tl; 

Bataillbs Navalbs i... ... i ... ... . ... ; .. Troude. 4 toIj. 

18t!T-«8. 

Alison's Histort or Eurofb daring the French Revolution, 
1789-1815. 

Vioe-Admiral \V. S. Lovoll's Pbrboxal Narratitr or 
Events pkom ITW To 1' ' 

British Battles by i Ska. Bt James Grant. 3 rols. 

1882. 

Battles op thr RRmsM Navt. By Joseph Allen. 2 rols. 18B8. 

Hi.xToRY OK Til II Navt to the Pbbsk.nt Time. By 

Professor C. D. > ds. 

Naval BiooRAriiic Ai i'oTioN* " " "' " '■" 18(0. 

Britain's Naval Power. A^ vrth ol 

the British Navy from tho EaL^.-i. .,. , ^,ir. By 

Hamilton Willianis. 1804. 

Eni-NBVRou Review. Vols. 136, 140, IW. 

QcARTERLT Bevisw. Vol. 3. 



30 



LITERATURE. 



"October 23, 1897. 



LIST OP NEW BOOKS. 



ir- ••*««•# «uk itwiulgenrt for pomtible itmrrumcUn niul omiMtiotts in ihi« /iV. So many Booka long pu bllnhctl Tint* been aent 
i« that tee hatt bcrn obliged to make a neccamirily imperfect iicU-ctiun. 



ART. 

Lmm Chsta *'<Kuvv. Ilr Hrmrg 
J^mf%. IttrU. UK. 

Rimiwurd. U. 

RAMorUMl^ook. BiBbraidMvd 
wUk KtoTw Dimwtns* by Aahray 
BiMililiy. D«nr Mna 61 pp. 

Slonvfl fop ) I 

D«oo r »tlon. i - 

lUxi*: i l.'ili. ^va.. ix.-.«i> pp. 

Th* r 
XV 

lll.«r.: 



I on 
■Mine 



H 



A History of 



Re: 



r 




s 


lOS pp. Lot 




."«. 


A 

Ctm.;;.'""!..' 










BIOORAPHY. 

L:' ' '  

RalOCh. S' 


"  - 


1 

i:ii t'f- l^ 
SeoU. «?•- 


I'mrln. 4- 
■'■ firon/' 

-••ri«B>.i 


l-o-J 




ii and 


I^OIfi. 




lii.6d. 


T^pnap. Th« 

Turner. H.A 


I. 


M.W. 

• C(.T» 














'! -  






ij _  , 11  ; ; 


1^ >■. 


\ 



Pnisally. -A M«inp> 



F.R8.. 

Hoiccttun 



fniw M» coTT— po n d i c*. 



Tha Conn> 

the 1C..!11 
A>-> Ml.-: 
It. r.y.l^r 

2^1. p. U 



ApazzI antlchi e moderal des- 

ri-I'M " lllii..t r-i.il Hy I'utro 

sixr 



Hieoii: ~. 

f— III tViniK'jr. 
• xtin.. Ml pp. 1 



l■.<.i.^S. 
I. 18». 



John Huntep : Man uf s<'it>nr« 



8ei1c- 

l«r. I- :-.h. I I 11" i:i. ;i~, i-l. 

AutobloKPaphy of Madame 

Orivr-" 1   ' ••■-> II '•'■ 



Ulyasas 8. Orant nnd the rcrind 

oFx.in.Mii.i i'-,..:>. >.,,.!, ;.i,.i i;... 

maxv 

O kmi' 

nilll.>| 

'. New Vurk nml Ixfiuluii. 
Putnnm'H Sodk. jh. 



Tho House) 
ettes. 1! 

I'l.rlmlli. 
minolcr, \&r,. 



^'iiki^liJtlAii. loo. 



BOOKS FOR THE YOU NO. 

Franco. Ilv Mnr^i C. limrttrU. 
iTlic tliiUlrcn'ii Study.) 8vo., ac! pp. 
I>ondon, 1W7. 

FUhcrUnwin. as. 6d. 

1  '"s Kinsman. Rv 

irhi.^ll',: With kIx 
- by W. H. MiirKOtMon. 
^tu., 2Ji> up. I^oodon, 1898. 

Blackie. 4a. 



from Of . 

'Til. (Tl 

. Mi iip. I 

F i.««hcr LnvMii. 



.tAi. 



Paris at Bay 



Jilockiu. <ta. 



CLASSICAL^ 

The Italic DIalocts l-Mllnl. with 



;»(  "-.Ml.. \T % I 

bridifc, 1807. 

Sophocles ' 

I'li.j- F-' 

linn, b) /■ 

:|'6lln.. 3Bt 



Vn. 



Works of Archtmedos. 



EDUCATIONAU | 

Studies In Board Schools. Hy , 

<'liiirl,H MitrUy. 7%..'i'.lii..3inpp. 1 

I.t>mli>n. IMSi;. .Smith. Klilrr. fiM. I 

r\.  ■.■'.■ ,.■■... ■,. A:  ..; . 



The UlL.tl Iv.li. 

Crown Svo., 477 ; 

Smallep History of Oreeoe. 

Ilv Sir tt'iltittm Smith. \ m-w 
J-xlitiun, IboruuKblv nivlHt-il by 
(i. K. Mnvimllii. '7* v .lin., a« I'l.'- 
Liinilon, 1.S!I7. Murray. 



n Story of tho 
t'oninniue. By 
With ElKht 
.^Innloy L. Wotxl, 

^v. 1. .:..>; 1. 11. i.uudun, IXK 

UlacUe. 88. 

Sl--'^^ r-r' r-.T-.- Tales. Jij 

'». TrniiH- 

iiicT. With 

!■> .\ ! I i.iir .1. GaHkill. 

London. 1W»7. 

GoorKO Alien. 

S'> ut Eng-llsh Bowrman. KcIiik 
\ <if < hi\alr^' in thi' l>ii\>4 0f 

ill I ' . I.'. 1 1 • .. I . i 



Red Apple and Silver Bells. 

A l'..-.k ..( \ • < -. I, IV CImMi,.!, ,.r 



l>. t>l. 

-.xvi.',' 



•SVi III.. 
3s. Ikl. 



Sn Ml story of Rome. Hy 

n Smith. Ni'W and 

riM~<il Kdition by 

A. 11. J. OrouiiidKu. 7ixMn.,:Mil p|i. 

London. 18SI7. Murray. 3h. Ud. 

Story of the lonio Revolt and 
Persian War. ,\-< Iniil by 

llcriHi.iH;-. -<clc.-tir,n~ fn'iii Ibi' 



.-ill! ,<. lioul. 
tratiuns. : 
don. 1XSI7. 



Jxillii-. if-'pp. I.""- 
-Murray. It. il<l. 



Herodotus : 

Ka\vliiisiii). 



II. Itv 
^ intra. 



The Text of (1111.111 
I'l-atislatiuii, with I 111' 

r -. I.. ,.'... I n. I I /;ra /i/, 

M Ibo 
.' V oIm. 

. i -'.IM.. .(-._ ,.|i. ,,..;..,. .11. I -'.!.. 

.Murray. 

Republic of Plato. I'lliii <!. ^^ iih 
cntiiuil .S'ot(v and an I' > 

on the text, by J(i: 
Kcllow ami Tiit.ir .n .1 

• '(ilk'Kt'. ' V>;  jjiii., 

:ajpp. c-.i '7. 

I  .1 'ittw. 4«. 6d_ 

Vlttorino da Peltpe. and other 

HiiiuitniHt Kdnrainrw. K.'wayrt and 

VerwiunM. ir ' " ' *" " f<> the 

Hintoo' of I 

H'itliinn I 

1 ' :t r.niu ill lull Ml > irturia 

' 7]xi>iln., 'i30 pp. tniii 

liiivir-lly I'lvsK. fl». 

Chapters on the Alms and 

Praelleo of Tonnhlnu-. IMild 
bv !•■ 
the I 

turc : L - - 

North UaliK. 7j'^iiii., --1 ' 
Cambridge, IHirr. 

I'nivernlty Prr;--. i -. 

Rome tho Middle of the 
World, liv I7,r. rvirffnrr. Hl»- 
toriral I.' Ncwnhani 

(i.lIiKe, ' "J>51in., 

ax) pp. l.'<, 

Arnold. .'Ih. (iil. 

Arnold of Rufcby : Ilix » IhuiI 

!■'.. -  '-■ i.-. ... 



durtlon bv 
TJ..'.lin., X 

1->" 1 ,.■..■! M ^ 111-. ..-. 

11' i.iontary Course of Inflnl- 

:t iiiiil Ciilculuw. H. //..'■'. 



I a, 



i l>il> i'n 



i: 



Theot»v of Oroups 

Orclnr. •■ '■ '■ 



In Finite 



FICTION. 

Broken Arcs. Hy Christnphrr 
Ilarr. l"r. Hvo.. :ili pp. I.ondon 
llani^r. fl«. 
r\n nnr\ 



and New York, IS1I7. 



'nin Mansi 

Iter's Hands. 

ftjitrnsint. 'I'm 

... \iir«4'fcittn. 7.'ii ~~. ,-,-. 

Liiiiduu. 1.H1I7. Heiuumaiin. Jm. 

Dellle Jock. Bv C. M. Camp- 

bill 7] ■.•.iln.,MJpp. I...lidnn.l-.1i7. 

A. I). Iliiii - I.-. 

Diamante Nero. Hy 

Hiirrili. Ifiiiio., :M8 pp. 

ISt7. 
Father and Son. By 

t'litrrmn. (The Tlmen 

Serli-t.l <"r. Svo.. :tt) 



.1 



Novel 

Jip. l.,ondoii 
larper. tin. 

Oadfly, The. Hy K. L. foj/nirA. 

;)7:! lip. I.iindon. IXC. 

W'illiaiii lleineinanii. l><. 
Ooor^e Malcolm. Hy Hu'irut 
Sitntni, I.4irKu crown 8vo., IHS iip. 
London, 18U7. 

Bliiw, SandM, and Co. S«. 

Laurrence Claverlngr. Bv 

II'. Miisun, Svo., .Wiiip. 1 
IWC. A. II. Inn. 

Lords of the 'World. .\ Siory of 

tlie l-"ali i.f *'arlliiiKe and Corinth. 

Hy tlH' yf< I-. Allrril J. Chnrih. 

With 12 IIIuHtmtloiiH by I: .l|.li 

Pctteoek. 8vo., 384 pp. I. in. 

l.sar. Bhiokie. !».. 

1,'Annee de Clarlsse. By J'nul 

AiUim. I'ari.-., 18(17. 

ollendorfT. 3',<.f. 
Malme o' the Corner. Uy Mm. 

/•'. Illiniil.ll. Cr. ^vo.. doth. :titt 

lip. Ijontlou and New S'ork. \Wi. 
Harper. 11k. 
March on London, ii. i.l- .. m..iv 

of Wat TvlerV 

(I. . I. Unit u. \\ 

tlon.s bv W. H. .\ 

Xi'l pp. I.ondon, l^i'7. HUckic. .m. 

Menotah : a Tale of tho Kiel 

' '   " * ' ' il. Itfnhtim. 

i.ivv. C'rowi* 



Misanthrope'^ 

tin y. Crown ^\ 
LSI 17. 

NIobe. 



i'y7. 

Applloc] M 



Some Observations of the 

Foster Parent. H\ Jnhn ■• 

('hiirlrx Tnrrrr xx+ I 

2Kipp. Wottllll: I 

-tiio. en. ' 



^kciUii^UAi. (is. 

By Jonan Lie. Translalod 
Norwoirian by II. I... 
Crown 8vo., 290 pp. 



\\ 111:. nil Iletiienmnii. Cloth. 
:fc.. ikl. 
People of Clopton. By arorgc 
liiirtrum. tS\'o.. i'ii» pp. 

l-'iiher I'nwln. 6k. 
Perpetua. .\ Storv ..f Nlin. ^ In 

A.lT. I'l:!. By «. III! 

.M.A. Crowu 8vo., 31ir 

Prisoners of Conscience. By 

.Imiliii K Ittirr. ^\-.i.. 'Jlo pp. 

Klhhir I •   <•■. 
Rash Verdict. By / 

•J vols. 8vo., 2117 pj*. 1. 

J 1. : 

Soldiers of Fortune. By/.'. . ' 

ilnnlitnj i><jriH. With six inn- 

tnitloHH by Charlen liana <.fib^^>n. 

8vo., as» pp. Uiiidon, ix:i7. 

llcineinaiin. 
Temple of Folly, cbaptei.. f m 

tliell.sik of .Mr. Fairfax the I n,i, 

elK4:4in. f>lit4.'<l by l*uiU VrmunJ.. 

■/71 pp. London, 181(7. 

KlHhor Unwln. Ok. 
Temptation. Bv (Imham Irrlnn. 

I.V.... L'l.l pp. W ani. Uiek. ;k «<l. 

Tho Mnntlan. By (I. Dii 
imp. Itimti., elolh, ^ilt 
1.. I»ndon anil New 

HartM-'r. (V. 

Tormentor. By Hrniomin Siri/t. 
8vo., ',»« pp. I.oiidiin. I81»7. 

T. Kl-her lnw1n. Bit. 

Torrents of BoPlnK. By /rem 

Tiirjfrnrr. Traii-l.f ..I fr.iiii the 
Kiinxlnn by C..: • . n. it. 

7a4]Iii., (Wjpp. I 

.: II. >. 



October 23, 1897.] 



LITERATURK 



81 



VAlth Moope at Copunns. Ilr 

a. t II' niu. Willi I.; iiliiKimil.iiin 
li) Will I'liifii. iSiii.. :i-i I'p- l."i>- 
iliin. Ill.u'kli'. I'M. 

Sketohea tvom Old Vlpjrlnla- 
lly A. U. Jlrmllru. « • .Mil.. i'*4 pp. 
Luiidun nnti Now York. Iiiii;. 
MiU'iiiiUiin. (1*1. 

The Water of the AVondPoua 
Islea. Iiv Willitiin .Uofi'i..!. s\,i., 
nj  .'.ji".. •'^1 pp. I.niiiliiii. !'<'":. 

Lnli^liijtii.1. 7h. tht. 

Kathop Dunbar ; nr. ViiiKi'iiiifo 

l» .MliK', Hy Klizii K r,<ll<ird. 

Hvo., 7t».MIii.. :r.1i pp. Uiiiilim. 

IW7. H. W. l-iiririilKiMtml Co. 2h. 

Tang'led Thraada. lly Karnr 

NtiKiii. Kvo., 7i>5ln., XiO pp. 

I^iiiitliiii. IXIT. 

S. W. I'nrlriilKoniiil Co. Jh. 
Anothep'a Burden. Hy Jamm 

I'liun. Ti^.'iliii. IT'.lpp. L<'ii<li>n. 

I«I7. Iiiiwiiry. :ix.M. 

Talea of the Rook, lly Mmy 

AntUi-Htin. Willi fimi- ttliiHtnit iiiiiH 

by H. .S. I,o Kiiim. 7} ^ .'illii.. IKKi pii.. 

I.K>ii(I(>n, 18U7. Downey. 3«.t!il. 

One of the Bpoken Bplgrade. 

Bv (Vi'iv I'hilliiip.i lii,ll,y. ;j • 
SJill.. -.Tit pp. I.<illilntl. 1MI7. 

.•^lllilll. Kl.liT. li*. 

The L/ordahlp, the Paaaen, 

and We. Hy F. T. Jmu-. s.- .'ijlu., 
:il'J pp. l.iiliiliin.lS',17. Iniu',.'. tiM. 

Mona St. Clntre. Hy .Innir K. 
Atin.'^trotii/. With HriLi III. tl 111 ii .tni- 
UoilH liy (>. IK'Ulitln !■ U.I. 

7]x5iln., 311 pp. I.. 

\'. . ikl. 

In Spite of Pate. Hy Silim K. 
JlurX'inu, ll]iiKtT)iIt.(l by Kloruiu'o 
Uf.ii..4(in. 8 .N.'Vitii., 4ii8 lip. LdiKlnii, 
l.'«>7. W anif. ;!h. «iI. 

Icelandic Fairy Tales. I'mnx. 
liltcil anil «.<liUKl by .Urn. A. II' 
Jlall. With (iritciiitil IlIUNtnitionH 
by K. A. .Miicoii. 8..'<iiri.. 317 pp. 
l^iiuliin. 1HK7. Wiirni'. 'M. fid. 

Buahy : or, the .\dvonlun.s of n 
(iirl. fly CyiUhia M. Wintori-r. 
Ilhiiitmted by .1. .\. Walker. 7Jx 
illii. 31!* pp. lAiniloii. IS!«;. 

Chapman ami Hall. (K 

Camera Luclda : or. SimnKO 
1 'aH..^:ik'i^ ill I'liimiion l.ifc. Hy 
itirthtt Thomas. "*•« > .'►lin., 131 pp. 
UiikIiiii, 1,S!I7. .SanipMin Low. 

In Years of Transition. Hv 
Samiirl (Innlon. St % .'iliii., MU pp. 
Londiiii. IS1I7. HIiKH, !Sand». (in. 

David Dlmadale, .M.I>. A .storv 
of I'liNtaiid Kutiiri'. liy Miiitrirc 
H. Utrrev. "l-^.'iiin.. :m1 pp. 
I.«ndoii. ISI7. Hodway. 3«. 6d. 

The Naval Cadet: a story of 
.\ilvi'iiliiri' on I. anil and .'^(■a. Hy 
(iiinloii Stdhlr.i, M.I)., with «i"x 
IlhiHtrntions by William lUlni'v, 
lt.1. 7rv,5in., a« p|i. London. IW. 
Hlaikic. ;k 8d. 

Odd Storlea. Hy Fra nre.'< yorl>r.s 
li'nlitrtmn. 7i xijin., 31S p|i. Wi-st- 
minstor. l.v.(7. I'onstablo. (in. 

A Dau«'hter of Erin. Hy i'iolct 
(I. Finny. With four IlliiKirntioiiH 
by (}. Deiiiuin Hammond. 7JxAin., 
'iit pp. London, ISC. 

HIackio. 2h. M. 

Vrith Frederick the Great ; 
a. story of the SoviMl Voars' War. 
Hy (,'..( JItntu. Willi V2 Ill\i«tn\- 
lioiiH by Wal I'atfi'I. 7Sx,^jln.. 
3!H pp. London, lsa7. 

HInrkic. fis. 

The Adventupes of St. Kevin, 
and iitlirr IimhIi 'I'alos. Hv H. />. 
Hn,irr.i. ,s ..•,Jin.. ■.in; pp. London, 
"*'■'"■ Swan bonnuiiMchoin. 

El Capmen : .-V Komanrc of the 
Itivi'r I'lnti'. Hy llrorae l'rami)ton. 
With a KronllBpiwc by HarinKton 
Hlrd. 8x51in., 'iKI pp. London. Ifai7. 

_, J _ Hisby LonK. 

Claude Duval of Ninety-Five. 
A Homanccof thu Hoad, Hy ^Vruin 
JIuiiic. .Svjjin.. ixi pp. l,<)iidon, 
IW. riiK-by Lon«. 

'When a Maiden Mapptes. Hy 
Aiulrrw Drir. Sv.'ilin., ani pp. 
London. Wr7. Hitcby Loiik. 

The Slngep of Maply. Hv J. 

Hooprr. IllmilmliHi by W. Cnbitt 

Coote. SxSin., 259 pp. London, 1S»7. 

Molliuen. tin. 

The Pall of the Spappow. Hy 
M. i: h'illl'iiur. S.iin.. Sti pp. 
London. l.-i!i7. .Mcthiicn. tin. 

The Faithful City. Hy Hcrbtrt 
Mot-nih. Sxjin., 3o4 pp. I.«ndon, 
IS''. Alcthucii. (J8. 



The Lady'a Walk. 

oliphttnt. K  ilii.. Id lip 
Itli. M..|) 



The Makln* of a Prtc. 

F.nlun .SA„.;,. H . ,,ll„.. Ill, 
I-' U.ll. 

Th<' Hedenu>llan : » 

■|. Ill r I. v,.,.nt„n 

I'r " - ..In.. .; 

1WI7. 
L,ady Roaalind : or . I 
H^ Fmnui .ViirmhtUi. »'|.ailii., 

M.ImI IV,. 



My Kn 

'Jo! pp. London, IIVT. 



API 



.S7.. 



Ifa'a 'Way. Hy S- 

7r-.'iiiii.,-j()opp. I 



The Tree of Lit... '/u 

,Sl/rrtl. K-.^iin., 3^7 i'li. l,,,:idi)li. 

IW. Ijinr. «-. 

The Two Cnptalns. Hv II' 

'■/.■  .1. 

1", 

1'"! , .. :. .. sv. 

AVIthln Sound of OreatTom : 

SloriiHi.f .M.«l..ninxf.iril. 7J <Alln.. 
'Mf.i pp. London. Ihir. 

Oxfortl : Hlai-kwcll. Ixindon : 
Slnipkln, .Mandiall .V. 
Tho BuUdera. U\ ' ',rr. 

7ix.'>lin.,3;).> pp. L.i 

'in. 
The ChloPs Wife. m 

.1. n .tiiriiuiii. : .in. 

London, 1V17. (111,.. I ,11. 

Cecilia. Till- M..r.\ ..r 11 l.ni .Hid 
Homr < 'in-tniHlainr... H.\ Sfitnlry 
V. .Mokincer. b . .'liiti.. llLjiii. Lon- 
don. l.S!r7. Lain.. .V 

Death. The Knlf ht. and the 
L.ady : a (IhoHt .siorv. ll\ II. ilr 
I'err StarfHXjU Sx.'iln., U'A pn, 
London, 1X117. Ijinc. 3». ud. 

Derelicts. Hy William J. lMck€- 
Sxiiin., 4U pp. London. 11W7. 

Luno, 6h. 

Max. Hy Julian Crnnakru. K > .^Jln.. 
,^Mi;i pp. London. 1MI7. {.jinv. Gk. 

A Child In the Temple. Hy 
h\-nnk Mnthru: 7J • .lin., 177 pp. 
lyonilon. I.'<ti7. ln\w. Sn. (id. 

Bladys of the Stevirponey. Hy 
S. flitrinijiloulil. Illii-tLiiid by 
K. H. Town^i-nd and H. MunnH. 
8x,'.in., 3iyiip. London. 1SU7. 

.Mrt linen. fW. 

The Pomp of the Ljivllattea. 
Hy tiilhrrt I'arktr. H ^ .lin., 'iSi lip. 
London. I(«r7. .Mnhmm. 3ii. M. 

An Attic In Bohemia : a I >inry 
withont date-. Hy K II. I.acon 
WatHon. "J x.'din,. ITfi pp. Ixindon. 
1S97. Klkln Malhi.WH. .-w. lid. 

Jason Edwards: an .\Mnik-i. 
Man. Hy Hamlin liarland. 
7J X jjin., '.'1,1 pp. .Vi'w York, l.'OT. 
.\ppl(.ton. $1.*J,V 

A Spoil of Offloe. Hy llnmlin 
GarUmd. Now and Ki.vii.4.<l Kdi- 
tlon. 7|x51in.,37.Spp. New York, 
1897. Appleton. »l.i"i. 

A Member of the Third 
House : a Story of rolitiral 
Warfare. Hy llamtin (iarlantl. 
7Jxilin., '£19 pp. New York. 

Appleton. fl.'iS. 

VAayaldeCouptshlps. 'By Ham- 
lin (warfamt. 7}x,'>lin.. 'J77 ti|i. New 
Y'ork. isy7. .\ppleton. »l.a. 

The Freedom of Henry Mere- 
dyth. Hv .W. Hamilton. 7i ^ Ml".. 

■>7 pp. London. l.'^C 

lleiru.inann. Hh. 

La Rlforma Monetarla In 

Russia: inorK.v-.iii.i f.uta per in- 

cttH.'oilel mill; uni. Hy 

Etfot If l.oriii ; lajn^niH. 

8vo., -.'lli pp. 1 

Eniiano Loei^chtir aiul Co, 6 lin). 

OEOORAPHY. 

^Vealth and Prosrress of New 
South Wales, iBOS-e. Hy T.A. 

Coyhian. (ioverninont Statistirian. 
In 2 vols. Vol. 1. Ninth |.*..*ue. 
8{ x5iin.. 491 pp. Sydney, ISC. 

(iu.liek. 

History of China, \\v\ng the 

Hi..itonoal Chapters fnim " The 

Miildle Kinicdom. Hv tlie Into 

S. U'llln ir,lliiims. I'nifi-^^sor of 

the I'liiii  '  ' ■•■n«- 

ture in ' 'n- 

eludinK - ■''»* 

ercnM u.. • .v.,. . .- v ■. .11" 



'metor to Ottentnl 
la UnlTMnlty. K. 

,. -. 1.1 , p. I....I.1. ., i<r 

'i:iisrlcaand the 

r rtrtll • Krwoeh ' « i 

■TO., as |>p. I 



Hln' 



I  



I. ■■I.J.. Zfi 

-touKtitoa. k. 

Journal o. a Tour In ths 
United Btatas. Canada, aad 

Mt>« lof> II '1 .....-./ I ,,,lfi 
II ■'. 

I r. 





ItVi 


*, 


Uti 


lis. 


• ■' 


uH 




•d. 


Pm. 

Jo 




•*;itu.., uui 1 


CO 


-^ '- . . • 



Ne<A 

1: 
iU 

■in 

nil.. 

8vo.. in, 



Oreovo lii 

Cfr.  
K: 

Map ,11,.. 
MO pp. I 



■A. 

Iio 



'Ji .. tull., 

ite, ad. 

Chinese Charaoterlstlos. Hjr 

Arthur //, .Stiii/A •*J vi.nrH il nili»- 

«l'.: ' • '  • '■ -Mn 

CI, .<1 

wr ;.p. 

J:.!! IK.. •> .o- 

■«. 
The Gist of Japan i». 

th. i  
lb. 
of 

Jnimii, \^ ltd i: 
317 pp. liUlli. 

Nature and Sport In Boutta 
A.rlea. Hv //. A. llr^iUn. 

71 -i^in.. 314 |.i. I ;- . 

tl. . .-.< 

Gleanings In ; .la. 

.Sii|,h, , ,.' II 

Ka; 

to: 

lui; 

8vu., 2ub pp. Hiu'pcr. da. 

HISTORY. 

Border Battles and Battle 

Plelcln. II. .;., ;.■../... , «,t|, 

Hi. 
H. 

I'r. , , ...... 

J. anil J. H. liutlirrfttnt. 

Europe In the )0th Century, 
l**""^* llurupnui 

Hi .lokHmon. 

t  K«7. 

i; .\ .i.i4f,.ii. 7*. (kl. 

History of Enslaad. Hy 

Chart, ■. (hn.in. .' v., I-. I'.irt 1., 

fn. ^ l>, 

U> r. 

»\. 

\i\. .- 

Loat Emplrea of the Modern 
World: t^-wyH 111 liiii.r .. 
Hiolory. Hy H'mUr Fmr. :, ;. . 
Crown »%o,, 3S2pp. Lomli.t. i". 
lUnl.ri. 

Storla dl Vlttorlo Amedeo II. 

Hy Corw^fi. Svo., G24 pp. Turin. 

i.><ii7. i:r. 

A Handbook of European 

History, C-v !-CI.l'hr..ii..;.v-;.'.i:h 
Ai: • .'/. 

St. ,.i 

Cli .^3 

pp. 1- I'.:.. 1V7. 

MncmiUan. fc.6d. 
The Klnx's Storv Book. WiiiK 
H.- ..f 

Kl - ;.i 

111 
li> 
to \ 
an 

fY), .,y 

Ha 

W. 

t. oiii.u«ble« Ii... 
The Camp of RafUss. Hv 

f*'.-   "•.■•'..•■.- '-'.'...l. Willi 

lilt i;...r,.-,. 

La .l.il.l, 



■p. 




Chatto and WIimIiml m. Ike nL 

LAW. 

Greenwroofl'n Mnntial of tha 
Fi-.i ..«. 

W u 



Law of Motor Car- 
and other Carr:. 

^, Itaitnfr. of t.'n J^ 

»vo., :.,i \,\: I... I,. I. 



Modant Law of Real 
party. Ht 'i.. < > 

rrr. 4ih f..|i. 
W. Klplii..-:... 

Arthur In. k- . _ 

LuiMlun, \M1. 

8wse( and MaxwcIL 



.rd 

■Ml 

-P(k 

tu. 

r. ... : 7. , . ,,, 

■'-. 

 A. 

Aiaxwatt. Ba 

Bnoyoloptsdla of tha Laws of 

Bngland. l ti.!. ' •!:.. iri-nrral 

v.. 

bv 



OkJl . :*<> ? .iU pp. l>.niloti, PV7. 
Sweat aad MaxweU. «l|nrTQl 

LITERARY. 

Tha Llt^mry Hlitory of tha 

Atii. '■ -.,3. 

171. 



Style. H^ ri.. 

I»pp- I :» 

A V h, 

« .< 

M, . . - .,;... 

Ui pt>* Lulxluu. i<M. 

Methuen. SkW. 

T-> "■  . ind 



Ixx 



V, ^^i»7>M«i^ai^ 



id 



.i^UL 



CrItl. • • r. -, - 

M. 

'• ' , L.nuTi 

I«.«d. 

Dante's A Question of tha 
Water and of the Land. 

1 r„. ...... . i . -. .... ,,n 

ll.' rm 

H 

1' .-... -.^ 

Letters and other Unpub- 
lished Wicinu-.. nf Walter 
Savasr .,,1 hjr 

Strphrn rtraitn. 

.Mo., ivl , , . . ,. 

Hcnilry. 
Shakapearv, Puritan and 



• 11. 
' ' ;'p. L-iinbur^band 

Lo: 

Ollphant. »i.6d. 

Talks on the Study of Litera- 
ture. Hy .III.) II, •■r -•_ 'j,,^ 
■-♦*. pp. H.^t<.n aii.l N r' 

li. .K. 

MedltarlonI t^onda. 

Cnliiial |.-.v*^\^ . Sf^pri, 

STcjuipp. .\: 

Linco iicK^pu. ftUre, 



82 



LITERATURE. 



[October 23, 1897. 



Journals of DopoUiy WOMl^ 
wopth. K.liu<tl hi irmimm 

Pt>. I...!..|..h, l-W. 

The >< I nd 



Ihr 



New 
- V. 



Null. tin. 
Th« DUpv of Miwt«p William 

SUenrr- 
alM'. 



< nd Haui 
Scott, 



Bha k — paa i '«'» Hepolnes. By 

.innn Jiimrmtn. With 'S* )Mtrtniit> 

of fi>mim> plAvrn- in cbaractar. 
Stx&^iii. 341 i>|>. iMxtdaa^MK. 

(ieotseBeU. Si. 
nnyson. ByHti 

of  

,.1 ^ r 



The 

u 

1 



ii 




.U«papy Apt. Ilr 



XlX.-Cen 



// 

^•°«= ANDOUIDi^ t^^^n.3. 

I nuldaa to ihr (ircnl 

Urt'rtt \\'tv*tfni. Aiitl 
JsuuLU fimtfini ItaUwBTn. 

CMwdk 3d. each. 

MILITARY. 
Cuba In Wnr Time. Bv RirhnrH 

., , , ,., : . , ,,j. 

 I. 



.iH.ed. 



» iimi r-t . I,, r.. . ; • '• .ill.. * I. - 1 1 ,; (ip. 

Wertmliwtcr. \ms. 

rmutahlo. ,'«. 

The ' , •■■ I . 

th. 

Slli-i-. I,....; !-<;. i..>M^' i^ 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
La Museada la Convapsatlon. 

\*'\r Ktti/rr .Utjttntlrr. Tnil*!*:!!!*^ 
i->litlon. nnx' pt Kiucmonl^c dc 
ti'>niliri':i\ artirlaa.axMtlii.. aejpp. 
I'aii.. IfT. 

Bonillon. 
Fraa LIbimpy : Il« tlMnnr ami 

. 1'. 



•I 



, ami 

at 



llmn<« 



Stories or 



 Sons*. Ily 

^v^l..|■Jl>IPll. 
Sitniiio. 



The Chippendale Period In 

Enfrllsn Fupnitune. Ii\ K. 

»■„ -If 

tloi .. 

JMl.- 

AriioM ; aihI l>«>lM'iiUaiii ami 
Ftwbmljr. £1 K 



Old 

rto 



r 



\n 



■raovec 
L, SH pn. 



fi«n4«.( 4ra.. «■ p|>. Luuiuu. uuf. 



K.>..\. Il|ii-lr.ili-.l.ll lllli., xxili.^ 

tm pp. i>jmioii. iiw:. 

.\ni(ilil. £3,Ts. 

S',M-.. ,-'  ..boy. Hv K 

> \V.I..\VrlN 

iStiiry nf the 

Wtwl S,.iii~.i ;, ..'>iiii.. 34!t pp. 

.\>«- York. ISC. Appleton. »l..Vi. 

Oxfopd E' T' ' niotlonapy : 

H lU'W li<'TtIir\' ot» 

Hi.-l.irii.. l':<lit<Hl t).v 

/>r. Jdtti' ^ .r. //. Miirrau 
Sorlos II.. I'nrt III. KirlilKninkisK 
(Volnilic IV. I. Hv llrliryjlniillri/. 
1.1( • UMiii.. pp. l!tt to .'.li Oxfonl, 
ISiC, ("lan-iidon l*rf.K-^. I-.*, (kl. 

The Mlpacles of Madame 
Saint Katheplneof Flerbols. 

Tr.in-lalni fn.Mi llic Kililii'ii nf ilii- 

\i.'„ ,1 r n.,, •,>,.. T.iiirs IS-Vi. l>y 

iin.. l.W pii^. 

' and Knt^land 

CbicnKo : Wbv and Willininx ; 
London :D. Null. 7h. Od. 

Sooini -■.■.■■ • '.<,..]  nf 

I»r. nd 

LeK 

By Hr//,,,,, JI.,rl,Htt li.iw^im. 

■fxijln., an iip. I»ndon. I«i7. 

Cnapinan lind Hall. fls. 

Ho«^ to Make a Dress. Kv 

J. A. E. Womt. (TixlH.»ik-i of 
Tr<linolo(cy.l :j • lllii.. mi pp. I.oii- 
dnn. l..<;iT. JUlliiicn. Is. (kl. 

Endand thpouerh Chinese 
Spectacles: l.<tivi'M from the 

Net, l«.nk nf \\^i^ ( hiink'. Tj • .'.iill. 

Ixindnn. 1»"J7. Tlic Coltoii I'ri-rts IK 
The Dwelling House. Ily 

(Iforfjr Virinit Pnnrr. I*h.VHlchlll 
to I nivi ' % Kc Hospital. 

With 3; -. TJxoln., 

I'd pp. 1. 

i.niigiimnn, 3H. 6d. 

MUSIC. 

The EptoorSounds:nn RlenK'nl- 

»r\ IliliTlin-tjilloli of Wat'lHT's 

M'l.. I-- •  '••• - ■'■ /■ '■■ <<■■„. 

iro' ' I?. 

I>oi. .>■ 



Musical Memories. Hy .4. .If. 

JH-hl I.Wirr .MalinuM). Kvo..31ilpp. 

London, 18!i;. licntley. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 

Animals' Ways and Claims. 

Hv /-'rtl, r,-,r, i,i.,f.,,i. Willi isl 



l-oudnll. l.-*!*;. 

a. lU'll nnd SonH. 3h. 
In Ru-^— »•""•!- <~'-'-1 -^ u« 

of 1 /. 

\Vl 

1/a,... ,., ,-..,. 

>*krtMnKlon. Ph.. (Id. 

Famlllan V/Ild Floweps. 
:'k.<1 bv >'. 

i-s.. y.ft.A.. 

. Klvc voIh. 
71 '-jilii., Itjo pp. uu h. 

(.'owcllii. 31. 6d. 

PHILOSOPHY. 
HIstoi'v of Intellectual De- 

Vel' II lIlL- lilMW of 

-M' Hon. Hy John 

H'" Vol. I. Itoniy 

8vu., I.; , JJa pp. Ixindon. IHPT. 

ixiiiKinniM. llo. 

N<—  T^-v^'^^V- V ^ If 

of Ihp 

iilfin-. 



Ix>i 
Hon 



of the Future. 

tudy. TmiiMbit(^l 



fn>in lilt! Ktxinrh of Mnrir Jrtin 
(/uHfftiH. 8vo., xl.-^.M.1 pp. I/ondoii. 
1.H1I7. llflniMimnii. I7-*. 

Philosophy of Knowledge. .\m 

Iiiiiulrv into tin- v..tMr. .I.iMui-.unl 
Viilldliy of I! M. 

Karulty. Hy ;/ 

/.^o/if. Vrofoj*»*n! in 

Yalr I'nlviTKlty. .Miclmiii >>n.. liU 
Pit. {..oiidoii, lstt7. IxinKinuiu*. IM. 

Psyoholosy of the F' — ■•'-•ns. 

Hy Th. Ttihot. I'm 
ColU'Kv of Kmnce *' y 

St'ion<*« S*?titw. Ki. M» n.tw- 
IcH'k KIUm). Sro., 4A.'> pp. Unidon. 
I(«r7. WBli<TS<-oti. (V.. 

II DInamlsmo F n- 

pslchtco. It.v Ilr. I. i. 

hurtli. h\ii.. r.^" pp. ^ 

Science of Ethics, n'> hn-w><l on 

tilt-' .'<('icin'<' of Kn-i^^' ' !:>■ 

Johann (fotilirh Fich A 
hy A. H. Kroiair. I 

Hon. Dr. \V. T. Ham-, r) • ...in.. 
aw pp. London. !Si»7. 

Kt'tfun IMiiI. ft*. 

Notes on The Martrlns. ll<inK 
.■.iu^'^'^•^I inns of Tlmunlil an.l Kn- 
iiiiiry. Klvi' Kxmiys. Ily I'hffunt 
llarruion, Hxi^in., 252 |i|i. Ixndon. 
ISW. Hud way. .V. 



of 



U^ordswopth . Poems 

piii 11 

of 1 

Woi -..nn. ...... ■„..„../« 

JTutrhtnunn. .M.A. "i vol..*. Svo. 
Uindon. 1.S!I7. I). Xutt. 7«. (kl. 

Selected Poems of 'Waltep 
Von dep Vo^elwelde. I li.. 

.Mum. -,-.:. •: Iln",,,- irln l:,i.i,.|, 
VtT ...I 

Hix I 

MOII J I'. 

I.Kindnll.l.-ll7. .-.^luilli. Kldcr. lll.>.ikl. 

Oolden Treasury of .><onir» nnd 

Lyri   •'■ ' .-.. 

lati 
ver- 

Loint..M. I-;., . M.l' : ni. 

Selected Poems. 1! 

</iV/i. ,s  .')iiM.. L'l.'i pp. \'  r. 



IWC. 



< 01,^1. il.k 



A Tale fpom Boccaccio, and 



othep Poems. 

.trmstnjnii. 7i .• 
inlnslir. |K'.i7. 

Rampolll : (it 

i:.»ii. itiiiik't! 

old.ihii.lly from 
with •■ .\ Yfar. 



Hy 

.Viln.. 



rfhttr f 'nh 
.s»iip. \Vi-«l- 



»Iip. « I 
-Inlll«.. 



an old 
.•w anil 
i:aliilii,' 
i>f an Old 



Soul." Hv tiroru'- Manlniialtl. 
)i  .'ijln.. :»i:) pp. l..iiidon. I«r7. 

l.tinKinans. |[m. 

Lays of the Red Brnnch. By 

Sir Siimiii I lu I 
With an lull 
Kcivn.<rin, T>i. 
6J> I 1»'.I7. 

I litT Unwin. Dub- 

James Clapence Mangran. His 
Selected Poems, w iih » Nimiy 
by 11. ■• !■ ..  . . / .■" - Imot/rn 

uv ' \m. 

I I : Liun- 



POLITICAL. 

n Tpattai' u-1 1885 

• lO Sta< .t« del 

Congo. I allium 

gronuipii. 1:. ijn. 1-1.;. 

Kr«t«-lll TrovoH. 3 Hit. 

SCIENCE. 

Flpst Principles of Electricity 
and Mafnetlsm. H) ''. //. ir. 
Himi". l-JlUir of " Thu Klfctrirjil 
Knipnvvr." IIlu..<lratud with alwul 



POETRY. 

Burns. The Pofi i-v of Robept 

Bupns. Kilii. Hrnl-u 

and T. /■'. / Willi 

KtihiiiKs by \\ |. - \ . 

I'ortniild in I I 

fa..»iiiillcofM.-~ 

K<lltion. Dfiiu ^ii. 

18g6-INI7. 

T. C. nnd E. C. Jnck. I0«. fid. 

the Vol. : nnnlhcr EdlUonut 

7s. ikl. the. Vol. 

HamnetShnkspoare, .ircontlnK 

to Ihr Vir~i tiuMlrrn- 

izcdl. K. I'ark 

I'liton, \ •. ]. to X. 

.Svo. l-^Iinli'ir;;!!. I.^;'7. 1 vililonstoll. 



IVI DiairraiiiK. &o.. 7ix&lin., IBB pp. 
Iiondon. 18117. HIkK". 

Dapwin and After Darwin. 1 

111. I'o^l llarwinian Vii'stiniiH; I 

Isolation and l*liVHio|..Ki' .kl S. li-t'- \ 

lion. Hy Iho liilo r „ 

JionuitwH, 7i>..'Vlin..l^ 
1«I7. 1,. 

Lumen. Hy Cntnilh- yiitmmtirion, 
.Vutliorizrit 1'ransljttioti fi^ini llio 
Knii. I. I.\ \ .\. M. nnd it M. : 
will .f the last rhaptvr 

»ir ly for the RnKllih 

I-^lii . 'A'l |i|i. Loiuloti, 

iw;. Ili'ini'tiiann. ^ 8d. 

Electric Powep In Work- 
shops. Hy KriuHt Killiurn Hcott, 
.\.I.K.K. llliistraliHl. 7ix5iln., 
1:17^ X. pp. London. II\U7. 

HiKjpi. a». 

THEOLOGY. 

Babylonian Influence on the 
BIblo nnd Popular Belief 

'r.'lii.ni.ui.rrianial " " I lad rs and 
.Satan." a ( 'oin|Hinitivo Study of 
(iciicsis I. i. Hy .1. Smythr 
I'almrr, ll.K.. Vlrnr of Holy 
Tiinlty, Hurinonhill. W'anMtund 
(Studies on Hibliial Sulijeits, II. 
8vo., UU pp. I^onilon, 1KSI7. 

I>. Nmt. 3s. fid. 

Bearlnnrngrs of the Engrllsh 
Cnurch and Kln^rdom. Kx- 

plalni'd tothi! IVoiili'. Hy Thoimi* 
^loon , .M..\.. Itii torof St. .Mirlinol 
I'atoniostfr Itoyal. I'rown 8vo., 
au pp. London, 18<(7. 

Skrflln^on. S«. 

Church of Enifland before 
the Reformation. Hv tin- llrr. 
I'liK,,,! Uii,/iii . .M..\.. Kl-. tor of St. 
I'auls cliurcb. Halifax, Nova 
Hootia. Crown 8vo., ;tUO pp. Lon- 
don. I!i»7. 

HihIiIit ami .stouifhton. 7s. fiil. 

Convres Unlversel des Re- 
ligions. Hy lAhhr I'iilor t/iiir- 
boniull. 2.i0 pp. I'aris. 

.\rniaiid (*olhi. 5f. 

Elements of the Science of 

Religion. Part I. Mnrplio- 

l..Ki. -.1. I'., iiii-- III. loll. .1.1 I.. . I nri.« 

llt'I) .l( 

Kiln /.., 

I'r.... r...lo- 

Mopl. 11 III tin- liinuisity 

of I  Ml Volllllll'S. Vol. I. 

Huiiij . _' lip. {.oiidoii. 18117. 

HIiK■k^vo<Ml. 7s. (kl. 

English Black Monks of St. 
Benedict: a r tbulr 

History froni ' of .St. 

.\uKiistliK. to tl.' 1 i.iy. My 

the yfir. fAlKir,.! I., launton. 
2 voIh. Svo. Lonilon. IX!?7. 

J. t'. Niinnio. 

History of Dogma. Vol. III. 
Hj hr. Ailiilfih //or/uffA'.Ordlimry 

l'rofi.s.sor of (111... I. II. -I.... ... Uio 

I'liivcrsity of ! Ill 

from tho tliinl 1 '.v 

Janii's .Millar. 1 .; H..al 

TraiiHlntion I.ilirarv. Vol. Villi. 

Kcniy Hvo.. xm }i\i. I^ondon. 18»7. 

Wiliianis and .VorKUto. 

St. Francis of Asslsl : HIh 

TiiiH--. I.jfi-. iiii.l \\'..ik. Ki'cturon 

di'li'-' ill I ho 

1.11. i Cnthr- 

dni. U:J. 

K,i' ..f 
W.i 

I>l.|n 17. 

I:1j1-1l1. 111... Ikl, 

Aspects of the Old Testa- 



ixii;. 



l.,onKnianH. lfi«. 



MacoKhons Ttio Kirnt Hook, with 

I 111 I I nolt'M by the Jirr. 

M" r. ,M.A. nnd J. 

■Sill nrk. I.L.I). (The 

Call >l.' for ScIiooIh and 

Col: I ill., 271 pp. Cam- 

brid*,. 

I niviTsity Pniss. 3m. (kl. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

London Riverside Churches. 

Hy .(. y.;. Ilamrll. With "1 llln-lni- 
tiotiM by AU'Xnii.' .1. 

7i>6iln., 318 pp. V, 

lHi/7. ( - .... 

Stor>y of our English Towns, 

Told liy /•. //. DfTrhiuhl. Willi in- 
troilucliou by AuKiistiis .Jossojip. 
Ll.U. Hva, 261 pp. Ixindon, INMi. 
O, UcHlwnv. (K 



it^itciatiuc 



Edited by Tl. ^. 7m\\. 



Published by 7hf fflmcS. 



Ho. 2.— Vol. I. 



\ 1 1 !;i'.\> 



CONTENTS. 



ruatt 

Leading Article A TruRif Succoas as 

"Among my Books," l>y Andrew iMng H 
Reviews 

TiMinyson's Lif»> (Si'cond Notice) :i 

Williiiin Morris ■*'• 

Gardiiu-r"!* Coiiinionwi'iiltli '.K 

The Diary of Ma.stfr Williiim Silence 30 

OloanlnKH in Buddha Fields 41 

T\\p Arnolds 42 

Till- liords of Lara....". '. 4J1 

History of InU'Iloctual Dt-velopniont 41 

SpiclhaKon's Kpio and Drama 40 

Amorifa and the Aniericnn.s — Jewish Portraita 47 

notion— 

The Martian 40 

The Invisible Man i><) 

The Tormentor— Another's Burden 51 

Kntlier nnd Son— Mftlmo o' the Corner— The People of Clopton— .\ 

Riwh Vonlict-Pcrpotun— Menotoh 52, 63, & 51 

Liear»l-Lnw of Motor Cars i I>i 

Medloal- Mnntom of Mediclno : John Hunter M 

Naval - Ui Xlnrino KmnvalMO f" 

At the Book Stall 55 

■Unlveraity Letters— Oxford 60 

Foreign Letters -United States 60 

Obituary PalKHive— Von Wegfcle— Rcgnault— Dana— 

I'ouvrciir — Uossiter 58 

The Library Association 50 

Notes 60, 60,61, & 02 

Bibliography— The North- West Frontier 02 

List of Books C3&(M 



A TRAGIC SUCCESS. 



One book — or, a.s some put it, one novel — is 8Uj>- 
posed to be potentially contained, like the field marshal's 
baton at the Iwttom of the French recruit'.s knap-^ack, in 
everybody's intellectual wallet. It is true that everybody 
does not succeed in producing it and exhibiting it to the 
-world ; but then neither did every one of Najwleon's con- 
.ocripts win his way to command and pick up a jjeerage of 
the Empire on a German or Italian battlefield. All that 
the saying means is that, with the favouring circumstances 
of leisure, industry, some knack of literary expression, and 
the dash of egotism necessary perhaps to their eflfective 
exercise, we could, every man and woman of us, find in our 
mentid and emotional experiences — in the action, thought, 
nnd passion of our lives — material enough for at least one 
book which our fellow men and women would read with 
interest. Whether we call it generically a book or sj)eci- 
fically a novel is a matter of no moment ; in any case it 
will be an autobiography. WTiatever name we may choose 



to give to the hero or heroine, he or she vill be the aathor 

or :i ' ' ■' '  .•  •■ ^jjjI 

thi . ter haa 

written on a subject which he knows better, or, st all 

events, lias studii»d longer than any other in t' M — 

and that, too, a suhjeot to whieh witliout m of 

imagination or sympathy, with no other eqaipmentt in 
short, but f! '' '*y of memory and the ( ' aan 

instincts of  and self-pity, he <• ••t 

jxistice. 

No WDiiutT ti. iiiu-n 

astonish a worlil of li :n with 

a wholly decejrtive appearance of power. They do not 

realize the pure! • - ' ' -''■■■ ' • •-• ' ' '"Tig, 

nor 8usj)ect the .;ht 

into moods and motives, ."^tili less does it occur to them 
that what they take for literary art in the tellir - ■■"•ly 
that natural elorjuence which under the i;. of 

strong personal emotion many a writer once in his life 
attains to, hut never aflerwartls n - •. For these mis- 
takes on the part of the too impr-  reader there is 
every excuse ; but their result, as i ! hy many a 
literary reputation which has ri.*>n lik. ... • »o come 

doMTO like its stick, is almost invariably <. No 

sooner does the deluded writer endeavour t ob- 

jective for objective portraiture than he li...... ,...., _..ev- 

ously he has deceive<l himself as to the extent of his 
powers. It is one thing, he learns, to feel ) -lal 

experience acutely, and another to see life.. ;iad 

see it whole. The glass in which he has formed a pretty 
accurate and vivid reflection of him.«elf turns out to be not 
precisely the kind of mirror whi''> ••»<} '"e •• 1...M nT> to 
Nature " with much advantage. 

No one who can <!■ i the aciident* 

and essentials of a literar in any danger of 

confounding the late Mr. Dv Macrier with the irreat 
company of th<>- -m, 

produce it and 1 . . . liiis 

only because he left not one successful novel behind him, 

but at least two, to say  of a t ' in 

point of time, which obt ; rtain m- >ted 

popularity, long unjustly denied to it, on the strength of 

a " !it hit. For there linv 

ni- _ > mjike their one boo- _ 

two or three times over, and have not lost their public 

until even :' " ' '  - •• ;|^j'j 

liking for t ;i to 

the fact that they are repeating themselves. .\nd it raw>t 

be regretfully admitted that, for 

adverted to. Mr. Dt: Malrikr's i 

we review this week, is itself in some measure an 

example of this economical process. But, as every com- 



34 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



might ha\ 



petent critic is awarp, there was a preat deal more in tlie 

„v '  ■-  '■- ■■•■ " -ilty, 

^•■- - - - . . ; ^'^ '» 

qoality, vliich ncn'es veil enough for the equipment of the 

V ., together a few chapters of auto- 

1. _- , . - the result a novel. Tnie it may l>e 

that it was upon the autobiographical element in his 
thrve Um' ,- - ,- -jmbHc fixed: 

in the ca- . thistruthis 

too obvious to need insistinfi; upon. To the great mass of 

t '" '■■United^ a generation, 

a; , . . ^ up in , • nnd artless 

isntorance of Henrj- Murger — the bright and spirited pic- 

t- ' '  in the artists' quarter 

v . . J .ve revelation of mid- 

nineteenth century manners. Nor need we doubt that, when 
t' of " Trilby "^ Imd brought forth 

1<; ud incomparably finer novel from 

the shadow of unmerited neglect, it was again from the 
ni;' " rs of "Peter Iblietson," from the 

fx , 1 the author's childish days in the 

Parisian suburb, that they drew such pleasure as the book 

V  " !U. Still, their ncwh--acquire<l 

t: '■, whatever it was therein that 

specially hit their fancy, served to swell the extraordinary 
ti' ' " later work, to stimulate the over- 

V _ ! uix)n the author, and eventually, as 
one cannot but fear, to cut short a career wliich otherwise 

• of much ifroatcr work. 
In a _ ii!i on his fri<'iid and fellow- 

novelist, Mr. Henby James has speculated with subtlety 
a: " ' ' ' ■' -lence on the effect of the 

'• i _ ^ Mu. Dc Mairikus mind. No 

donbt it was a disturbing one, but, in tracing its 
results, is " and ultimate, the ingenious analyst 
surely r< ■> much. The general '•disorienta- 

tion," certain to be experienced - by a man of good 
»•■' ' ■' • 1 habit who suddenly finds him- 

H- _ .uilar worship wliich lie knows to 

be extravagant when it is not purely unintelligent, 
«'" ' .-,.... . ^^ tragic success. 

l'> > a simpler, more 

familiar, and less dramatic explanation. It is the old, sad 
p* ' ' :n life to a man. and of 

lii- ,1 to mak(^ the most of 

it. Tlie temptation to overtax his productive energies was 
in Mr. D( " ' : for. not 

only was i ; • without 

precedent in point of mere magnitude in the annals of 
modem li: ' ' ' y « niau enibark- 

jnc in ni ; t Ij new fonn of 

• endeavour is, fo far as we are aware, absolutely 

 int goo<l 

"tis of a 
of ey ..id for years rendered nervously 

was almost 

ly while the 

many a young writer with three parts 

: r • him find* irresistible, luu a terribly 



{■ 

failure 

III. 

ill 

«un |i! 

of a lii'-UiJi 



coercive power over one whose course is nearly run. Ho 
di  'e, or he cannot bring himself to act upon the 

1" . 1, that not only is litemry hay thus hurriedly 
made too apt to decline in quality, but that the sun may 
set sooner on the ha^nnaker through his excessive laboiu-s. 
Mh. Du ]SIaikikr had uudoubtinily more of the matter of 
literature in him than his books ever brought out ; but 
time was required to produce it, and time was not forth- 
coming. He had nothing new to say, and he must liavo 
been conscious of it ; but the public invited him — bribed 
him, in fact, with glittering offers — to say the old 
things over again. The result was " The Martian," 
another great commercial success, but, from the artistic 
point of view, a comiiarative failure. And now that, with 
its completion, we know that the hand which should have 
rested for two or three years after " Trilby " will \»Tito no 
more, we have to record another loss to literature from 
one of those exaggerated and destructive jwpular crazes 
from which it has suffered so much. 



1Rcvnc\V6. 



Alfred Lord Tennyson : A Memoir. By Hla Son. 
2 vols, niiilimi; S\,i.. .")10+5ol pp. London, 1S07. 

Macmlllan. 36/- n. 
(SECOND NOTICE.) 
It was hardly to be expected that a boyish venture 
like the publication of the "Poems by Two Brothers " 
should be preceded by any very careful process of selec- 
tion ; and it need not therefore surprise us to find that 
among the contents of at any rate the younger Tennyson's, 
portfolio there was much more of the "stuff of jwetry " 
than ever came out in the jiublished volume. This, it 
appears to us, is placed bc^vond dispute by the sj)ecimens 
of the period 1809-1827, which are given at the end of the 
first chapter of the memoir. Still they are metrically even 
rougher, and in general artistic quality not less immature^ 
than the least satisfactory of the " Two Brothers " series. 
Hence they leave untouched the ])roblpm of Tennyson's 
astonishingly rapid progress to perfection in his art. The 
poet himself wrote : — " I supjwse I was nearer thirty than 
twenty before I was an>-thing of an artist," But admir- 
ably as the ]-)oet in most instances criticized himself, it is 
imjwssible to accept this ]iiece of self-criticism quite 
literally. " Poems t'liiefly Lyrical " apjieared in 1832, or, 
in other words, when its author was nearer twenty than 
tJiirty, Ix-ing, in fact, just twenty-three, nnd to 8j)eak of 
a volume which contains " The I>otus Katers," to say 
nothing of " <Knone," " The Dream of Fair Women," and 
the " Palace of Art," ns the work of one who was " not yet 
anything of ,".n artist" is surely an abuse of language. 
In what precise sense Tennyson may have employed 
the word it is hanl to guess ; but he certainly could 
not have used it in its ordinary acceptation. Not 
only are the i>oems we have mentioned remarkable for 
their artistic finish, but one of theiii, though it may have 
been < was nev<'r Hft<'rwar(ls surpassed even by 

the art If. This curious |K)st-<lating of his attiiin- 

ment of t<'chnical mastery is, however, the only critical 
laiise — if,indeed,it l»o not a mere chronological slij) — which 
these volumes reveal. Or, at any rale, we may say that, if 
the iwems of 1827 were not so happily selected as they 



October 30, 183 7. J 



LITERATUKli 



35 



might have been, wo can never from tliat time forward aa may b« rfmcmU-ntl from 

find cause for nnythinj^ but adminition of Tcim • i . > >  i i i i 



uncrnnj; judgitifiit and of tin- stoirnl fortitiirin uiti, 

he suhiiiiltod innny a sli 1 

was disiipiirovcd forsoiui- 

taste, to thoruthlcHs surgery of the iiruning knife. Among 

the newly publislied friignientfl there is for instance a 

whole series of stan/ns, some eight or nine in numlxT, 

omitted from the '• Palace of Art." The; ' ' 

omission were evidently diverse, some i. 

out, apparently, lu'cause of an alteration in tin- 

and others, it would seem, merely for the sai 

greater brevity and compression to the poem. There are 

not many among mortal men, to say nothing of Immortals, 

who, being «i]>able of writing such j)oetry as this, would 

have had th<' heart to excise it. Vet one sees that fi< 

the point of view of the author, and in the Interests of ; 

jKiem as a whole, he was undoubtedly right. Or take, 

again, the " Balloon Stanzas" cut i>iit. of the " Diimih of 

Fair Women," which ran thus :- 

Ag whon a man that sails in a balloon, 

Down lookinf;, sees tlio solid, shining ground 

Stream from beneath him in tho broad blue noon, 
Tilth, hamlet, mead, and mound ; 

And takos his flags and waves thorn to tho mob 
That sliouts bolow, all faces turned to where 

Glows, ruby-iiko, tho far-iip crimson globe, 
Filled with a fmer air ; 

So, liftwl high, tho poet at his will 

Lets tho grout world flit from him, seeing all, 

Higher thro' secret splendours, mounting still 
Self poised, nor fears to fall, 

Hearing apart the echoes of his'fumo. 

While I spoke thus the seedsman Memory 
Sow'd my deep-furrowetl thought with many a name 

Whoso glory will not die. 

There have been lesser and less severely self-critical poets 
in abundance who would have been sensible of a certain 
commonness about the image emlwdied in the first two 
stanzas, and would have rejecte<l them on this ground had 
they stood alone. But how few would have Ix^en willing 
to do so when the act involved the sacrifice of two 
stanzas so striking in their power and dignity as the third 
and fourth ! 

It is always interesting to note bow far a poet is con- 
sciously influenced by his models ; or, if he does not him- 
.self perceive, or will not admit, that any such influence 
ha.s been at work, there is almost as much interest in 
the inquiry as to how far the history of his poetic pre- 
ferences during the ]x>riod of development of his genius 
renders it probable that he worked unwittingly to him- 
self under the spell of those particular forerunners whom 
he most reverenced. The testimony of Tennyson's tastes 
is highly instructive, in this connexion. We know from 
a well-known anecdote that Byron was the itlol of his 
" green, luiknowing youth," and we know also that the 
idolatry did not sui'vive the devotee's twentieth year. If, 
therefore, the *' Poems by Two Brothers " could, without 
overstress ujwn marks of beretlity, be affiliated to any 
Ijoetic style or spirit, it would be to the Byronic. On the 
other hand, the tlescent of Tennyson from Keats has been 
again and again |x>inted out and. indeed, in '*The Palace of 
Art," for a capital instance, is too patent for a moment's den iiU ; 
so that it is peculiarly gratifying to the inquirer to note the 
frankness of enthusiasm with which the author of that 
masterpiece of splendidly sensuous imagery reconls his ad- 
miration for the poet of the " Eve of Saint Agnes." Keats, 



«o much more anioirr to tho cult of i 
thatof »'■ • '•"•■ '"■ •■> other jKXJt, 



two 



Ix'cn, if h<' 
his blank 
admirablo 



not 
itume (\ 

n>» of 1 



of 



 .' II 
•in to 
  r,.i 

ni 

to 

t. of all of ua (though 
!>....„ .iddin-/ •■•■'• ■••■' •■•fh 
precision of aim, that '• • ig 

ftho innermost soul of pucUy lu ail tiuil he 



had lived, 
vers*' was 



li 



His apjiarent lack of i :<, 

and not altogether to be a«- . of 

affinity betwivn their respective forms of ik. 

For nothing is more remarkabh- or  - .i iin» 

fine catholicitv of Tennysdu's ci i than 

hi- to the of 

vai "'try. ( i If 

towards Word.swortli that he was no h le 

aged i)oet'8 jHJWer in Ids inspired »>"" ii« 

of the melancholy bathos to which d« 

and ' ■dabsenc '• • " :„. 

" >■ and Fi m» 

iier, "an to uiio I'ould invent !>^ 

■.n line imaginable." They u, ^ ^'tl 

the prize, though they disputed an to the winner oi it, to 
the lint — 

Mr. Wilkinson, a clergynan. 

But W' " has run his jjarodiiils ciui>c with 

an actu.. 

Spade with which Wilkinson b«a tiUod tho grouml, 
where the form scarcely i 
richer in ideas. But to 
Wordsworth t>f the .Sn 
fhe " Intimations of 1 
eridence that Tennyson 
the devout Words\\ •' 
imined at the bl.i 
nowhere find a bt'ttir 
than in the younger ]k>i 
of two of the elders iinea : — " Vou 
Wordsworth ere he will wem worth}' of 
Equally sure and discriminating were his 
ments on the poetry of Bums, and th~ " — 
between his jndsrment anil tlmt of \' 
sul- 
crii 
exquisite poems of Bums,"' he once exclaimed— 



rendered an)])l<' 
• . even mor« 
of the ui. 



■le 

i<» 

•n 

tut 

jiL<tice ; and 

' ! tlian 

I. will 
ry 

must \ow 

ViiiT luve." 

:.rt 
in 
ve 



r 



lig! 

■tup,., u.,.i.,^ ...;, ^- ;. 

Aubrey do Voro, wlio • lul 

n.imod P.KrMi t.» hini iV 

vohemen ii> 

had brni. I 

refer to ins son ly 

i^ight ' ; those {■ to 
forget." 

To the poetry of Coleridgp.perha]« tho only iK.t.or tho 
only one since Alilton, who ranks with him as . of 

meltxly,Tennyson was dsvotod. his especial f"-  ig 

" The Ancient Mariner," " Chri.stabel," ^- 

mentarv strain of unearthly dream-music " ivul>ia i\.a;iQ." 

2-2 



36 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



1 . 

1. 



OfColeridpe's hitherto inPT]>lirflh1erritici8in on the Poems 
of 1830, that thoir nut • verses 

without vtry v.. !I mil. ^ ." nil ex- 

itUiuition wan 1 many years after by Tennyson 

parii;iii,>, lilt can only j«rtially, account for it. 
t he liad heard it occurre<l to Tennyson as 

'iiisle<l by the young 

 into reading cirtnin 

! to lie so scanned. 

,,. ,. li ..:...-on, "he might 

well have wislieii that 1 had more sense of metre. But so 
1. ' > get a poem or jx>ems every day, 

j;, d glance at a lunik, and, seeing some- 

t' :iot scan or i: ibiy 

di ^-- book witlioi; M>n." 

It in, however, evident from Coleridge's jirevious remarks 
^>_. .1 .1. 1.,. 1...,] not read through all the jwems, he had 
t than a casual glance at the contents of 

tie vuliiiiic. l>ii the whole.thereforc.tlie sweejiing dii^missal 
of a poit who was a born iii*»tribt, displaying from the 
very first that acute > to rlijthm and nu-lody 

which in its fullest de\i . , : I was destined to rank him 

bedde the " mighty-mouthed inventor of hannonies " of 
\r. "  Ode, remains one of those few but amazing 

j,. . the criticism of j)oets by ix)et.s which 

literaluri- 

Of t: _ Dus admiration with which Tennyson 
r . ided Hrowning, and which Browning no less generously 
rccii'i-ocated, there is no need to speak, as it was, of course, 
matter of common knowledge during the lifetime of both 
poets. 

His relations with his literary contemporaries gene- 
rally are here revealed, in so far as they were not known 
alrcadv, in l>ages which abound with interest but which 
have aln-wiy lxM>n freely quoted from in other columns 
i' Perhaps the most curious testimony to his 

n for one of the most " difficult " of these con- 

1 !• found in the letter evoked by the 

I' : m Carlyle. Well might the author of 

fiat dithyrambic utterance volunteer the half-ashamed 

n- ' which he makes for his inability to keep silence 

( 1 words: — 

If yon knew what my relation hii« lieen to the thing called 
Rnglish " poetry " for many year* back you would think tuch 
fact almoiit mrpriaing. Truly, it is long since in any English 
book, pcet'y or proM, I \uLve felt the pulse of a real man's 
heart aa 1 do in this same. A right valiant, true fighting, 
vietorioua heart ; strong aa a lion, yet gentle, loving, and full 
of nusu:. What I call a genuine singer's heart ! There are 
tooM aa of the nightingale ; low murmurs of wood-doves at 
mrnwir noon ; eTerywhere a noble sound aa of the free winds 
iMd laafy woods. The sunniest glow of life dwells in that soul 
chaqoerad only with dark streaks from night and Hades ; 
everywhere one feels as if all were filled with yellow glowing 
sunlight. Some glorious gohlen vapour, from which form after 
form bodies itself ; naturally golden forms. In one word, there 
aeemi to ba a nota of the eternal melodies in this man for which 
lai all otliar man be tlunkful and joyful : 

Who would imagine that this eloquent rha]>sody 
raine from one who, with exception made in favour of 
Kcajieare, and, ]ierhap8, Bums, had almost as grave 
<:<.iilpt* of the value of poets and poetry as he had 
of romance in general and of Fcott's achievements 
f'-rcin in ' " Cnrlyle was dih- 

] ''1 f>tr''t p gloomy a view of 

• mai (uture in the event of his 

I. „ ^ ; 'iae provision for the temporal future 

of «> admired a poet. Of Tennyson's intercourse with 



Rogers we get a very pleasant picture, and one which 
should lieneficently correct the forbidding outlines in 
which that once famous figure luis been too often pre- 
sented to the world. And tragi-coinic as it is — nay, 
|)erhaps more tragic than comic when one looks at 
the empty niche where the old man in imagination 
saw his statue — one could ill spare either the follow- 
ing nnecdote or the trenchant comment u[>on it of its 
contributor, the late Mr. IxK'ker I^iiuiipson : — 

" He liked mc," Tennyson »aid, *' and thought that per- 
haps I mi^ht bo the coming ])oet, and might holp to hand his 
name down to future ages. One day wo wore walking arm-in-arm 
and I spoke of what is called Immortality, and remarked how few 
writers could ho sure of it. Upon this Rogers 8<]uei'7.t>d my arm 
and said ' 1 am sore of it.' Tennyson was fond of Kogors and 
told me this with no iinamiublo intention, but, on the contrary, 
in all kindliness and good fnith." 

" Most iKwts," adds Mr. lyocker Ivimpson with pun- 
gently satirical effect, " have felt at times as Kogers felt on 
this occasion but with this difference, that they had not 
an Immortal's arm to squeeze." 

We must now, however, take leave of these interest- 
ing volumes, in which there is only one thing that we 
miss : a fuller study of that mystical side of Tennyson's 
nature and his ])0wer — a jjower exceptionally marked, no 
doubt, in Lis case, though common to all minds which are 
at once jKJwerfully imaginative and profoundly meditative 
(not itself, however, a very conuiion condiination) — of 
attaining to that sort of trance-like condition which Pro- 
fessor Tyndall in his extremely interesting contribution 
to the memoir describes as " an apiKirent isolation of th(^ 
spirit from the body." Mr. Myers prefaces his letter of 
reminiscences by recalling the biographer's request to hin» 
to approach his subject " not from the side of Plotinu* 
but from the side of Virgil"; in conformity with which 
instruction Mr. Myers supplies three or four most fa.scinat- 
ing pages of critical disquisition on Tennyson's relation to 
the immortal poet whom he has immortally celebrated. 
Thus from the side of Virgil he has been admirably- 
studied ; but we should have liked a study of him from 
the aide of Plotinus too. Perhaps .some day we may get it. 



William Morris : His Art, his Writings, and his Public 
Life. A record by Aymer Vallance. UxTjin. 4-l5pp. 
London, 1807. BeU. 25/- 

As little more than a year has jMissed since William 
Slorris's death, it would be 8urj)rising if a comjjlete bio- 
graphical account of him were already in print. Mr. 
Aymer Vallance, the author of this large and sumptuous 
work, is careful to point out in his preface the limited 
nature of his undertaking. The book " makes no claim to 
be a biograj)hy or a record of Mr. Morris's private and 
family affairs," and Mr. Vallance, not being asked or 
authorized to write a biography, submits that, with a few 
trifling excejjtions, he has not introduced into the book 
any jHrsonal details that are not by this time i)ublie pro- 
perty. For our own i)art, so far fn m finding fault with 
Mr. Vallance for abstaining from unauthorized biography, 
we commend bis good taste, and are content to take the 
work for what it is — namely, as an enlargement of his 
" Art of William Morris," which was published eariier in 
the] -IT. From I'iglit chapters the book has grown to 

15; I or has availed himself of certain suggestions, 

corrections, and further facilities ; and, while expanding 
and completing his record of Morris's work in all direc- 
tions, has in particular added a chapter on Morris's con- 



October 30, 1897.] 



LITEIUTURE. 



87 



nexion with the Hocialint movement. '1 
as fur BH Morris'H ]irivutf life is coiu'criif*!, in u woithy 
iiKinoriHl of ft j^rt'iit Bitint, and of liiri labourti, nUnyt 
honest and sincere, for the ])ul))ie N-iieht. The CliiHW i«k 
Press has jirinted the hook, and the uiMxh-uts and tlic 
hirj^er rf)inKhictions of tajwstry, wall-)m]HT, tili-s, and tlu- 
like would Imve commanded the u]>{)roval of .MurriM him- 
self. 

Mr. Vallance's hest chapten* are those in wliieh he 
descrihes Morris's achievements as an artist and a crafts- 
man, " a maker," as he called himself, " of would-be 
])n'tty things." The chapters on Morris's writin-.' ' - 

valuable. It is (juite possible that tiie " luiithlv I 
and some of tiie other jxiems may lon;^ on' 
fame us an artist, which nniy conceivably ci' 
nu)ment in some revolution of public taste. The jKK'ms, 
doubtless, will live ; but there is no need at i)rescnt for a 
vindication of their merits, and one is rather dis|)osed to 
resent Mr. Vallance's lonf; explanations and exjM)sitions. 
It is a matter on wliicii almost every reader will 
})refer to form his own opinion. A critic usually fails 
alike inconunandingand in prohiintiiif; one's adminition of 
poetry. It is an amazing thing, however, that Morris 
should have fotmd time, in his crowded and many-sided 
life, to write either so wt-ll or so nuich. And to his jKH'try 
he ailded the work of writing many articles and addresses, 
and the most active support of the So<'icty for the Protec- 
tion of Ancient Huildings, and the Arts and Crafts Kxhibi- 
tion Society, to say nothing of all that he wrote and did on 
Ix'half of the Socialist movement. If we say no more of 
his poetrvjit is not because we think it the least important 
jMirt of his woik, i)ut because Mr. \'allance's remarks 
upon it have less value than the rest of his book. It 
is more to tiie purjxise to notice that Mr. ^'allance 
makes a point of ]iutting Morris's Socialism in a proper 
light. Wl'.en ^lorris died, his biographers in the Press 
dill their best to keep his jtolitical opinions in the back- 
ground. They slurred theju over, ajwlogized for them, 
sjioke of tiiem as the aberration of genius, and had<' t!ie 
jiublic veineinbcr nitlier his poems or his wall-paj)er. 
Morris himself took a very different view, and, when the 
plan of Mr. \'allance's book was proposed to him, particu- 
larly desired that due prominence should be given to his 
jwlitical and social jirinciples, which were, in his mind, 
closely associated with his art itself. He regarded him- 
self as an artist, a craftsman, a " common fellow," whose 
duty it was to lead other " common fellows," if he could 
do so. Mr. Vallance reconunends those who cannot trust 
themselves not to take offence to skip this chapter, and 
then bravely faces the task of describing Morris's energetic 
and unassuming work with various Socialist societies and 
leagues that seem to have been in a state of chronic schism 
and dissension, ^^'e will not i)ursue the story in detail, or 
show how these unlucky theories Iwl to Tnifalgar-s<|uare 
and the police-court. But in justice to Morris, and in 
order to nntke his position clear, it must be stated d<>fi- 
nitely that his Socialism arose from his views of the 
functions of art. and of the true rights and duties of the 
workman, and that it originated in no vulgar envy of the 
ricli, and, least of all, from any seltisti motive. It was 
simply one of the defects of his qualities. He may six-ak 
for himself : — 

What I mean by Socialism is a coniHtion of society in which 
thoro shouhl bo neither rich nor poor, iioither niastoriior master's 
man, noithor iiUo nor overworked, neither brain-sick brain- 
workers ni>r hoart-sick hand-workers : in a word, in wliioh all 
men would be living in equality of condition, and would manage 
their affairs unwastcfully, and with the full conscicusness that 



d tl. 



virion cBino 



iL "M ill I 

ion of .1 



harm t 

the moaniu^ >•( tl.u * 

.Ml thiM is \i , 
from geneniUH innliuctK. '1 
vulgarity of the rich, the j!' 
in daily life, in iihort. a 
imluri 

II .. . 
book is not an nnaiysis ot 

of work done. For all hi. 

jiractical a man n» ever liied ; a vi 
artist, and ' " jualled in art: ' 
no ••nrlv • of HftiKlic 



a» is also his wundertul Keii-house at H<-xley 11' 

furnishing ami decoration of wl !• ■' m- him an 

for the exercise of his taste nn<! :v. A lii' 

came the . ' '' ' '' ' mm ii.;/ 

tin- revolt nrt of 

ni d mull can (-hl< 

r> v : the fashions of i i 

work, the bead-mats, the glass-shades, the wax fl«>w«rs. tin* 

gilt stucco, and the rest ; nor would r.    

willingly go back to them : but as loi 

accord with the titness of til' 

so decorated, it needed not 

artist, to point out a more excellent way. it wa* 

after a meeting of Morris and his friencli', that ! . ... 

premises were taken at No. 8, Red Lion-sijuare. Tl.e 

original memliers of the firm of .Morri.<, V ' " 

Faidkner, and Co. were : — William Morris ; Fori 

Hrown ; Dante (iabriel Hossetti ; K<iuard l',uni<-.I..i,. - ; 

Arthur Hughes ; Philip Webb, archit«'ct ; Peter Paid 

Marshall, surveyor and engineer ; and Charles .losejih 

Faulkner, an Oxford don. As Kossetti said, the firm had 

no idea of commercial success, bat it succeeded in their 

own des|iite. Of course, there were difiicullies 

trade jealousy to lie comhnte*] and nrti-tie v 

to l)e secured ; but the vei;' 

and one of the Exhibition ji. 

mendation of the work exhibited. They d< r as- 

" in th<- '♦' '  of the Middle Ages," and as " s,i>,-,..v..,iy to 

thear> t from the exactness of the imitation." The 

aecoinit ol the ' " " : - . • 

work is a." full : 

stained glass windows ironi designs by Sir K. 1 

the reproductions of which are among the U; 

things in the book. But the firm aimed at success in 
many kinds of art. For instance, when tiles were wanted 
at the Ked-house, no hand-jiainted tiles were made in thi.* 
country. Mom's, therefore, ])rrH ' 
Holland, and liegan a series of p 

at last he obtained the desire<l results. The famous wali- 
pajiers, the designs for which have been, with few excep- 
tions, drawn by Monis himself, are well depcribed and 
illustrated. The jMipers, however, were never actnally 
manufactured in the works of Morris's own tirni. but in 
those of Mess; 
difficulties. A: 

was that of tajiestry making, which demands less technical 
skill than artistic excellence. This was in 1878. He set 
up a hand-loom in his bed-room at Kelmscott-house, Ham- 
mersmith, and. following the directions of an oM Kremli 
book, jiractised weaving every day until he Imd 1 econie 
jiroficient. The new industry was attempted at Merton 
first in 1881, in which year the firm set up their 
works in that place. Sir E. Bume-Joncs was almost 



38 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



invnrinWv 
11 

ST.; 
to 
m: 
dt>5«ipns fur 

{jiMi' in f : 

hi 

nn 

I" 



thr (\c>]znCT. 



I'"rt>ia 
iqnaro. 1 



nnd it is to him that Exeter 

-hull owe tlii'ir most iini>ort- 
 '4ln.<8, tiles, nor taja'stry 
Whenever it seemed 
art, lie lennied it ; nothing 
' the production of stiitahli' 
1. and his attention was 
;iifj, oarpet-makinj:^, print- 
The periodical exhibitions of the Arts 
 ' the general imjirovement of the 
lo the wide influence of ids work, 
fimi removed to (Jneen- 
A nwms in Oxfiml-street, 
mild in 1S81 they transferred their works to Merton, in 
Surrey. Mr. Vallance quotes the following account of 
them from a Frenchman, M. Gabriel ^lourey : — 

«}iopii of Morton Abb«y stand in an imineiiso 
iel 08 and charming Bccnory. Workshops ilid 1 

■ly T It it Ml ii^ly wonl thut conjuros up visions of grimy 
•moko, croaLing macliincry, and bodily toil. No, there is 
sothtiig of all that. It is a sort of large farmhou'o built on one 
tut>T, surroumlod by foliago and greenery, close by the bank of 
s MDaall stream, the Wandle, which winds in and out with happy, 
joyous 1 .Such is the workshop of Morton Abl>ey. 

Hoihin^- ietiiro.1 there except by hand. No inacbine- 

{inirer is :.v '•t'^am or electric, bat iroploinents of the 

•imj'»«t '-o' 'h»» most primitive in kind, the old tools, 

til' or live centuries ago. The predomi- 

nair. isnn is allowed almost perfect liberty 

of t»t«at an't imagination in the development of his work. This 
i* ^ji..><-ii!llv the case in the tapestry and glass-work studios, 
wh '-it exquisite nmrvols of art are turned out. The 

wci "S ]iart in the work, becomes artist, and imparts his 

•w: ;ly to the thing created, of which a rough plan has 

i»9t Le ]) by the master. The hand press is used . . . 

or t)'* V. rrotoiino irork is done directly with the band. 

Th ^si stiffness peculiar to the work 

)>( I r, it eTieonragos the workman to 

take a more j>en<onal intorvst in his labour. 
Tlii.-i striking description does not appear to l>e over- 
drawn. .Morris's view of work was that it was " right nnd 
ne< " ' II sliould have plea.«ant work that 

wn r conditions involving no over- 

taligiie. lie si it the product ion of works of art 

was i)os8ible in i... nor — iierhaps that they could be 

produced in no other manner ; but he failed to nee that no 
SfKi tlist FVfttem could render his counsel of jx-rfection 
3i>|.!i -ihle to iinskilletl lahour. However, nothing wjis 
Hii 'eristic of the man himself than these works 

at " ; 

Mr. \ a!lanef> writes j)leasantly of Kelmscott-nmnor, 
Morrio's c^juntry home on the upjier Thames from 1871 to 
the diy of his death. Kossctti discovered the jilace, and 

]>aint<'d there; Morris himself 

'''.■"•. He was Iiuried in Kelmscott 

• e its name to K<'linscott- 

, in January, 1891, Jlorris 

f*t irnous printing-presa. He held that " the 

ojil_) . .;.  1 .-.it which sur|»asse« a complete medieval 

book is n roniiilcte mwlifval building'." and, the latter 

wot' Mo attempt the 

fbn '• tlioriiughness. 

N<i I I. no details were negleot«'d, nothing 

wak i. .> ..... ... u. .; could contribute to tlie excellence of 

the work. It waR not the work of his life, but only of a 
tnryear ' ' tnily artistic than those 

from M' I. Tiiere really scj-med 

to I <r art iu uhich lie could not, if he chose, 



History of the Oommonwealth and Protectorate, 
1649-1660. Hy Samuel Rawson Gardiner. Vol. II.— 
l(i,'>l-l(i.M. lixtUii., iVKipp. lyiiuloii, IM)T. Longraana. 21/- 

Mr. Gardiner's latest contribution to the history of 
England in the seventi'enth century has a special interest 
of its own. It deals with tlie history of the Common- 
wealth from 1G51 to 1G54, and, what is more, it subjects 
Cromwcirs policy to a searching analysis, the results of 
which must be as gratifying to the historical student as 
they will be surprising to the Protector's admirers. 

Between the stem religious enthusiasm of the 
Puritans and tlie new Commercialism Cromwell stood forth 
as a mediator. No one couM accuse him of want of zeal 
for religion or for swial reform ; but on the other hand 
he realized, like Chatham, that maritime power was a 
necessary condition of commerce. " It is mainly," writes 
Mr. Gardiner, "this combination of interests which has 
raised Cromwell to the jiosition of the national hero 
of the nineteenth century." Still he .was no Heaven- 
bom Minister of Foreign Aflfairs. He entirely mis- 
understood the signiticance of the Treaties of West- 
phalia, and persisted in believing in the continutxl 
existence of a European cons[)iracy against Protestantism. 
The jK^riod of religious wars was closed, but Cromwell's 
mind still worked on the lines of the Elizabethan period. 
This ignorance of the drift of Continental feeling proved a 
very serious stumbling-block in his jwth during the 
greater imrt of his later career, and explains much of the 
ajiparent vacillation noticealile in his foreign jxilicy. 

The years 1U52, IGS.^. and 1G54 constitute a very 
important period in the history of the Commonwealth. 
Presbyterianism had, indeed, jiroved a failure in England, 
but the disorganization of the English Church remained, 
and the statesmen of the time were imable to attempt the 
task of establishing religious liberty. As early as 1G51 
Cromwell had become impatient of the existing system 
of governments, and showed a distinct leaning towards 
constitutional Alonareliy. In the same year Hobbes's 
" Leviathan " ajipeared, and political thought ranged itself 
definitely in ant-igonism to the mi.sgovemment of the 
liOng Parliament. The dissolution of" this famous 
As.scmbly in 105.1 was followed a few months later by the 
meeting of the Nominated -Parliament, which soon di.i- 
tinguished itself by the violence of its actions. This 
Parliament occupies, to quote .Mr.Gardinei'. "a noteworthy 
place in the historical'jlevelopment of England. Its mere 
exi.ftence, irrespective of the good or, evil it may have 
essayed to do. exhibits the high-water mark of Puritanism 
in Chnrch nnd .^tate." The tide indo-d had been rifing 
ever since the meeting ofvt!ie Long Parliament. By the 
" Insti-ument of (iovernment " Cromwell was installed as 
Protector, and Puritanism pwrned secure as long as he 
was at the head of affairs. The framers of this new Con- 
.'^titution aimed not only at setting »1> a bulwark against 
the desiwti-ni of a single House, • but also at i)reser\ing 
the pre<iominaiKe of Piiiitanism. Vet Sieves him.-elf when 
nttemjiting to subject Honap,Trte to the control of various 
Ixxlies hy his elaliorate C-onstitution of 1799 was not 
more manifestly building on saud than were these 
earnest Puritans. 

In 16.5.T the tide in respect to Puritanism and to con- 
stitutionali.sm had l>egim to turn. The system ofproji- 
jn'ng up Puritanism by exjielliiig all who <li«-ngreed with it, 
and by setting aside the prineijile of «'lectio'i to Parlia- 
nii'nt by the constituencies, could not lie continued inde- 
finitely. It wax not likely that men of th • world wouM 
allow Puritanism to dictate to them its law<. It was certain 
tliat Cromwell would not let his Puritan z\il blimrjiimto 



October 30, 1897.] 



LITKRATURE. 



other conHiderntiona, politicAl or miimlnno. Thn var 
1654 found (VotiiwoU ofciipiwl in tli' 
of emU'iivourin^; to get up n conHtu 
in tlio i>lat;o of the one \w and othcrn tiail ii«>iitn)y«tl. 
The statesmen of the t'oniinonwealth, however, liiul 
not only to deal with eonMtitutionnI inuttem ; they had 
to provide for war ns well as for jK'tici'. " 'I 
eoniplcte tlie jircdoniinance of Kn<{liiiul in 
Isles, and, as if this were a lifjlit task, they had 
involved the nation in a niarititne stniuj^li' with i 
naval power in the world." The work of snhjnfjating Ire- 
land, Seotland, and the colonies diirinf» th(-se years went 
on simultaneously with a Dutch war, and with ne;;otia- 
tions for an alliance with either France or S|>iiin. Of the 
volume hcfore us, the most important is)rlion is that which 
traces the forei<,'n jKilicy of ('romwcll. In his lectures 
delivered last year at Oxford, and publishe<l under the 
title of " C^ouiwell's Place in History," Mr. (Jardiner 
indicated Clie nature of tlie conclusions now laid iH-foreus. 

In the story of the first Dutch war. .Mr. (iardiner has 
differed in many imjwrtant resjM'cts from the accoiuits of 
])revious writers. We think, however, that his deductions 
will he pretty generally aecej)ted. for they enilxtdy the 
results of very careful investigations. The struggle 
between the two Protestant maritime rivals will always be 
read with interest. In spite of the magnificent seaman- 
ship of Tromj), the Dutch could not contend successfully 
against the overwhelming geographical advantages enjoyed 
by Kngland. It was extremely difficult for the Dutch 
admirals to fight with any hope of success when hamiK-red 
by a convoy. And yet the Dutch dejKjnded for their very 
subsistence upon commerce ; and so it remained the first 
duty of their admirals to defend their conmierce. After 
Tromp's death and Monk's victory of the Texel on July 
SI, 1G53, CromweU's desire for i)eace was strengthened, and 
one of his confidants — prolMil)ly Cornelius Vennuyden — 
carried to Holland what Mr. Gardiner deseril)e8 as " the 
most astonishing jtrojiosal ever made by an Englishman 
to the Minister of a foreign State." 

This proposal included an offensive and defensive 
alliance between England and Holland, which was to In- 
joined by Denmark, Sweden, and such of the (n>rman 
States as were Protestants, and even by P'rnnce if she 
conceded to her people liberty of conscience. The arrange- 
ment lietween Najioleon and Alexander I. at Tilsit 
])ales before the second jwrtion of the jn-oposal, accord- 
ing to which the Globe was to be pnictically dividcif 
between England and the United I'rovinces. A war 
against both Sl>ain and Portugal wa.s undoubtedly 
contemplated, and missionaries were to be sent to all 
jieojiles willing to receive them. Ii>teresting as the plan 
is, tlie mixture of jn^rsonal and religions aims, acceptable 
as they would have bt-en to Elizabethan statesmen and 
atlventurers, renders it un])al:itable to later generatiims. 
To the Dutch, suffering from their defeats by England and 
enjoying the benefits of peace with Spain, it seemed 
]>;>culiaily ill-timed to enter into an unprovoked quarrel 
with all those Catholic States which supiMirti»d the Incpii- 
sition. Nor, indeed, was Cromwell himself more decided 
upon a clearly defined policy. 

In July, lGo3, he certainly entertained the idea of a 
war with Spain, but, in the autumn of the same year, 
anxiety on behalf of the French Protestants led him to 
hoiie and intrigue for S|ianif.ii aid against Mazarin in 
(ruienne. Mr.Gariliner's explanutioii of these extraordinary 
fluctuations is ns follows : — •• It was not levity that was at 
the root of this revulsion of feeling inCromwell's mind but 
sheer inability to formulate a consistent foreign jiolicy 



vAtild find mom far mn ei 



to Ix' the entire ol iiiid up 
( )ctol M-r, 1 6.53, to J uly , 1 0.' ' • 
France and Sfiain. An 



stand nioof from the wiir racing 
Sixiinnnd to rest njioti an n'"- — 
States. Mnzarin's diplomacy 



Eii. 

thai, : 

shipa continued to< 

purposes of trade, I pto m, 

closes, Crumwrll's fiireiL'n ]>• 

mri' 

the 

S|iain. What had held liim back wn 

French I'rotestants, but as s ■•" - ' 

that all danger to them wiui i: 

self to war with Sjiain as being an aiuick uii t 

the Iiiipiisition. 

Cromwell h:- 
religion. I^ater - 
favour because they see in 
the jirolonged effort by whicii i. 
the Seas wa-i built ujt." In the 
pre- 
of 1 
the Puritan spirit nnii 

has now given the first , 

If the Kestoration i« to be rej^rded 
change of the form- ' * ' • 

mode of thought air 
said that the spirit of tl>- 
a hnlgment within the 1 
with these words that >lr. Ga 

and, while they are a suinma; 

the preceding jages, they give an iuii 

may exjiect in a continu * ' ' 

historical students will 

addition to our ' 

one more to the 

marvellous industry and unerring historical insight. 



no 



a 

'li 
I 

••r 
'V 



if 



a 

k 



le I'uiH- and 



•!i 
..f 
.1 

 9 

It 

he 



The Diary of Master William SI'"""" • ^ ^ 

Sliakexjx'an' ami of Kliuk)N-t)mn S|M>rt. 1 

Madden, Vire-('hnnr,l! ' •'  \ •■■'■•- ... . 

3sn p|>. liondon, 1SD7. Longmans. Idy 

This is a pleasant and valuable lx>ok. Sli 
versatility has tempted men of many sorts n- •• 
to argue that he w.-us an expert in some i 
n?ss. An Amer! ' i 

evidence that b^ •■> 

circulation of the blood. Ia>; 
Shakesix-are's legal aajuiremeir . 
lawyer now draws attention to his skill in run 
famous head of a famous college is derisively s..ii 
wondered "why gentlemen could not hunt in (!;• 
vacation," but Mr. Justice Ma' 
who love to sleep between ti 
done this where alone it can be done, that is witii tiie 



40 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897, 



Devon and Somearsei staf^hounds. He has obsened that 
theni''" ' ' "'i tiiat jKU'k do not much diffor from 

thow 1 noe, and that the " NobK* Arte 

of ^ ' in 1575, is still cited a.s an 

au:  ; .ii>w it. Sliakosj)ean* was con- 

stanUy in his mind, and he thinks tliat where the authen- 
ticity of a play or |vissa^ is in question sport fre()uently 
prondes a key. Where a genuine knowledfje of horses or 
of woodenvfl is .••liown, then he holds that the ])oint is 
more than half provetl, and that a term wrongly ustxl is 
fatal. 

AtMolut* OMiainty in Sh»kaspoarian criticism is attainable 
only in r»gard to matters of renery and hnrsoinaiishi)). Shake- 
•paar* would as soon write of roiuing a fox as of starting a 



This book is described by the real author as the 

Diarr of William Silence, who records his exjiorionces, 
kr.d vth" tivally collects certain not«B. tho loss of which loiuloavour 
til a chapter entitled " Tha Horse in Shakespoaro." 

Kv' ' of the horse who is a student of Shakespeare 

mnst hare been struck by the number and apjiropriatencss of his 
references to horses and to horsemanship : and I found that some 
puaagee which once seemed obscure became clear, and that 
others gained a new significance, in the light of such knowlwlgo 
of the old-world phraseology of the manage as may be acquired 
from tho copious souroes of information set forth in a note 
entitled " The Book of Sport." 

The chase of the nnl deer is first taken in hand, the 
honnds being " of necessity Master Kobert Shallow's," and 
the scene is transferred from Exmoor to Gloucestershire 
and the Cotswolds. The hunt occupies four chapters, 
plentifully garnished with a])i)0site passages from Shakes- 
])eare. Six chapters are devoted to the sayings and doings 
of country sjwrtsmen when not ac-tually engaged in pur- 
soing anj-thing. The kennels are visited, and we learn 
that " the old Exmoor staghounds, the last survivors of 
the Southern hound," were sold to a German baron in 
1*-: " • they have been succeeded by what areprac- 

ti' \-liounds. They have lost much of the fine 

m i in the " Midsummer Night's Dream " by 

Ti j.-!^' jjack were 

Matched in mouth like bells 
Each nnder each. 

On the other hand, they are not so " slow in pursuit," 
and we an' told tliat — 

The philosophic stag-hunter, dismounting after a twenty- 
mile gallop acroas Exmoor from Yard's Down, may reflect that 
ThMeos' hounds, tuneable as wa« their cry, could no more have 
«?eoantad for tho four-year-old gallo(H!r set up at Watorsmoet 
than a pa<'k of beagles ootdd kill a fox in Loicestc-rsliire, and 
that neitlior to honnds nor to men lias the grace of absolute per- 
fection be«:n vonclisafod. 

In describing country bum{tkins the author does not 
forsret to put them sometimes alongside of peoi)ie who 
hi!  .and cities. The distinction is well inarke<l 

it; I'-rs of Slender and Kenton. Mr. Ju.stice 

M of <ipinion that SliakesjK'are did not at first in- 

ti;. - jw for a caricature of Sir Thomas Lucy, but that 

he did " at some time of his life intend this identifica- 
tion." In Henry IV., and in the early rpmrto of the 
Merry Wiiv» of Wintiiior, Shallow is still the Cilouces- 
t'  a somewhat ])r()l)h'matical 

V' ' e<lition of the latt^T jday 

that he i" merged in the [>om])OUK knight, who knew the 
ways of t 'ourts, and who had Ix-en the host of Queen Kliza- 
heth. Tlie deer-stealing story is discredited altogether, 
though it was early accepted at Stratford, " where Shake- 
Dpeare's taxtca and habits made it seem likely to the 



townsfolk that he might have got into trouble by loving 
sjwrt not wi.sely, but too well." Exact \mmf is im])Ossible, 
but .Mr. Sidney I>ee has lately examined the evidence, 
and is not indineil to flout llie received triulition. 

There are chapters on hawks and hawking, which has 
its votaries in England still, but which can never again 
become general. Enclosures make the pursuit ditticult, 
neither herons nor falcons are easily to be had, and sliort- 
wingtnl hawks cannot coin])ete with breecliloatlers. Fal- 
conry had a whole language of its own, uj)on wliidi the 
author de.scants copiously, " I am," says Ifandet, " but 
mad north-north-west ; when the wind is .southerly I know 
a hawk from a handsaw," Upon this Mr, Justice Madden 
remarks : — 

The heron was also called lieronsliaw (horonsewe in Chau- 
cer's •' S(]uier'8 Tale," and herounsow in John Rassull's " lloke 
of Nurture," circ. 14o0), easily corrupted into handsaw. Shake- 
speare does not hesitate to put into tho mouths of his characters 
vulgar corruptions of ordinary language current in the stable 
or in the field. Thus Lord Sands talks of springhalt (stringlialt), 
and iiiondoUo of fashions (farcy) and fives (vivcs). In the 
edition of Hamlet by Mr. C'larko and Mr. Aldia Wright we 
find tho suggestion that tho north-westerly wind would carry 
the hawk and the handsaw between tho falconer and tlio sun, 
with the consequence that they would 1 e indistinctly seen, 
while it would bo easy to tell tho dilTerence between them when 
the wind was southerly. I believe this to bo the origin of the 
saying. It was probably a common <.no in Shakespeare's time, 
which naturally fell out of use with tho i)ractice of falconry. 
In aid of this suggosti >n 1 may add that, in on article on " Fal- 
conry in the British Isles " in tho Quartrrly /Jcricir (1876), an 
account of a flight at tho heron is quoted from an old French 
writer, who describes tho neronshaw as mounting directly 
towards the sun, pour .<« courrier de la clartK The soothsayer in 
Cymbeline (iv. 2, 350) notes as a portoiit that Jove's bird, 
the Roman eagle, "vanished in tho sunbeams." This annoy- 
ance must have occurred constantly on a bright morning with a 
strong north-north-westerly wind. The angler who, under 
similar conditions, in order to have the wind in his favour, 
fishes with the glare of the sun in his eyes, can synipatliizo 
with Hamlet when he describes himself as " mod, north-north- 
west." When tho wind is southerly he can tell a r'.ss fiom a 
ripple. 

liOvers of the horse will find much to interest them in 
this volume, both as to breeding, training, and using the 
noble animal. Shakespeare may or may not have held 
horses at the play-house d(K)r, but he certainly understood 
them, and the language of the stable and the riding school 
was familiar to him. He alludes more than once to racing, 
but without showing any afTection for it, " It occupies 
the uniijue position of a sjwrt recognized by Hacoii and 
ignored by Shakespeare ; so let it pass." For fi^ihing, 
at least of the more legitimate kind, he seems to have had 
but little ta.ste, and Walton, who IovchI poets, does not 
mention his name. The author adduces evidence to prove, 
and it is plea.sant to believe, that Shakesp<'are did not 
care for bear-baiting or such like barbarous amusements. 

The Diary is followed by a critical appendix, which 
raises many interesting rjuestions, but only one of these 
need be noticed here, " Whenever," says the author, " a 
knowleiige of the incidents or the terminology of Eliza- 
bethan n\x)Tt suggested a dejtartnre from the text of the 
" Glol)e ShakesjM»are," which I have generally adoptetl, I 
have noted the variance. The consecjuence has uniformly 
been to restore the reading of the Folio of 1G23." 
We are, therefore, called u|K)n to lj<'lieve that that is the true 
original, and that the Quartos ought to be rejected when- 
ever tlu-y clifTer from it. Mr. .Justice Madden agrees that 
the Cambridge edition is the best, but lie joins issue,- 



October 30, 189 



7.J 



UTKKATURE. 



41 



ncvt'rthclcsii, witli tho editor, who lnul " Koriicu lifro n-iul. 
or lu'iirtl (I MU>;j;fntion thiit tlie t«?xt of the First I'olii' 
oiijjlit to be tiikcn a« a buHis for a critical edition «>t 
Sliaki*s))enre," but who found that, "in f " litv 

of caHfs whore a jin-vious Quarto <■xi^I . mid 

not tlic Folio is our l)<'!*t authority." luich 
jiiussafjt" must no (loiil)t Ik- considi-nti hi']>arat»"lv, :< 
not likely Mint universal a;,'reenient will ever 1.K' attain(*(|, 
but the author's ph-a for the editors of the First Folio 
will not hv readily afeejited. He tells us that if HeniinK«' 
and Condell exii^'fj<'nited the iinjwirtance of their own 
work they must lie regarded as eonsjiinitors, and that \i*-ii 
Jonson and Leonard I)it,';;es nuist have been of tin 
))lot. It is true that Jonson and l)if;gP8 and Huj{li 
Jlolland inelixed verses to the First Folio, hut they 
arc in praise of the poet and not of his executors. 
Jonson says a great deal about Martin Droeshout's 
success, but nothini^ about the s)K-eial text which 
his portrait illustrates. It would be as reasonable to 
claim Milton's authority for the Second Folio merely 
on account of the famous lives therein printed. In any 
case the lG2o Folio was the first ottempt at a collectMl 
edition, and that was quite enough to cause rejoicing 
among men of letters. It was not a complete edition of 
Shakespeare's works, but it made the first long step 
towards one, which suflHces to account for its fame and for 
the enonnous jtrice which a copy commands in the market. 
As an almost exhaustive treatise on Shakesperian sjiort, 
this book may be safely recommended to all who love the 
jKH't and to all who love the country and its amusements. 
There lu^e some suggestive wood-cuts. 



Gleanings in Buddha Fields. Studies of Uaiul <nul 
Siml in ihv Km- Kast. n> Lafcadio Heam. 71x.")in.. 21*1 pj). 
London and Now York, 18U7. HaiT)er. &/• 

This is a volume which should have been printed on 
riee pajicr and clad in one of those dainty bindings which 
the Japanese delight in, for it is not so much a Iwok about 
Japan as the very emanation of Jaimn. It is little to say 
that .Mr. Heam has " the feeling of Japan." and he 
maligns himself when he asserts that that feeling cannot 
Ik> communicated to Western minds. Though even his 
metaphysical speculations are full of poetry and suggesti(m, 
we may not always be able to follow him into the esoteric 
world of Buddhist thought through which he sfmrs on the 
fearless wings of enthusiastic conviction. But in the less 
shadowy world of Jap;niese life, with its jierennial vouth 
and hoary antiquity, its exuberant joyousness anil subtle 
pathos, its robust vitality and delicate sense of beauty, we 
cannot wish for a more appreciative and stimulating guide. 
Wherever his fancy leads us through the highways and 
byways of Ja])an, whether to Osjika, the great capital of 
her mmlern industry, or to Kyoto, her city of ancient 
t(Mnples ; whether into the counting-house of one of her 
nu'rchant princes, or into the humble toyshop where he 
tells us the Jajwinese secret of making pleasure the com- 
monest instead of the costliest of exjK'riences ; whether 
ijito the rustic spirit-chamber of a Shinto shrine, or into 
the Imperial (larden of the Cavern of the tJenii, he in- 
variably lifts for us a corner of the veil through which our 
Western eyes are apt to jteer vainly at " a world of tra- 
ditions, beliefs, siipiisiiticins, feelings, ideas." <.> f.-reign 
to our own. 

What can be more delightful than the opening 
chapter, in which the smiple story of village life in any 
one of the thousand hamlets of Jajuui is told, as it were, 



through the mouth of the tut^-lar 

:ill ttii- lillllibli' i<<^- 'rlut u.M'~, 'iliit 1.. 



b. 



Ill til'' 111!!, ^ii.in:'- 1 nv -mrii- i|iii,>< iii.'i ' ;;iui'iwiii 
■rove f" 



wiinid «hiir>«r all I 



wiinid «luir>«r all 

^ . ymn, I in.i i<.\i-.l J v 

He m good ; ho nt triio ; tiut 
of our lovo i» dnrk. Aid n« 
tu that wu ^ 
barn "f my 
ow 



to m« : 

l«i!.tV. 



Iii..t Illllll .U.'l II 



Mdthvrs would briiif* their childron to mj thrMbold, uxl tMrh 



wn bolore the gn>at liriKht 
II. ' ' Thm 1 thould b«ir tbu 



i-mbcr that I, tb* 



more dramatic 

,,.-1 •' ,.;.;. ;.- 



tiian 



an 
'ft. 



tli''- • .  : 

ghost and god, hud been a {ath«r. 

No cli 
pothetic ti 

" The Seven Seals " contain 
the tale of Hamaguchi, " ,i .. 
description of one of those tri 
which now and ' ' 

for scores and '.. 

One autumn evening, more than n lui 
ago, Hamaguchi, who was t!ic headman of 
was watching from the balcony of his house the pn'jiara- 
tions for a merry making in the village liolow, in u ' ' ' 
wa.«, alas I too old ami intirm to join. An enr- 
came, not  !i to frighten iu 

that land of _ . but with "a ^. ow, 

sjKingy motion . . . and Hamaguchi became aware 
of something unusual in the offing. He rose to 
his feet and lookeil at the sea. It had darkened 
quite suddenly, and it wa.** acting sf: " T 

to be moving against the wind. T' 
away from the land." And not 

what that monstrous ebb h':^ . 4 to 

the beach, and even b«»yond the beach, to watch it. But 

Hamaguchi knew its meaning. He calls to l- i«on 

for a torch, and, hurrying into the tield where uer 

crop lies piled up i ' ... j^^ 

kindles the Mm-<lrii i/e, 

and the big Ih*II is set booming in the neighbouring 
temple, and the jieople hasten liack in r>«i.,.'i,.. t,> f.w 
double api>eal. They think he is mad. 

" Kiia '. " shoiitmt the old man at the top of hia voicei putitt- 
ing to the open. '• Say » ow if T 1«» mnd ! " 

w at the 
dirndl w- 



Throuph tlip fwi 
edpo iif tho dusky h<ir 
ill. '  ' 

tl.. 
of 
loi 
Cou ..;..,.. 



JV Kl' !'• '^\,.rr,l\. r-V l.ii.. 

I. Uiwering like a clitT, and 

'* rjiiiKirni .'" shrieked tho jiooplo ; and then all nhrieks and 

ted by 



all «..,.i,.Ia ni,.l .,11 i..,,vor to h.' 
n^. ; thiin HI 

»ln _ :l « I'l'llt 

hilU, and with a io 
Then for an instant 1 

rushinp up the slojo like a liuud -, and ih 
back in panic from tI:o mere menace of it. 
again, tliey saw a white horror of sea r. 
their homes. It drew back marine, anil 
of tho Innd as it went. Tw 
and ebl>e<l, but each time 
to its «?•■■•■•• ' •■ 1 and stay. 
On :u for a t 

stared .-.;.. .,'.y at tho »......;. ,, .„.,<.... 

of harled rock and naked riren cliff, tho 



-■i\ swell 

iii-li tb.- 



ml 

ed 
of 

tela 



.Vll 

, — ..„ , ,..;.Ot.s 

bewilderment of 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



ol 

ai . 
r<  
D .. 
tl 

T. 

He, th> 
the noorost 
kuDiIrpd liv. 



-><!• WT»ok and nhinj^lo shot over tho otni cy Bitu 

•i't'ii>!e. Tho villain wa« not : tho great r j>art 

ovon the ti'trvoa* had coasotl to oxiat ; 

« that had boon almiit ttio lv\y (hore 

•.'j>lilo cxcopt two -^ 

iftor-tvrror of th'' 

.■.ah, uuUl Lhu 
tly,^ 

1 almost as poor as 
i>ia h6 had saved four 

 .,.., ;„ .1,, 






a 
iu 



hi: 






^\ 



■lnv" tlioro 
and 
A ay. 

10 di<l not forgot their 
t make him rich : nor 

11 had it been {H>ssibl(>. 
fd as an expression of 

Is hull ; for they believed that 

■lo. So they dei'laro<l him a god, 

i Daimycois, thinking they 

id truly no greater honor 

iwn lo mortal man. And when they 

;ilt a tomplo to the spirit of him, and 

, . .VI . l„..iring his name in Chinese 

him there, with prayer and 

., ... ... it I cannot say : — I know 

In-o in hi.s old tliatched houio upon 

• ami his children's children, just as 

as before, while his soul was being 

in" bflow. A hundreil years and more he 

'<■, they tell me, still stands, and 

ghost of the good old fanner to 

. trouble. 

 for one more quotation, and our 
di nil extravagant evihaiTOS d/; richesses. 

Br . . , ■•> liis ovm work the words in wliich he 

describes the old-fa-'^hioned method of Japanese teaching, 
the example we have chosen may serve to illustrate " a 
metluHl which invests every form and every incident 
«i tion." 

f a little girl dissolves my reverie. She 
i» ' ( brother how to make the Chinese 

ct I Mnn with a big M. Then she trios 

U> ' " on the baby memory by help of 

a I \y learned at school. She breaks 

• ^ . [111(1 manages to balance tho pieces 

Mf- tho same angle as that made by tho 

t» .. .i.i.ter. " Now see," sho says : " each 

it.- of the other. Ono by itself cannot 

•ta:.. . ji is like mn'ili'i.l 'W itli,>ut help ono 

Wnon  !iis world : bin '[> and giving 

n«lp ' ' If nobody iy, all people 

W' nd die." This explanation is not philologi- 

es! a^ a mere item of moral information, it con- 

t».  all earthly religion, and the best part of all 

*ai' A world-priestess she in, this dear little 

maul, -.wUi ht.t dove's voice ftnd her innocent sospel of one 
k>tt*r' ^ " ^ 

If ' " " ' - Ix'tween nations depend largely 

on th- one another, we can only hojie 

th • wiio is Lecturer on English Literature at 

th' r Tokio, is as successful in imjKirting to 

Ihi ajents a knowledge of the national life 

«"'J' " ' 1 "r '• ' !• as he is in fnniili.irizing 

Wei-ti-ru PM ; ,, w.  of the subtler aspcct.s of 
Jspanetie lif<-. 

 .ew Arnold, jukI their influence on 
K»'> . Sir Joshua Fitch, fomuily H.M. 

f napcK t4jr of lYaining Collofto*. 7jx5iin., 'IH jip. Uindon, 
WW. Heinemann. 6 - 

Arnold of Rugby. Uut 8<hool Life nn<l CnntributionH 
lo f^ ' ' • I by J. J. Pindlay, F'rimipal of tho 

O' Tniining College. "jxSjin.. xx. + 010 pp. 

CVi University Press. 16;- 

• lo of the Great l-^linator Series has a 
vider »coi»e and one of more immediate practical interest 



than any of the six previous nuinlx'rs of the series; for the 
two names which apjiear on its title l«ige represent 
the great educational movement of the Victorian era. 
T' !•< .\ni()ld is unquestionably the greatest edii- 
.1 figure of the reign, or, indetnl, of the cen- 
tury. We see in him not only the great head master 
inaugurating a new era in the teaching and the 
discipline of Knglish ])ubiic schools, but a reformer 
to who.'se enthusia.sm is largely due all the educational 
advantages now offerwl so generously to the le.ss fortunate 
classes of the community. lie bore a large jiart in the 
beginnings of the l/>n(lon I'niversity ; to the principles he 
insisted ujwn mtist be traced in great measure the move- 
ment which resulted in the P^ducation Act of 1870 ; and 
it is in strict acconlance with the gospel of humanity 
which he was one of the first to preach that a new spirit of 
brotherliood between classes has found definite expression, 
and that sonietliing lias at last been done to spread among 
the poor the blessings of knowledge and refinement. 
Thomas Arnold was above all things an influence. Many 
men have been lietter instructors than he was. Dean 
Stanley, when asked if he taught the sixth form a great 
deal in the course of his lessons, said, holding uj) a little 
notebook he had in his hand at the moment, •' 1 could put 
everything that Arnold ever taught me in tlie way of in- 
struction into this little book." lie had little appreciation 
of art or even of poetry. But, if he did not instil into his 
pupils a great body of learning, he did inspire them with 
much of his own enthusiasm for knowledge ; he made 
them feel its dignity and its power, above all they learnt 
its moral aspects, and its immediate be.vring on the higher 
issues of life. We are glad to see that Sir Joshua Fitch 
records a serious protest against the popular belief that 
" Tom Brown's School Days " is to be taken as a picture of 
Rugby under Arnold. As ^Matthew Arnold jwinted out to 
him, it gives only one side, and tliat not the best side, of 
Rugby school life or of Arnold's character. We trust 
that Dean Stanley's Biography will live when Tom 
Ifughes' romance is forgotten, and that " Tom Brown " 
will not be quoted in future years 

As illustrating tho low standard of civilization, the false 
ideal of manlinoss, and thu deep-seated Indiirerencu to learning 
for its own sake which cliaracterizod tho upper clodses of our 
youth in tho early half of the nineteenth century. 

Sir Joshua Fitch does not disguise his own rather 
advanced views on higher education ; but, while they 
enable him to criticize with insight some parts of Arnold's 
educational meth<xl,they do not interfere with a singularly 
complete and impartial estimate of it. If we may suggest 
a criticism on work so atlmirably done by so high an 
educational authority it is that, with so representative and 
central a figure as Arnold for its subject, a somewhat 
wider view might have been taken of his antecedents and 
the general results of his work. Some mention, for 
instance, might have been made of tlie original exjx'ri- 
ment in school discipline made by Rowland Hill and his 
brothers at their school near Birmingham — an experiment 
wliich arouse<l an immense amount of interest both here 
and abroad, and was jirobably not witliout its influence 
upon the new rfiffime at Rugliy. It eonsistetl mainly in 
jiutting the a<lministnition of law and justice 
matters almost entirely into the hands of the 
was an audacious scheme, but it went too far. 
Hill's pupils said, "The thought le.s.sness, the spring, the 
elation of <-hildhood were taken from us — we were jirema- 
ture men." A very similar criticism was made with 
regard to the Iwys turned out from Rugby. This kind of 
moral precocity hardly sunived the days of Arnold. 1 low 



in school 
boys. It 
As one of 



October 30, 1897. 



LITERATURE. 



41 



fnr, as ii mftttor of fact, his work difl livf aft<T him, how far 
\u' lu-tnaWy reformed public sch<K)l life, i.s a (jueMtioii we 
wotild ^'ladly have tteen Sir JoHhiia Fitch diitciiM n Iittl« 
more fully. The Kugby Head Master wn.M not alone M a 
reformer. Others, esjHfially H«!Wi'll of Hadlev and i^t. 
("oluinba's, liavo greatly contributed to a hi 
tion of a liberal education, and sociiil change- 
toward.s a <jreater civilization in scIkk)! life ami a 
better relation between nuwterH and boys, Tliero in 
much, too, in the school life of to-day whicli ixiintx 
to forgetfulness of the great lesiion taught by Arnold. 
Some think that the love of knowledge is not the nlo^t 
conspicuous featun* of our public s<hoo!s, and there 
is certainly still much of unintelligent, uninspiring 
gnunmar-grinding (piite out of harmony with tlio 
Arnolilian spirit. Hut he unquestionably impressed not 
only on the .schools, but on the nation, a new ideal of 
education, and stimulated in every educational institution 
in the country (to use the words of the Itishop of Here- 
ford) '• tlie growth of public sjiirit, moral thought fulness, 
and what we sum up as Christian character." This 
is well brought out in Mr. Findlay's book, a book intendwl 
for a more special class of read<>rs — to which the Bishop 
of Hereford also contributes. There is not much original 
matter in it besides the Bishop's brief but very interesting 
intnxluction. It is a kind of •' Arnold Memorial," con- 
tjiining extracts from Stanley's " Life," Sermons and Kssays 
by Dr. Arnold on educational topics, and a notice of 
the chief books bearing on Arnold and educational reform. 
It is carefully done, and students ofeducation will certainly 
find it a book worth jxissessing. Sir .loshu'v Kiteh's 
chapters on Matthew ArnoUl gain great • 
the fact that his life on its jtractical side.  
can be gathered from Mr. tfeorge Kussell's collection of 
his letters, has not been written, and that Sir .Joshua 
Fitch is the one man now living who is most 
capable of dealing with it. It may well be asked 
why Matthew Arnold, who is knowni to the vast m.ijority 
of readers only as a iKi(>t and a critic, who was never a 
teacher by profession, who formulated no new educational 
theory, who did not even believe very much in the kind 
of school to which his father's energies were devoted, and 
who performed with distaste, and from some points of 
view not wholly with success, the educational task which 
was the business of his life, shoukl be ranked as a great 
Educator. But it is imjwssible not to recognize, after 
reading Sir Joshua Fitch's exliaustive and judicial "ai)pre- 
ciation," that he had considerable claim to the title. An 
extren^ely interesting testimony to the indirect value of 
his work as an Ins]x'ctor of Schools is here quotttl from 
his assistant, ^Ir. Healing, who tells us how he insi>ired 
the teachers, and how he stinuilatwl by his own enthusia.sm 
for culture the whole life of the schools which he visited. 
" His usefulness as an Insi)ector," says Mr. Healing, '* it 
appears to me, lay very much in his success in bringing 
some tincture of letters into the curriculum of the Ele- 
mentary School.'' And he succeeded to some extent in 
ins])iring, in the same way, the great Philistine imblic 
outside the schools. He accepted the dictum of a foreign 
reporter, who said, " L'Angleterre proprement dite est le 
jMiys tl'Europe ou rinstruction ei>t le moins reimndue." 
He preacluxl a crusade in favour of a more reasonable and 
more liberal policyand of centralization onContinental lines 
as against the rule of vestries and sectarian committees. 
His knowledge of educational methods, both here and 
abroad, was immense, and his authority is constantly 
quoted in all educational controversies. The Keport of 
the Koyal Commission on Secondary Instiniction, issued 



tv, 

ei .1!- . . 

e^ , their width of view, ' 

tleu rnilliour, ar«" 'f. 

He will po down i of 

-"■    Fitch's book 'Ai: • to 

ide of jK<-fiTi*v on 

\t .or on I oo 

till ....... .jittble im; . l"' 

thought of Iiis own and f 
work — we will not 
that term an much 

tl; 

^\,- I _ 

and enlightened educational aygtem. 



The Lords of Lara. La Leyenda de loa slet« la- 
fttntes de Lara. P<>r D. Ram6n Meatodes PidaL 4 to. 
xvi.  U.S |.|>. MiMlriil, 1>4/T. DucazcaL 

Tho logend which forms tho •abject of Rafior Mcn^ndcs 

Piclkl's brilliant ttody it ono of tl;' * ' ' ■- ..i.li 

atnry. Takun front an olil li«t m; tha 

" < 'of Alfonno t 

b\ >. P"n .liinn 

abroviadn," smi 

tion of ttio " r..: 

Oonilo ' nzAlox " anil tho i" 

of tho : .... ...:!i century. Tho ._ -•*• 

seitod upon it and trrateil it to tuch omlurin^ < the 

Cancionoroa of TinionotU, <-•■'' ! ft, and their i i»e 

gomo thirty nomanfcj on t Its laUing ' •• 

attcsUMl by tho fact that,  .  . .^ 

Hurtailo do Velarde, and ' 

boanU in tho golden age oi ; ■■;" 

u»o<l in O'T rontiirv by tho Pip tV' • ' 

ill • 

Ff 

contra »a aangro " is utiil (;ivcn in 

and wus seen at tho Teatro do la r'r : 

in tho twenties. Tho vopue of t be 

inferred from the 40 plates ongr. ., v ;iS*« 

roaster, or the " Historia septem infantium do l..i.'.i," pab- 
lisho'l at Antwerp in lAl'J. 

Tho story is a strikin'.; ilhistration of tho ancient Caaidiaa 
spirit. At tho w. " ' ' " ' . 

thcru aro t>r<>soiit  
Dofia S cr <«i liii> 

last In . and. tn 

Lambra'.t brother, A 1 /.. and < 

youngest of tho Seven ' • Lara, ci.' 

According to tho Castilian code, an affront r bride- 

groom is accounted unpardonable, and Huy ... "•Tjotl 

on by his wife, strikes his nephew. A shallow trti red 

by the murder of one of T. ' '  - ' ' al 

his mistress, has gn^islv 'lila 

huntinif; near ItarKidillo. 
under Lambra'it mantle, sr 
their dripping Rwonl.s. In 
arrives and vows to take sii 

world — 

Qnc Tinruln« t por n^crr 
V 
Dissimulating his wrn: _ =ori '- fJnr.ra!o duties 

on nn embassy to his ally Al: i. with • 

letter written in Arabic, purport. ..^ . .. : raloen. 

The true contents are to this effect — Almanz'^r is aalced tn 
behea<i the bearer and to send troops to KeKros when* Boy 
Velazqucs undertakes to deliver his nephews i;,t<i the hand* of 
Ualve, tho Emir's lieutenant- Alm.inzor, h'jwcvcr, sparaa his 



44 



LITERATURK. 



[October 30, 1897. 



'« Ur«. kiid a Moorish mAidsn— in Mtme rarsions Alman- 
'T— growa anamoiirAd of Um eaptivo. Dstpito thn evil 
oaieuA ilaaoonoad ) ~ '. thoir montnr, tho Svvcn LortU 

inaiat oa foUovii uox, wh» lomU tlirni into an 

•nbns^ada at Aim ' liiov ami their two liiindioi] voomoii 

ftre alaia after mi: r.\\\'T\. Tliuir »«V( n HoiuIm nrt> st.'iit 

to Ct^rJora to b* pin . a ahiwt and shown to Gonzalo 

t.iT.'i - V ! .. f,.!'^ ;■ :on of tuorii. In pity at his 

<:onulo O unties, who dopsrta, 

.> II :i.-i<<-' liuii it i.ng to be ptesentod as a token 

'. hi* son— «s yet nnb<irn. Impotent for action, the 

 ' '  '. (jjy^ Bwiiitinp the day 

19 half-Moorish son, 

:> troop, and rctlrissoK 

:»7. in Ringlo combat, 

i iinlira alire. As a titinl touch, Mudarrs is 

mes the idol of Doua Sanoha. 

So. giTon in rough outline, does the cclobratad story reach 
ns. Sr. tfen^ndos Pidal has undertaken to traca its historic 
basis, and we nt:ty say at onco that he has acquitted himself with 
rtn: tion. Buy Velilzquoz has hitherto ci>mm<'nly 

bri ill a Leonps^ cf>i;nt of that name, in the scr\'ice 

of licrmudo the Ciouty, tow.. id of the tenth century ; 

but St. Alontfndez Pidal < ' aos, by a most convincing 

argtimcnt, that this identification has no nSore solid reason to 
support it than luis that which confuses Lambra with c>nc of the in- 
numerable Flatnulas whose names recur in ancient Calician deeds 
and eharter*. But it is by no m^ans imjmssiblo thut the tradi- 
tion embodies fragments of distorttnl f.-ict. The sending of the 
•iron heads to Cordova may bo cited as an instance, and the 
GsWe of tradition— a Moor of that name figures in the " Poema 
'<o identical with the historic Galib of Garci 
The alliance between Alni<in7Jkr and Uuy 
\'claxquez. typical of the quarrels between a great baron ond 
hi* «t!/<r:iin- i~ :i variant of the relations existing between the 
Kr. 1 and the Cid Campeador ; nhilo the episode 

of txMK.ii . <.■...-!. v>z' amours, resulting in the birth of Miidarra, 
is another version of the story of Oliver and Galeant in the 
" Viaggio di Carlo Magno in Ispagna." In both cases we find 
the same machinery— the half-ring whereby the father recognizes 
the son whom he has never saen. Sr. Mcni^ndez Pidal dis- 
cuseea the development of tl.e legend with great acutencss and 
learning. Me successfully cmibats Mibl y Fontannls' belief 
that no version of the Lara legend can be found between the 
venerable eanUtr incorporated in Alfonso's " General Chronicle" 
and tlw romanf't of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The 
lUmonstration is indeed triumphant, for :^r. Mcn-5ndez Pidal 
produces the connecting link in tho form of a much more ela- 
borate version which was discovorod by him in a fourteenth 
rentury chronicle, and which contains an admirable laini-nt by 
tho f.Ttb<»r o%-<T his son's rt-niains. Thi.s raisrs an imi><>rtant point 
— nsm ' ivation of tl:e | ootic cmlxillishments found in 

the lat' n. It is difficult to resist the conclusion that 

"h^ro < raninr dating from the end of the tliir- 

tl, '' 

tl.. 

eiu. .. . 



 g of the fourteenth century. The second 

titly, seized upon his prcdecosor's theme and 

invention details and ornaments more in 

[Hirary standards— as. for example, the 

'V Mudorra against the Kmir of Scgtirs, who 



\IVrst<-ni n-fulirs Sth his ol-scuro origin. And there is much 

Jajjanr- Tmu^ndez Pidal's conjccturo, based on a 

fho fisnvwn-ij)! " Estaria do los G(m1os," 

r even a fourth, rnn/(xr on the 

•''- Id rnnfnr that we jHissess is 

ltWiM>.Urf ul •i»*Ji.Ui« 4 del Old," the single shro.l of jetsam re- 

•**" V of a mass of ancient song. CompoBe<l 

•'7- 'iie " Chanson de Rrdand " and fifty 

»<• ' '">■ -enlied," tho " Pocmadel Cid" isan 

^■' t"»»Tr8Jnin,p„tire \^\y <,f vn„i,hed litoraturo. 

■*^"'" —  - *- f it, that this perfonnanro was 

This volnme of the Orel's against the notion and the 

wider txopc and one of more ifnioles testify to the existence 



of submcr|;e<l masterpieces. From tho early romances, none of 
which dutvH earlier than tho fifteenth century, no certain de- 
ductions can bo drawn. The most thut oan bo safely said is that 
they are the ililnit of older sonpi, freciiiently rotouchud and com- 
pletely changed from thoir primitive foiin ; they owe tlieir lives 
to the happy accident that their .^ouipurative brevity insured 
their renieinbranco down to o time wl:cn ] rintinj; came to save 
them from oblivion. And, even so, the overwhelming majority 
of the songs in the Romanceros and Cancioncros is the work not 
of popular "makers" but of courtly versifiers. Tho almost 
complete extk-.ction of older trnditioiml rong is one of tho most 
perplexing problems in tho history of 8pani>h litoraturo. Poiibt- 
I'lss tho fact that the shorter rvDinnrcs and— later — tl.e thcntro 
made use of tho more popular vir^ions of hiftoric iiml Icgerdary 
incidents may paitially account for the disappearance of tho 
earlier style ; and there is iv.iich fiTCO in t-'r. Mtni'ndei'. J'idal's 
contention that the uixritical adoption of national l<'(.'eiKl» and 
traditior.s by tho chronicles dealt a fatal blow to tho old fanlare* 
and prevented tho prcMluction of later examples in thn camo 
kind. But, be that as it may, there is grave reason to doubt if 
Castilian was, in truth, as rich in eaily verse as it is conimrn to 
suppose. The mere fact that the cl.ronicles were more to the 
popular taste is of itself ovidenco that no man it genius hud 
arisen to do for Spain wh:it the j(ti'ikiir.i had di.no for Fmnce. 
The cajitttTi'H (If ffcit!a were a purely exotic growth, and it is 
scarcely (doubtful that tho jw/Uir who sang tho exjdi its of the 
Cid was, in many resitocts, a free imitator of tho model sot ond 
fixed in thj " Chan.son de lloland." In other words Spain, liKo 
the rest of Kuroj)e, till tho coming of Boccacio nnd Dante, 
takes her themes and I'.or troatmeiit nf them from Fror.oh 
examplars. 

In the second part of his valuable appendix, Sr. Mcn<?ndoz 
Pidal endeavours to reconijtrtiot the second last cantar upon the 
octosyllabic verso-systom of tho rumavceji, and it is sini)>le justice 
to say that ho has d-no his part with romaikablo success and 
skill. Whether the ancient eatitairs followed any uniform system 
of versification is a very doubtful matter ; in tho state of tho 
text of tho '• Poema del Cid " as it survives no ingenuity can fit 
the lines to one common measure. Morcuvcr, if, as the writer 
somewhat im])rudcntly allows, the ancient chroniclers delibo- 
rately wrote at times in assonant prrse, it is obvious that tho 
hindrances in tho way of textual reconstruction ore considerable. 
But, when all allowance is made, tiiero can \m no two opinions 
concerning the importance of p'r. Meiiendez Pidal's treatipo. His 
excellent method, his ingenuity, and his immense learning are 
exemplary ; and his thoroughness is shown by the fact that ho 
has been rnibled to add seven now roniojic^jt to the exhaiistivo 
collectinn made by Agustfn Uuriin. One slip has occurred in u 
quotation from Lope de Vega's " El baatordo Mudarra, " which 

is given as 

Ay (lulces prfn<la» parn mnl hBlladas. 
Manifestly tho true reading should l.o " ]>ar mi mat halladat," 
the lino l)eiiig the opening of the tenth sonnet of (iarcilaso do la 
Vega, who plainly had in mind tho lament of Dido. 
Dulri'ii exuvii (luiii fats di-uniiuc siiicbaiit. 
Sr. Meni'ndez Pidal's woik is, beyond all question, tho most 
important that Spain has priKluccd in tho province of pure 
criticism and snliohnrihip since tho publication of Mild y Koii- 
tanal's copital volume, •' La poesfs heroico-popular castitUana." 
Written with cleamesH, vigour, and rnre ])reci8ion, it abounds 
with ingenious reasoning and |.ri.gnant suggestion, with abundant 
new facts, with diM)overio8 which m.iy involve an entire recon- 
sideration of the early chaptiTs of Kimnish literary hi»t( ry. It 
is not too much to say that 8r. Meiu'n<lcz Pidal's study of the 
Lara legend is worthy to rank beside M. Gaston Paris's " His- 
toire po^tiijuo do Charlemagne." 

Historj- of Intellectual Development, on the Linos of 

M<xl<Tii KvoUitioii. By John Seattle Orozler, "Civilisui- 

tion nnd Pr»>grfi«," &c. Vol. I. «vo., cloth, l.''i+r>:« jip. 

London. 1HII7. Longmans. 14- 

The " Intellectual Development " with which Mr. Crozier 

I has set himself to deal is that of European civilisation. Hindoo 



October 30, 1897. J 



LITERATURE. 



43 



thought (moiitioiiiHl <>n thu titlo-iinK<<) in <liicuii«o<l oiiljr with • 
view to ilotormiiiin^ whother it haii had or in iikoly to huvo my 
})rofoun(l iTitliioiu'O on Kiir<>i>«ari tlioiight, thi-roiichmion huiriK that 
it is aiul will remain (|iiito a aei'aratu ^rnwth. Judaiatn ii ilis- 
ciimckI an preparatory to Christianity. 1'lius th« book haa a 
unity not fully iiidicutoil in the titio ; fur certainly nothing 
organic couM lio iiiailc of a iiiatory r>f intullcotual ilrvelopmunt 
among mun in goueral without rofuruncn t<> aomo c < ' ' '>o- 

mont. In explaining tho ^'enorsl nature of tho achi ho 

has iH'giiQ til work out, Mr. (.'ror.ior roinnrka thnt tho muiii (|ui'ii- 
tion which concoms u.s is " whothiT thoro is at hnml n I'lfficioiit 
bmly of factK honrinj; on tho hi«ti>ry of int. ' .|>- 

inent to justify thu attempt to ro<hicu thorn t >< uv*, 

or to sctrvo as proof of the hulk atiit siilliciency of thvao 
laws when found." Ho concludes, rightly as wo think, tliat 
thero is. Tho niatorinl for historical work such as that attoniptMi 
by Hegel, Comte, Uuckk>, and Mr. Hurhvrt Sponcor is 
t>ecoming ever moro ahundant, and provisional gonuralizit- 
tions of a minor kind uru constantly being addiMl. Xor 
is Mr. Cro7.iur's own attempt altogether unsiiocessful. Ho 
has. for example, boi^n able to maku use of now results in 
roforoni'O to tho development of Hindoo philosuphy ond 
of Jewish monotheism. His chapters on these subjects coidd not 
havo been written early in the century. And, so far as miithod is 
concerned, ho is not wrong in supposing that sound cenorali- 
zations.'whon attained, should enable us to return upon history 
and deduce its main outlines. At the sumo time he lays too 
much stress upon this kind of " prediction." It is always open 
to a critic to point out that you can easily predict when you 
already know tho facts. From a knowledge of tho starting ])oint 
of CiVcok philosophy, Mr. Crozier says, its termination can \w 
fore.seon, nnd he goes on to write a sketch of tho history as if it 
were a perfectly culciduble evolution in whicli tho element of 
individuality could be ignored. This is tho Hegelian eiTor, for 
"which Hi'geliana themselves have apologized by showing that 
Be'ol wa.s all along bringing in empirical facts as given, while 
ap[iarontly exp<nuiding them as if they were formally de<Iuciblu. 
And when facts are not introduced in this empirical manner, the 
attempt to pretlict thoir details is apt to go wrong. Mr. Crozier, 
for example, puts Anaximones before Anaximander ond tho 
Eleatics before Heraclitus, because the movement of thought 
that ho presupposes requires that this should bo the onler. An<l 
is it certain that the atomic sy-stem in Hindoo philnsoj-hy. 
which he reganla as ono of its pro-determined phases, was not 
iMirrowed from the Greek Atomists ? It di>es not seem to have 
■occurred ti> Mr. Crozier to guard against all objections bysaying 
with the Hecolinns thnt ho is only describing '' the movement of 
categories in the ordiT of thought-<lctor!ninations,"and that this 
cannot always bo realized in the order of time, because there ia 
in nature some impotence or " negativity " which prevents its 
res{)onding to tho self-ovolution of spirit. His scheme requires 
that the predicted order should bo chronological. 

Comparison with Hegel naturally sugijests itself because Mr. 
Crozior's central idea is much like Hegel's. Ho sees in history 
evidence of a power working for tho production of higher moral 
nnd social relations among men, and to this end making use of 
tho unconscious agency of individuals, who are instruments in 
ft process of which they are themselves unconscious. Thus, while 
men and racos think they are working out their own ends, they 
are really working out tho ends of the genius of the world — 
"ends more vast and sublime than those they know." As 
history goes on, however, men become more conscious of the real 
end of the process ; so that in modern times improvements are 
made " directly " where formerly they would have Wen made 
indirectly. Witli Comte also Mr. Crozier suggests comparison 
when he speaks of three kinds of causes — p>ers»nal wills, abstract 
essences, and physical antecedents ; these being, in his view, 
the kinds recognized by religion, philosophy, and science respec- 
tively. The doctrine hero, of course, is not precisely that of 
Comte, for, not to speak of other differences, Mr. Crozier regards 
as real the causes that are recognized by religion as well as those 
that are racognizedby scienco,cxcluding only the "metaphysical 



ComU, malui u.y 

a ataga at tninaition lotwaen throlugy and |xMiti>« roitnca. 
Ancient phil<"< '>''>^ >' i, ,!,K ui* alm<>*t »! . i^ - •'-'tuititin 
fromonervli ..-h therK -niMiU, 

lik» that <f • VIII'" 1 1. <:ii .1 'i«, in a iM' cxrtiati, 

there was not enough cotua! • allMW |! to filial 

a n ' ' ' •• in its : '.tliekm 

an\ V' in a nui: .m hud 

btM  111 

th.. ir 

hand, tends to I . tn 

times has nt 'if .v 

only needs : Thi« r nn 

Mr. Cmzier ., , ■. that > ■■'  ...>»» 

reol internal etkiinen are <|nit" coni]>otible with ' "cicnc* 

taken as an account of uverythin.-  ' -'-n fri'm v, .LM.nt. lie 

would probably not object to ihi' ii of this reconcilia- 

tion as itj<e!f a kind of phi! i<;'ii4< of wiut Meina his 

hostile attitude towards " ' *." 

It will I e seen that, whili' 'a- 

tions to pro<kc'.'i.''ort which he <' tia* 

a distinctive point of view of his own. And  detail 

is skilfully brought under this (loint of riow.  ' '-ht, 

no doubt, b« made in n-any place* to parti-u ut 

tho course of development is well ' - e~ 

timds. indeed, there ia a tendency : of 

one side of the case by ' -i ti c i.-ncr luvfvui, 

of course, much in an< .' that Chrintian afolop i>1« 

were able to seize upon, ai:d tu tieat as ) i for a new 

rovealed teliji'-ii Yot it is. fprh.";>«, r''  to s'"t, aa 

Mr. Crozier  in 

ChristianitT " t ia 

undoubtedly tnio, as he also rays, that < came fiom 

outside the Grn-co-Uonan development, •. ita victory 

meant the dominance of a new principle. Here again, ho««T«r. 

he ia too absolute when he aii««'rti that " the aoul an' "tial 

spirit of Paganism may be expressed by the moral n- ; of 

mnster and alavu, as that of Christianity is by parent and 
children." This ia to oppoie half tho facts of the ono to tbo 
ideal of the other. We think «• «t- 

n-.ont of " Paganism " in the A , .i;t 

from any philosophic interpret ation, /  •■ iKo 

father of gods and men '' in verj- n:< rro to 

details, the assertion that the ir.« 

" took their rise in tho worship  >iro 

than doubtful. Influential ns ideas of the divinity of tho ttara 
were in clataical antiquity, they oocm '•■ l'<" i— •■ .1 Chaldean 
importation. There is a ]>as5age in .' era tho anu 

and moon are said to bo the gods of tli<' i.uuuiiaks iu diotinctioii 
from tho anthrvpomorphic gods of Orooce. 

In an appendix Mr. Cr th« 

Platonic accounts of the . :i« 

Unds extremely cr\ido cviiipareil with ; , la- 

touisni, which was, pirhap.*, tho b' ii>a 

attainable before there was genuine physical s.'ience, failc<l 
because it o'>uld only drair out an analytic scheme of tbo world, 
and could not set it in motion by a ryttem t4 personal willa. 
This Christianity, with ita tdoption of tho Mosaic C« amogony, 
was able to do. There was also a distinct theoretical advance 
from Platonism to Chrittianity, in that CI : ' 'thu 

few primordial causes of Platonism to the .xl 

by tho term " will," t' st 

key to unlock the uni.f in 

its manner a religion, or at l»a»i at 

religions oniin.irily deal with. > ' S> 

and quite philosophical in spirit, though in its earliest pages we 
note a curious tendency to '• drop into " b'.ank verse— not 
print«<I as such— in describing £rst the scheme of Creation 
according to Christianity and then according t<> the Tinin-aa. 
This is a paper that illustrates the danger of being rhetori- 
cal. 



46 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 181)7. 



None Beltrafi:e aur Thaorlo imd Technlk derBplk 
nnd Dramatlk. Von Priedrich Spiclhagen. 7rx.">iin., 
xir.-faSD pp. lieipsif;. IMis. L. Staaokmann. 6 marks. 

Thera U»bra««y opti , to Spu.l- 

hag«n'a Mcond Mrioa of ' y anil Art 

o( Spoa and Dranw " uliuit cuptivittvii tliu rvuilur from the 
bagimung, Bml aliiilos till the tut U-af is tunu-<l. We foul, as 
«• Uy Um book down, that tho wriUr would mako a duliglitful 
ooB>p*luon •'Vir ttii< nata and wine, or their native equivalent of 
mgwn aad ' ow. A sanity pl»y» upon his poges which 

ia as frv« livu, u.,,iK-w prejudice as it is from vapid enthusiasm. 
Spiethagen stands upon tho vantago-grounil of the Psalmist's 
afB, with his liu<rary reputation behind him. On his journey 
tbroo^h life. a« his own novels bear witness, ho hiis been more 
a» .\n to the negations of character. He gives 

ai, , what iliey mean, hut keeps, at the same 

tinw, an aommts wnM uf the proportions between intontiun 
■ad achisvement. In this way his present volume is an interest- 
Irg contribution to the study of contemporary literature. 

Its contents ere of varying value, and only tho first chapter 
rises to the height of a genuine essay. Much water has flowed 
nnder tho bridges of tho llhino since the first series of these 
papers was written. After 1870, he writes in tho present Intro- 
duction, " the younger men readily settled down into the con- 
ditions which were so completely changed, into which, indeed, 
tbe yt t  f;oneration had first to In; bom in order to grow 

up ut)' There were few traces of the whilom ideology 

to be discovered among them. The world was an oyster, which 
it was good to open. Success was trump, . . . and, rightly 
regarded, it is futile to deny a world when you are anxious to 
coif^ucr it. Tbe chief thing is to forgo the weapons for tho 
conquest." 80 the pessimists and ideologists disappeared for a 
while, and the realists and impressionists succeeded. In the 
lilorarj- sphere, which is Spiolhagcn's own, he recognizes epos 
and the drama as the two main vehicles of their mes!<.-igc. Each 
••lapt^-d !tw!f to the new demands, and in tho second chapter of 
:' ks a lance with Schiller on the proper 

«i y. In a latter to Goethe, dated just a 

citr. . . ' '  • r "JO, 1797, the brother poet liad written that 

*• '.-.Lry k;!i - •'•. '. ii.ance is absolutely non-poetical. It lies en- 
tirely in the domain of [reason, submitting to all its conditions, 
aiid participating in all its limits." Spiclliagen disputes this 
opinion. He holds tho view of the majority, that the romance 
and the novel of to-day are tho legitimate heirs of Homeric verso. 
A new epos, in the stricter sense, we are not likely to see : — 

" It cannot be otherwise. Every condition is wanting under 
wbirh th<- rv; -,-jv . proper wotiI'I come to birth. Mythos anil 
f- ': it derived its life, have Xmen 

"mposes with its bards. Tlio 
t t y ; lis division into countless sets, 

i tion. fortune, reputation : tho refine- 

' " ' '■   <.f labour ; 

 Hi of thl; 

;,■■ »ij,i " jcir  :^  i rSCO niul 

it tho hem of tho shore— all 

, t,, flu. T n1iTw.(.Ti....i« of the 

• Lje of 

■■«.•■ .. niM'If 

ins people, and as - 
the worbl to Vr ('. 
oi**-rvanr:i. at. ai <-u8t<Mii, and waa couipletuly {j«r- 

spicaous in its ,'„its " (p. G3). 

Bat if tiieae oonditions ean never again bo repeated, Spiel- 

bac'cn'ii biiiorical aenae it satisfio<I that the novelist occupies the 

tbo more fully and freely, indeeil, Ix'caiue his 

...»>. ..•u.i.un off tho fetters of metro and rhyme. The critic 

not rvgard such emancipation as lessening nn author's 

' "' • U (if all times and peoples 1 

f my hand.4," by writes ; but 

'.Tj.wii.zi );iSj>::itin^ picturu of the new field in which the 

n vi'lift h«» t'> W'>rV. 

' I., " Epic Poetry 

«ni<b': By a rapid scries of 

oontnata (tpieUiagen characterizes the wonders of the fresh 



material which is ready to the epioist's hand. Tho genial 
optimist seems to imply that we are inclined to underrate tho 
poetic opportunities of our own generation. Tho chorus of 
Bophocles, ho says, in which man is extolknl os tho most mar- 
vellous of croato<l things, might ovnn havo taken nn a mora 
ecstatic note had the news uf tho victory of Marathon been trans- 
mitted by telegraph-wire or had Salamis boon fought with 
mo<lern ships of war. Germany, ho admits, has never yet stood 
" under the sign of maritime ^intercourse " ; but Zeus' tele- 
scopic eye, and the telegraphic sandals of Hermes, and the tele- 
phonic communications between Olympus and Earth, have almost 
been realized by tho science of mankind. " 1 remember t<> this 
day," writes Spielhogen, by woy of (lorsonal illustration, " the 
powerful iinprossion which tho deatli of Mr. Carkor, the villain 
in ' Dombeyand tson,' made upon me : how he watched the glowing 
eyes of the locomotive, drawing nearer and nearer through tho 
night, and stood stock-still on tlio rails, liko a bird fascinated 
by the gaze of a snake, until the engine crushed him. That was, 
if I remember aright, towards the end of tho forties. liut oven 
now, when no child is any longer afraid of tho railwaj', how can 
one avoid a tremor at the description of the train rushing 
rudderless into tho night, with which La lUU Ilumaine con- 
cludes? What a multitude of difToront scones — meotings and 
partings, denouements, surprises, and ca])turos — happy or sad, 
friendly or sorrowful — have not stoam-horso and steamship, 
t«logr.ii)h and telephone, mado not only possible, but obliga- 
tory?" The writer then glances at "tho perspective of the 
bicycle," and tho part it may play in tho Odyssey of the future. 
He has a word, too, to say on tho modern tendency to read 
short novels only. Thirty years ago, ho tells us, Auerbach and 
he debated whether four volumes or three represented the ideal 
length. The author of " Auf der Hiiho " contcndotl for the 
shorter limit ; Spiolhagon was of opinion that tho book would be 
spoiled if less than tho four volumes was aimed at. To-day ho 
recognizes that tho pocket edition at ono mark has become the 
roigning favourite. 

Tho reader will turn with ready curiosity to tho accounts 
which Spiolhaj:un givos of tho sources of his inspiration for hia 
" Problematical Natures " and tho hero of " Sturmflut." Of 
more general interest is the piper on Fontano's novel, " Bffl 
Briest," wliich the critic discusses from the point of view of the 
problems of elective affinity. "Epic Poetry and Goethe," tho 
title of the second cha]>tor, is mado the opportunity of a sum- 
mary review of a wide field of literature : — 

" I must and will say, in despite of tlie favour which wo in 
Germany extend to foreign prtduction.s, that tho Gormaa 
romance and tho German novel arc not only not inferior to tho 
compositions of epic art abroad, but are far superior. We havo 
no Zola, it is true. And I willingly aiknciwledgo that ho and 
tho rest of tho French, Russian, and Scandinavian niatadores. 
of romance are almost always very industrious, very well- 
instnictod, nuL^tly quite entertaining, and sometimes oven 
brilliant writers. IJutstill lam unable to admit them to a high rank 
in epical composition. Tho ' documents huniains ' which tlioy 
8cmi>e together out of every nook and comer are not artisti<^ 
pictures, and hardly claim to l)o so. Their reward will Ikj that 
they and their (Jennan worshippers and imitators will fro down 
to oblivion when once the fashion has changed and tho interest 
in the material has abated. Our Gustav Freytag and Gottfried 
KoWr, Paul Hiyso and Theodor Storm do not only lie nearer t<v 
my heart ; but! admire them at tho same time as the far greater 
artists who dutifully bow to the W.i tiipremn fvrnur" (p. 8&). 

It is characteristic of Hpiclhagen's sanity that ho apologizoa 
in a foot-note for tho sweeping statement in the text. It is 
unfair, he writes, to tar with ono brush a master liko Maupas- 
sant and a dilrltanU like the author of " Trilby." 

Tho second division of tho book, which is considerably 
shorter, consists of tho contributions to tho art and theory of 
drama. Tho dramatic profession in all its branches, whether of 
acting or of writing, plays far more conspicuons part in 
Germany than in England. Tho overagi^ ooi'ioty man in IJerlin 
betrays in his small-talk a very i)oor opinion of tho English 
stage. At home, on the other hand, he seldom visits a theatre 
of any standing without having previously rca<l the piece whii^h ho 
is going to see. He discusses it afterwards by tho help of 



October 30, 18U7.] 



LITERATURE. 



47 



Ai'ibtotlu and I.tiNsiM)^, niid rufroHhus his muinory, bvfora jMuutng 
judgmunt, by rcmling thu liook iguin. It i« thin douliU viow of 
dramatic work, aH litoraturo and upvctivclii, which makcii tho 

theatre bo prominciit a oiviliKiiig (actor in Gc - -'Innal Ufa. 

No surprinu tlion will Ihi fult when a critic oi 'n'a omi- 

nunco dovutes IW pages to u niinuto app! wiral 

and ruBpoctivu moiitH of Hartlubcn, Hul ttin, 

And Sudurinann. AVu (^atlier from his rot : 
ho looks on thoCiormnn drama as still in n i: 
holds fast to many <>f tho principlos of thu c 
to tho famous " unities " thi'msclvus, then at i 
conviction that, '' turn and twist it as you will, a tlruina is anil 
romuius tho production of an action by moans of ropruauntatiun. 
. . . This action must bo, in tho strictest sense, oompleto. 
That is to say, it must start from a definite beginning; and work 
tip to a definite end, In onlor to do this, it muit havo an 
agent, a dofinito man beforo our eyes, who is involvod iu tho 
turmoil of the world and trios to fight his way out of its compli- 
cations, or — as in a tragedy — who is overcome in tho strug>,'lo. 
Such a man, as tho doer of tho action and tho puarant'.'o of it« 
singlenosH, wo cull tho hero of tho drama." A play without a 
hero, adds tho writer, a "Hamlet" without tho l"riuco of Denmark, 
is" no drama, but only a series of dramatic scones, so many 
variations — rising in intensity if you will, but at bottom 
nothing but variations — of ono and the same tliumo " (p. 250). 

Starting from this principle, Spielhagen docs not take tho 
young lions of literary Germany quite so seriously as Ho finds 
them. Some ho proves out of their own mouths to bo roaring as 
gently as any sucking-dove. Others ho is inclined to regard as 
tho victims of their followers and cliques. How true, for 
instance, is tho final judgment between tho claims of Sudor- 
inann and Hanptmann : — 

" The adherents of a rigid realism recognize in Hauptmann 
« master-mind, while for Sudermann they have not a good word 
to say. The adherents of tho older school shudder at Haupt- 
mann's name, but would gladly count Sudurmann on their 
aide, if ho only did not now and tlion go so far on tho realistic road 
which they abhor. Tho fact is.botharuthroughand through nuxlem 
men and poets. From twoditforent points on the circuniforLnco 
they are making for tlie same centre. Perhaps Sudormann has 
more ' world ' and versatility, Hauptmann more inwardness 
and depth. l!ut such subtleties may be left to the enthusiasts 
at either end. Tho wise friend of poosy will rejoice that we 
possess two such men '' (p. 3oi)). 

ISuch a passage as tho foregoing casts a suggestive light on 
tho German's trained faculty of criticism. No ouo can have 
listened to the literature-classes in a Prussian gymnasium 
without admiring the thoroughness of tho teaching, and the 
manner in which every comment is based upon precedent and 
rule. Hut Spiolhagon's impatience at tho hair-splitting of con- 
temporary critics points tho inevitable moral. Authors are 
Klividi'd into categories and classes, as mutually inoomjiatiblo as 
German political parties, ond literature ceases to l>e taken as a 
whole or read for onjnymont alone. It may bo tho more sciontilic 
way, but it has its attendant dangers for the writers as well aa 
for their public. 

Spielhagen's present " Contributions " aim at obviating 
this risk. They are pleasantly written and well illustrated from 
native and foreign sources. It may bo that some of them are 
too near to tho sulijecta which they treat to successfully antici- 
pate tho verdict of ixistority. In Germany, at any rate, they 
ore likely to arouse considerable discussion, which is, after all, 
not tho least mission of such books ; but any ono interested in 
niodorn Gorman literature who enjoys tho combination of kindly 
good-humotir with shrewd common-sense may safely bo com- 
mended to Spielhagen's pages. 

America and the Americans. Prom a Kivnch Ptiint 
of View. Post 8vo., IIKJ pp. London, 1S!)7. 

William Heinemann, 3,6 

It is always interesting to know whether oflTection is 
rcciprcwated, and tho well-known lovo of tho American for 
Paris makes us naturally curious to rood a Frenchman's 
impressions of the United States. H. Paid Bourget's book, 



•• Outre Mur," haa bo«n nmi and mijojtmI bjr a host of 
Englisbmou, and now an annnvi»<,i>a Kr..., ,.1,0,^,1 im^ written 
a b«M)k on the aamo an 1 perliapa, (ram 

qait* tita same point of vun. >■■■• rMsioua, i«i<i %n 

Ainarican lady to Uui writer of " .s 1 tba ▲aariauw," 

" iMDi ! ' ' on filtered through u i ..rk 

ftltor k viera printMi ; oiid. y< ,^^ 



lU t 



•iva 
I of 
t ia 



acute •' 

admirab.:., .. url:iv 1.. _,„ 

which aervo 1 xh 

it contains, in*- iiui.ii"t »iit" ^ u^ ^ i-*,!-; < i .x'l'.t-i nui.'i ami ft 
lovor of Democracy — in fact, a« a Hopublican of Itopnblicaaa ; 

' . from leeing . ' 
1 kavii failan! 

iueut ,>t mUwIi 

mi-t:tnb|r tlmrt- 

c£ 

ti- 

tutos, and what derogates frmii, true I..1I in 

thu States of the Union. " Thu theory < : hty 

of every man," ho writes, " is a good tJ. 'it 
said in its favour, done away with a c 
lower to tho up(wr clasaea ; but, in prati 

good manners ond olx-'iK i o- 

raent of New York, < io 

tho hands of uni t and it.. >." 

Dut wo have not  qii'>to : ,jar 

author's very in; cs and 

manners. Wo mu , .:' thu 

witty aphorisms whioli k. 

" The best society of I.... .,.,^u or 

so ; the best society heru is ... 
Society, to bo jivrmani : ' ' ' up of idl« 
profeasionals, not of only indi- 

vidi; • T 

we: ot 
malu) cuJeu, »u Uuit ti 
dtusa salad, henco t:o I 
an ill-ri 

bonk, c 

u-h are 
. ., ~~:.. ..— ^ -ad in tlio I . ~. 



J fAlSIl 

obtaii-t^l tho 



r'H, by I 

.1 second 
' D Lady 
of tho . 
Jehuda Halcvi, Hcinricb Heine, Manassch 
Moses ^lendelssohn are among those wboae li\ 



...ir, 

cbitf 

r race. 

I, and 

..oracter* 



ore sketched both lightly and brightly. A leas known, yet even 
more interesting, personality is dealt with under the title of 
" Tho Story of a False Prophet," which gives an account ci the 
mrt or of a remarkable Eastt: ' ^ '' irthcentuiy, 

Sal >i, who claimed to bo t i?d McMiah, 

and .. . .. [ '.-■•i ihu Luvoat Jews. Uo 

ultia ..t iy i! .0 his c»r«>r amusingly 

enough as door po eutliuaiasm 

with which his ol.i -^'Stimony to 

tho fund of mysticism '0 generally 

credited with exclusive . — - - --- - : teresta. The 

recent Science Congress at Basle proved that this mystical strain 
in the Jewish nature is by no means wanting among them crcn 
at the present day. This rradable little volume might alao be 
cited as an instance of the same t ' ' 'y Magnus 'a 

enthusiasm for her cree<l and race «'; r throughoat 

its pages. Like all Mr. Nutt's pabli .: is well got op, 

but in the copy torwiin.leil to us thu . oe referred to in 

tho preface faila to appear. 



48 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



Hmono ni\i Boohs. 

 — 

HISTORY AS IT IS WRITTEN. 

1« it cynical to he amused by the innocent absurdities 
of !i» ? Nothing, to my mind, can be more 

an. ^. .u the way of literature, than to read, side by 

side, the works of two historical writers w ho deal with the 
aar- !!t, with the same authori- 

tir. .... . ... t. I have lately read, in 

pare indolence, the chapters on Mary Stuart and Eliza- 
beth Tudor, by Mr. V '.'ul Mr. Patrick Frnser Tytler. 

Mr. T\tler was no .>i i. He thought that ALiry had 

a goilty knowledge of her husband's murder, but as to 
hem much Mary knew he was uncertain. The Regent 
Momy he rcgard^-d as a great, and, on the whole, as a 
good man, with a dash of the PccksniflF. ilr. Froude had 
no d<" • Mary was deep in her lord's murder; 

Murraj :red as the liayanl of early Protestantism. 

As to Elizabeth, Mr. Froude had few illusions. His 
opinion about her guilty knowletlge of Amy Robsart's 
murder is rather like .Mr. Tytlcr's opinion about Clary's 
guilty knowledge of Damley's murder, though not so 
frankly expressed. 

There does not seem to be a very wide difference 
between the ideas of these two historians, but, when we 
compare their works, we are entertained and edified by 
what they each leave out by their unconscious supprea- 
aionea vrri. I would not accuse either gentleman of being 
CO- iilike ; nevertheless each omits 

e.x.. J iiich the other lays stress. This, 

of ooorse, is futile. The facts are accessible, many of them 
are already printed, moreover one author is sure to tell 
what the other may be trusted to leave untold. Yet they 
cannot be trusted to be quite candid. Thus, to give a few 
examples, there was the return of the forfeited Earl of 
lA^nuox to .Scotland, in 13G4. Mr. Froude admits that 
Elizabeth had " supported his petitions " for restoration to 
his lands. In fact ?!lizalM'th had warmly urged it. But, 
aa loon as Mary h.-.d granted Elizabeth's desire, that lady 
changed her mind. )Ir. Tytler has several images on this 
•abject : ites the replies of Mary's ministers as to 

EUzalx istence on I>ennox's jiardon, as to Eliza- 

beth's care to have evidence of her fickle beha\'iour de- 
istroyed. Mr. Froude omits all that ; he merely sa^-s that 
a variety of j)retext8 were invented for delay or refusal. 

Melville was now sent by Mary to England, and both 
oiii I • ,.p^ from Elizalx'th to C<-cil, in 

wii ^ - tnits that she is entirely un- 

able to find a reply to her Scottish sister. " Invenias 

igitur ali'ji: I^lis Randall dare 

IMMsim." i i ;' 'I historian has to 

tnuulat« an easy piece of Latin. Let us see how they 
doit, tf  T" • ■■• • ' ". 'il ; Iwth historians 

give.pr. ) j>t that, if -Mr. Tytler 

quotes correctly, then Mr. Froude loyally amends her 
^lajesty't spelling and grammar. So I offer Mr. FVoude's 
text. 

In ejasmodi labyrintho posita sum de response raeo 



reddendo ad Reginam Scotiae [Tytler, for " labyrinto," 
"laberintho,"for"ad Reginam," " R. (Reginae) Scotiae"], 
at nescio quomotlo illi satisfaciani, <]uum neiiue toto isto 
tempore illi ullum resjwnsum dederim, nee tpiid mihi 
dicendum nunc sciam. Invenias igitur aliquid Iwni quod 
in mandatis scriptis Randall dare po8.sini [possem, in 
Tytler], et in hac causa tuani oiuuionem mihi indica." 

Even as to Cecil's endorsement of this scrap our authors 
differ. Mr. Froude has •• endorswl in Cecil's hand ' The 
Queen's Majesty's wTiting, lx»ing sick, September 23.' " 

^Ir. Tytler has '' Thus back<>d by Cecil, 23rd Sept., 
1564. At St. James's The Queen writing to me being 
sick." Who was sick ? The Queen, in Mr. Froude'i*. 
opinion ; Cecil, in Mr. Toiler's view. " Elizabeth was 
harassed into illness " (Froude) ; " Cecil was then confined 
to his chamber by sickness " (Tytler). Which author 
could not copy an endorsement w ithout omissions, or addi- 
tions, and blunders ? 

Now let us compare the translations of this short and 
simple epistle : — 

TvTLEtt's Tbanslatiox. Fbovdb's Tbanslation. 

" I am involved in such a "I am in such a labyrinth 

labyrinth, regarding the reply about tlio Queen of Scots (no- 
to the letter of thu Queen of reference to hor letter), Uiat 
Scots, that I know not how I what to say to her or how to 
can satisfy her, having delayed satisfy hor 1 know not. I have 
all this time sending her an loft her letter to mo all this 
answer, and now really being time unanswere<1, nor can I 
at a loss what I must say. tell what to answer now. 
Find mc out some good exciiw, Invent lomcthiny kind for ttif^ 
which I may plead in the which I can enter in Randolph's 
despatches, t.) bo given to commission, and give me your 
Randolph, and let mo know opinion about the matter 
your opinion in tliis matter." itself." 

Now, does invenias aliquid honi mean " Invent 
something kind," or " Find out some good excuse " ? It 
cannot well mean both, and the difference is iuqwrtant. 

A little later both historians describe the situation 
when Elizjibeth made Lord Robert Dudley an EarK 
Mr. Froude (whose ignorance of human nature one 
admiringly envies) holds that Elizabeth was honest ia 
wishing to give Leicester up to Mary. Mr. Tytler is 
strongly of the opjwsite opinion. Well, the authority of 
both historians here is Sir James Melville, Mary's envoy. 
Mr. Tytler, naturally, one m ly say inevitably, cites the 
famous j)assage, " The Queen could not refrain from 
putting her hand in his" (I^icester's) " neck to kittle- 
him, smilingly, the French .\ndias.>iador and I standing 
by." ^Ir. Froude does not cite this jiassage. Yet one 
woman does not usually cede to another an admirer whom 
slie cannot refrain from tickling in jmblic. Mr. Froude 
doubts .MelvilU''s general veracity, but quotes liim just 
where he is not quoted by Mr. Tytler. 

One might go on (|Uoting these parallels, but I 
confine m^-self to one case, which seems very egrepous. 
After the Rebellion in the North (1569), when mass was 
celebrated once more in the desecrated Cathedral of 
Durham, Northumberland fled across the Border, and 
was sold to Murray by Hector Armstrong, of Harlaw. 
This was the one crime which Borderers could not pardon. 
Murray, then, according to Mr. Tytler, }>ro]>osed to 
exchange the betrayed Northuml»erland for Mary, his 



October 30, 1897.] 



LITKKATl KE. 



4ft 



sister, n cnptivo in England. What he meant to do with 
Mary, " Tis bettor only ^jixcxfiing." At all events, lio 
proinisod that hIui " Hhould live lier natural life." lliiti 
proi^isul to sell Northutnlx-rland to his death, in exchange 
for Mary, Mr. Tytlcr cites fn)m " l'<)|)y of the Instni- 
mont," endorsed with names of certain Scotch nobles, 
allies of Murray's, in Cecil's hand. Knox, at the same 
date, sent a letter bidding t'ecil " utriki'. at the root " — 
Mary. Mr. Tytler also cites Murray's instructions to his 
envoy, and his demand for Mary's person, from a note 
" wholly in fecil's hand," and ad<ls that I^'sley, Bishop of 
Ross, detected a proi)osition " eipiivalent to higning 
Mary's death warrant." Then Murray was shot by Both- 
wellliaugli, and the arrangement fell through. 

Well, Mr. Froude (juotes much from Murniy's instruc- 
tions, as Mr. Tytler does, but about the pro|x>scd sur- 
rend«T of Northumberland in exchange for Mary Mr. 
Froude does not say one single word (chapter 33, 1370), 
nor a word alwut the Bisho]) of Koss's remonstrance, any 
more tlian Mr. Tytler dwells on the said Bishop's allegcfl 
confessions that ^lary jwisoned her first husband, and so 
forth. When we come to these episcoiwil revelations, it 
is Air. Tytler's turn to leave things out. To be sure, the 
learned Bishop confessed rather too much, like Topsy. 
Why should Mary, when Queen of France, make herself a 
premature Dowager by iwisoning her husband, the King? 

It woiUd be worth while to make a tabular statement 
of all Mary's iniquities, from the days when she was her 
uncle's mistress till she poisoned her first husband, blew 
up her second, and tried to poison her little boy with an 
apple. A greyhound shared the apple with lier pups, 
and they all expired incontinently. Greyhounds are 
notoriously fond of apples, ami apt to share an apple with 
their whelps, while apples are easy things to poison. On 
the other hand, a mere glance through Mr. Tytler's jiages 
supi)li(>s a long list of Murray's treacheries ; " He betrays 
Mary's intentions," " Treachery of the Ix)rd James," •• Con- 
spinicy of Murray and Argyll," " Art and part in Biccio's 
murder,"and so forth, till he plunders his sister's diamonds, 
and tries to get hold of her by betraying Northumber- 
land. 

Thus is history written, till one despairs, if not of 
history, at least of historians. There is a pleasing edition 
of Burnet, with the notes of Swift and other contem- 
poraries. An edition of Mr. Froude, cum notis vnnonim, 
with the errors corrected and the omissions supplied, 
would also be a valuable work, and much more humorous 
than I'/ie Comic History of England. 

ANDREW LANG. 



FICTION. 



The Martian. By O. Du Maiirier. 

London, 1807. 



("r. Svo. 401 pp. 
Harpers. 6/- 

Tlie dsatli of the late Mr. Du 5Iauncr at tho full height — 
Olio can hardly say, alas ! in tho full enjoyment — of one of the 
most nstonisliiiig literary triumph.s over achiove<l was in itself a 
Buftioiontly (lathotic example of tho irony of fate. To roa<l " The 
Martian " tho novel just completed by him before the close of his 



Uf* is to fe*l ths *' pity of it " even mot* >n svrr. For, 

stnii({e M it may sovia to t«lk of tho iii.i'..ni..-. (irontse and 

uneortaiti position of a writer obo <l)*tl in his (Unl y«ar, it 

MIS that : '•t |KMMMtng Mtjrtbinx liks 

markml v u( mlixl and siaguUr gift 

liux over 1 1 ■<■•• ; nor Las any 

■. ever «!• • ' ' l''n;;«r lif» to 

enable him to ihow what 'K* 

limit of hi.i |>owers. On i ad 

already reaoho<l maturity— inde«<l, '■■ 'Sl. sod 

incomparably hi* bu»t, book to ! nod it. 

Thackeray was obviously his master (pim th' ;^ ; and 

* tiatcly, with tho one least i^ ■•■ k of 

iir ritiit imitabilt — his too r in- 

to t!,o  '• had certainly en . ..i tho 

ohsrtn. II, of lii« nittlook of hia 

all '">, 

it u I » 

di:' od 

hiiii , '>lr. 

Dn Maurier's ex(|uisite feeling for the b«autiful in art 
and nature— a missing or, at any rate, an undeveloped, 
faculty in Thackeray's nature ; in a certain genuine, if limited, 

vem of poetry in his tcni[ eramotit ; ..- ' • ' M. {^erbape, in 

that occasional note of profound ro' is so myste- 

riounly attractive, even to tho I: ' <'n, 

OS in this ca*o, it is qait« o)<. I a 

human spirit, aii<l not a mer- p* 

of art. This, it mny lio •..« 

little room for ii. isu ; ami, indeed, u 

technical aide, as : . .ii Ldmittcd, ti.ete « 

Du Maurier had already approved himself a writer of singular 
force and fascination within tie limits of bis rani^; but there w«a 
abundant room for curiosity aa to what those limits wore. Un» 
oould not help wondering whether the srv* - - list's remark- 
able faculty of satiric observation and )>- . his delight- 
ful turn for nai: .* tendemesa 
were to display t ', and among 
more varied !■ 

It is di.-» . I<-are« thai 

question un. Alike m '■> — 

nay, it is a ruplica of o«i, 

though by far his least |iopular, work. If it was necessary for 
him t« repeat himself— and no doubt the -•■• '•■' •"''' "' •■ ' this 
novel has followed in the wake of the gre.i' no 

alternative — it i.*, at ony rate, ir *' - • - he 

preferreil to draw from tho liotter, ' •■d, 

of bis two models. " The Martimi il"is n^t a: .; * 

second " Trilby " ; it is another " Fetor Ibbetson,' ler 

Ibbotson," as the reader wh<> d( os not wait for a mw author 
to become the rage before rendin-r him will remember, was 
a distinctly powerful and fa- novel. lt.'» " ground- 

idea," indeed— the idea of an - a nightly dream-life, 

continuous in itself and wholly distinct from his waking exist- 
ence—was, like ovcrything else under the stip "■'• 'ow ; but 
there was novelty in the notion of such a life ) ''• <i tUtix, 

and in Mr. Du Maurier's treatment of the li; .is of hia 

hero and heroine there was, what is much niort> -.r..]- :tant than 
novelty, extraordinary poetic charm. Bartv .1^-. li , tir lien> 
of this later romance, has, like Peter It. < : u. i..-^ spiitiial 
Egcria : but his relations with her are far leaa human, 
and humanly intelligible, than those of the life-long prisoner 
with the pl.iymate of bis childhood, the beautiful Duchesa of 
Towers, and the charaeters themselves appeal much less power- 
fully to a reader's sympathies. This is true oven of the wonder- 
ful Barty himself, who is that most ticklish of subjects for tite 
novelist to handle, an Admirable Crichton ; while Martia herself, 
the discmlKKlicd spirit-visitant from the planet Mars, who pre- 
sides over the hero's fortunea and orcanizes, or, indeed, r«tber 
wins for him his brilliant i.' •<, is not only " some- 

thing of a sluulowy beiug " 1. ,kich " Old Mr. Eilward 

Cave " described to Johnson, but is wanting even in that unity 



50 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



•nd connatMMij <<° - oator n{ ahndows ii not 

loas hnt TiK>r(> im; , .Uiii in Uwm than in 

hi- '^-ab mhI biooil. Wo do not make her acquaint- 

ati' -n the Tulane, when abo takoa up hor abode in 

the brain of Itnrty at an vxtraniely critical moniont in hia life,— at 
a moment in fact, when, in terror of an imi'vending losa of eyo- 
aigbt, he waa on the {Hunt of ending that lifu with hia own hand. 
Inataad, howerer, of taking the poiaon which ho had prepared 
for hlmrtlf. ho falla into a deep sloop, from which he 
wakM the naxt morning to find on the tnblu bufore him 
a paper wri t tMt under Martis's infl«pnp<> in n shorthand of his 
o» I n dnrin' Muanoss, and con- 

iai: vrolcome r ;ist was mistaken 

in : 'sia, and that the feara which had so nearly diiv-Mi 

Bai^;.. ;^ .>...^ide might bo diamiasod. Fr<>m this time forward, 
r^nlarly or intermittently, Martia directs his intellectual 
opantiona daring sloop. It was she who furnished him under 
tksM eooditiona with the matoriala of " Sardonyx " and those 
ath> t.il worka which hare made liim as famous on the 

C<':. .in England, having, indeed, l>oon translated into 

«fvtf European language. Martia's supernatural or super- 
nnndane wisiiom ajiiyyors, however, to be wholly of the abstract 
I speculatiTe, and not ot the practical kind : and her power 
' imr pntUgi is similarly confined, for though she can compel 
him to write as she dictates, she is unable to make him act as she 
advises. Thus, though she urgently insists on his marrying the 
tall, blonde, and lH<autiful Julia Royce, with a view to re-incar- 
natiltg heraelf in their otTspring— which secras tu show that they 
look ahnad in Mar.<>— ho flatly refuses, and ends by marrying the 
•Imoat equally beautiful but somewhat shorter brunette Leah 
Oibaon. \\'hat is still more remarkable, Martia afterwards 
•dmita that she was wrong in her choice and ISarty right : an 
adnuMton which, however valuable as an exami)lo to the women 
of h«r adopted planet, does not tend to render her a more 
diatinet and impressive figure. Ultimately she re-incarnates 
herself in Barty'f youngest daughter, who dies, unfortunately, 
At an early ago. 

The extreme difficulty of the task which Mr. Du Ma\u-ier 
attempted in and( - ' ' to imparteren the credibility of dream- 
land to this atr'.' personages ia obvious ; nnr can wo 
bonaetly : mounted it. Still. " The Martian " 
ia not w . ill t tie more leisure for the work of solcc- 
tionand oonstruction would have enabled tho author to possess 
himaelf with a fresher and more human theme, to escai>e from 
that atmosphere of the occult which had a little too insistent an 
attraction for him, and to work himself free from those per- 
petual apaoalationa on tho " future of the race," which are 
OMwlly most depressing when they are meant to be most inspir- 
ing, and with which duller and more didactic writers than 
Mr. Dn Haorier have alrcatly bored us almost to extinction, it 
oamint. en the other hand, bo said that the lack of novelty in 
his laa in any way affected tho freshness of his treat- 
aei. . tooched with any symptoms of languor the bright 
Ttvaeitj of his stylo. Even tho story of liarty Josselin's school 
daya, andaly prolonged and unfortunately reminiscent of tho 
aiimirably^depicted boyhood of Mr. Du Maurier's earlier hero 
though it be, can be road without a moment's weariness ; and 
tbon^ Barty himself— Barty tho light-hearted, the frivolous, the 
ninealoualjr handaone, the practical joker, comic singer, and 
] young Ouardaman, from whoae hauntecl brain a whole 
I of epoch-making novels begins suddenly to stream forth— 
ia bat an imperfect sticjMs, the ehar!»rt«>rs t^y whom he is sur- 
ronoded.froni the ewer* rolino(frey,down 
Uin>mbthe worthy Phi no is the supposed 
biographer of the hero, V> the low-come<ly bourgeois Mr. Uibson, 
rawal the lamented author in unimpaired mastery of his satiric 
and ■ympetbetir touch. And the personal note, so clearly 
audible in both the two earlier novels, ia never unheard for more 
than a few pages together in thia laat. Here, as there, it jars 
oeoaciaaally upon the ear of taate : ii: ' onccs to himself, 
bjr aUDe or almoet equally clear indr .n most charming 
of CMuanir* never quite knew " what to Umvu in the ink bottle "; 



and here, too, as there, the solf-<]isc1osure reveals weaknesses, to 
some of whiuh indeed ho was humorously alive, but not to all. No 
one, however, would wish those revelations away. A Du Maurier 
without his frankly avowed " lo\e for beautiful giantesses " and 
hia extravagant idolatry of phyaical beauty in general ; without 
his comical remorse at not having resisted, like JSIr. (iilbert's 
hero, the temptation to belong to more nations than one, and his 
queer little gilios in consequence at the nationality which he 
obviously prefers ; without his manner, so like that of Thackeray, 
towards aristocracy — now contemptuous, now admiring, but never 
quite " correct " — a Du Maurier, wo say, without these little 
foibles, which really added to the human interest of a brilliantly- 
endowed personality, would not have been the Du Maurier whom 
uU who knew him loved, and who by his writings alone has won 
his way to many thousands of other hearts. 



The Invisible Man. «y H. 
245 pp. London, ISffi. 



Q. Wella. CV. Svo.. 
C. Arthur Pearson. 



Tho notion of an invisible man is too full- of possibilities to 
have escaped either tho philosopher or tho wTiter of rouianco. It 
is OS old as the Greek mythus, and as mo<1emastho ISab liallads. 
The fortunate possessor of tho miraculous gift is generally «up- 
posed to clothe himself with invisibility as with a garment which 
he can take on or off at will, and becomes a kind of spirit, able 
to satisfy his desires for good or evil independently of almost 
all the restrictions which hamper ordinary mon. Some inodiflca- 
tions of this concejition were introduced by (iuy do Mau]iassant 
and by an English writer, Mr. Fitr.james O'Brien, But Mr. 
Wells's peculiar gift is to reduce tho impossiblo into terms of tho 
probable. His hero, Griffin, employs no ring of Oyges or " receipt 
of fem-soed." Ho is simply a medical stucient, of University 
College, engaged in a series of chemical oxporimonts on light, but 
with a magnificent vision of all that an invisible man might 
achieve. A. string of statements about optical density — " a net- 
work of riddles ''—about the tissue of the human frame, and the 
result of " lowering its refractive index," with a reference to 
the Rontgon Hays and other still more mysterious vibrations, 
throws a scientific glamour over the exj)erimonts, and one is 
really almost persuaded that one's own ignoranoo of the true 
meaning of scientific furmulaj alouo prevents a full apprehension 
of tho process by which Griffin is able to send forth into tho 
neighbourhood of Great Portland Street an invisible cat and at 
last to fade away himself out of human sight. A doubt might 
suggest itself to tho carious whether by further manipulation of 
tho refractive index GrifHn ought not to liave beon able at 
once to bring himself back again without having to retire to a 
remote village in Sussex with bottles and dynamos to find out 
how to do so, ami ho certainly dismisses without duo considera- 
tion the plan of making himself visible again by painting his 
face in its natural colours instead of veiling tho poverty of his 
appearance by means of bandages and a false nose. For ho soon 
discovers that tho change he has undergone is subject to certain 
fatal limitations. Griffin himself has dit>appcarbd,but his clothes 
remain, ond no scientific process can conceal tho snow which falls 
on his shoulders, the mud which clings to his feet, or tho money 
in his hand whicli ho takes out of other people's cash Ik)X0S. He 
cannot even rest his eyes, for his eyelids are transparent, and tho 
least involuntary noise betrays him. 

" ' An invisible man,' he saj-a, ' is a man of power.' He 
stopped for a moment to sneczo violently." 

Like Horace's philosopher he ia " rex deniciue rogum, 
rrwcipuo sanus, nisi cum pituita molostacst." Truly on original 
situation, and well adapted for tho ilisjilay of Mr. Wells's 
|>eculiar talent for "planking down" tho miraculous among 
circumstances the most ordinary and familiar, divesting it 
of ei'ery shretl of romance and pursuing it through every 
detail with merciless logic. He is in far more deadly 
earnest tliau Jules Verne, who is ijuito nwaro that you are taking 
his gonial " yarns " with a grain of ^alt. The dtscription of 
what would actually come to paas if an invisible man were known 



October 30, 189 7. J 



LITERATURE. 



to 1)0 nt largo in a, Siibhox villogo ' ^ 

Thore iB no (ppixrrtiiiiity K'vxn f^r tt»r. 

who comoH itcroHH thm ourio !>lionomuii(>n wixilil iimtoubtmlly harv 

■aid and dono juHt what Mr. Wulla inakon thorn iiny and do- Iho 

parsnn, tho doctor, and tho landlady ; or the tramp who come* 

across tho invisible wanderer on a bare Husaex down, ami can 

only give up the enigma when he has stones thrown at him. 

" It's a fair do," said Mr. Thomas >rnrvol, sittn 
hit) wounded too in hand, anit fixing hiscyu on tho i 
" I don't iindorstiind. Stones Hinging thninsolros. M"ni's tiilli- 
ing. Put yourself down. Itot away. I'm done." 

Kvon tho prosaic acceptiinco of tho situation by JafTors tho 
constable who has to arrest a moving suit of clothes, " 'Ed or 
no 'od," soenis perfectly natural. 

" No doubt," he says, "you oro :i l>it. ilifn.Milt t,. i,i tli!.< 

light, but 1 got a warrant an(f it.-) :> 
aint no inviHibility, its burglary. '1 
into and money took." 

Kqually good as a study in grotesque is tho picture of tho 
invisible man taking off his clothes and <>f the antics playoil by 
the furniture when ho gets violent with his landlady. 

" Tho strangers hat hoi>pe<l off tho bod post, described a whirl- 
ing flight in tho air through the bettor part of a circle, and then 
dashed straight at Mrn. Hall's face. Then as swiftly c-aino the 
sponge from tho washstand, and then tho chair, flinging tho 
stranger's coat and trousers carelessly aside and lauiihin^ drily 
in a voice singularly like tho stranger's, turned itself up with its 
four logs at Mrs. Hall, seemed to take aim at hor for a moment 
ond charged at hor. ' ' 

This is nothing less than an epitome of all tliat philosophers 
have told us about nature ijorsonifieation, and an intelligent force 
behind visible phenomena. But philosophising is tho hvst thing for 
which Mr. Wells has a mind. He revels in tho various humours 
suggested by his conception, and wo are carried on with abund- 
ance of graphic detail and lively farce tbroagh the first part of 
the history in which tho diaphanous UriOin is still undiscovered 
to tho revelation of his mysterious secret, bis declaration of hos- 
tility against tlio huumn race in general, and his tragic end. The 
pity is that wo cannot keep tho grotesque and got rid of the 
gruesome. Mr. Wells has little patience with tho onlinary 
human feelings. If his uncompromising fidelity to truth leads 
him to shock them, he <loes so without a qualm. All the clo- 
montary emotions which supply the material of poets and 
novelists ho is apt to reganl with cynical indiirerence. His 
fiction would lose nothing in its humorous quality by a little 
sympathy for tho weaknesses and passions of his fellowmen, and 
it would certainly bo more convincing. The one fault in this 
book which mars its extraordinary verisimilitude is tho undi- 
luted scoundrelism of Grillin. Ho approaches so near to tho 
fiend that, with the addition of tho domoniacvl quality of invisi- 
bility, ho almost suggests an evil gonius from tlie Arabian nights. 
Such an impression is certainly not contemplated by the author, 
but it saves tho reader from being too much hnrrowo<l by 
Griiiin's very unplens.ant adventures and his violent death. Most 
of the book, however, is pure comeily of tho rollicking order, and 
it would certainly be diflicult to find in tho literature of comedy 
so remarkable a study in the eccentric and bizarre. 



iuc n«iii(« 



The Tormentor. By Benjamin Swift. Cloth, cr. Rvo., 
pp. 2S8. Loudon, 1S07. Fisher Unwin. 6 - 

Tho hero, or rather tho central tigtire, of this book, tho 
" tormentor " from whom it takes its name, is a very notable 
villain called Jacob Bristol, and in regard to him Mr. Swift's 
early afmlogia must be quoted, for it seems to indicate the 
province which tho author has marked out for himself in 
literature : — 

That my task is pleasant I shall not say, but that it is iini>ortant 
I shall say with emphasis, tor the l.io:^tRi'hy of a man like Pri'tn! i» s< 
really, though |H-rhaps not so ilir.' i-^g a< th.> I 

saint. It lets you see by contrast " A the saint 

the world scejiis to be Bnallv intori.-io., i  much iu at. . 

in its own conduct. And the streoins of evil and of good-thoM two 



.«• of taouMlfvb I 



aad of MiaU. 






H*ra may 1k' 

Otli- 

pi. 

Mt 

thai 

romanoea. Mr. Swift 

triok of itylu, a moru 



not4Ml our author's 
. whom ha I . 
Mr. iio-'f'/ 



itntial difforWK* froB 

^ •troBg mm- 

v«r fnnkljr 

inw, only » 



deeper than tliat. Tliore is, howorer, anolh<-r maat«r whom Mr. 
Rwift would do well to study. Nothing i« in its way finnr in 
litoraturo than lialtac's treatment of tho abnormal, and from 
it t' "f " The Tormentor " might draw valusbia lewons 

n{ and lucidity. It socma worth while to give this 

el thot M .>w«r of 

. tlio coir "ughbe 

!»• yet tu ac(|Uiru the art <4 > .la uiMwiitial and 

of |>rea«nting it with clean:!':. 1 of tho average 

cultivated reader. 

It ia not a little curioiu to find that the Tormentor himanlf 
is perhaps tho least succossfal character in tho book. In thv 

tangled web of mingled motiro, intrij-'! ' -rime which, like » 

groat spider, he spins round him, thr ly find a certain 

intoreat : but tho spider himaulf is unc'iivmring 
web of which we have spoken, easy U> follow a* 
coeds yf 
minor i' 



Tlie tangled 
the st»>ry firo» 

i 



are 

I; .. 



Of 

fo 

an' the 

01 _ lot 

in tho book. He is lovablo r tor tho 

l>ottlo, open-handed to such a d- , lally in 

money difhcultics, which are • with some hnmoor, 

and, in short, anj-thing bnt tl.t- <• ,■.. .»! aristocrat of fiction. 
Lord Sother goes out in a terrible storm on the bloak and dcao- 
late hills to help tho shopher ' * ■' snow-bound 

flocks. Ho comes home with a -n his back, 

which ho orders to he entertained : kitchwi, and 

then takes to hi^ t>ed with a quinsy, > 

Th> • charoctcrs aro faii 

three \"'. •, Jessie Ring, F.i 

Whipjwr, whom some writers would ! 
insipid m<Klel, aro distinctly drawn,  , 

tion and real feeling. Not less goo.1 in their way 
criminal Mis* Tilking, Mrs. Ring's •■I' - -  ^^■ 
and tho busybody Mrs. Crippon. Of • 
is an attractivu picture of a raw, ha 
into sfimcthing like heroism by hoi: 
we have a subtle study of remorse acting u^j 'n .v mimt 
senile. 

It should lie said, by the w.- 
aspects of life, tho book is s 

author, however, it must bo adin the Ter^ • in 

which the meat is strongest . :i with o .ide 

restraint. On tho other hand, there arc just one or two place* 
where the author, as it seems to us quite nocl''«'''>- '^iil-fs hia 
characters overstep in thoir speech tlie boir ''D. 

Tho too' '•'-=! of the Peerage often prove a suoMiiiii;:.-vMock 
to youi . and Mr. Swift lias not escapoti ono pitfall. He 

gives Lind soilior an unmarriol sistor, wh'> is altcnmtely 
reforro<l to as " Ln-ly Emriia " nncl " l.ndy S.^tln'r." Of c-'ursc. 
no peer's unmr.r: ^efixes ; 

and. the rank of t u as that 

of Baron, his unmarried sister would be entitlc<i to neither. 



1. Tho 

Maud 

•ne 

ra- 
the 

hel, 

«rr* 
;>od 
^ter 



Another's Burden. By James Payn. 
London, 1H07. 



TjxSjin.. 17Bp|». 
Downey. 3,« 



Mr. James Payn is a veteran in • 
of novelists ; indeed, we h.vl almost • 
"OldGuanl." Fashions change and scltuols o; fiitiun lijc 



52 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



and flourish tor a iima, and tlien paM awajr ; but though mon 
wtmj como ami men may go, the antht^r ol " Lost Sir Mawing- 
bard " go«« on delighting the worhi with his stories, and aftvr 
Mading his l«t«st novel, '• Another's Burdon," we could wish 
tiiat, like the brook, ho might go on (or ever. In thit book he 
talis Uio »t>ry o( s Isjwe from virtue and of its crnsoquenees. 
Tn» penalty is o^ " " i'l upun the fni'lty : the bunion 

ia borne and the ^. ly an innocent man. 

ni* honour roottsi in >!i«bonour ctood, 
AdJ (sith nnfsitbfat krpt bim faUcty Into. 

The anthor has p1*i»d the familiar lines from Tonayson's 
«>21aine"t:  ' '' they aro true of 

his hero, L*k >'t son»e from that 

in which they are appiiod by the jioot tu isir Idxncelot. 

RicbanI, L<nl Ijirkspur, or, to give him his schoollniy nick- 
name, D«re-<bvil Dick, i» the only son of the Earl of Philomel, I 
a di.ssolnto on.l wortlilojs nobleman who bronks his wife's heart | 
and negli-cts his chiM. .^t a tender ago the latter is left in the ] 
carv> of Mrs. Ciivo, tlie wife of the village rector, who loves him i 
almost as she loves her own son Harry. Lurkspnr is nearly four 
year* older than Harrj-, but, in spite of the disparity in their 
jrears, the boys are the closest friends. They are oxtroinoly 
unlike in character, for Dick is clever, idle, pood-naturo<l, full 
of mischief— indeed, from the point of view of the autlioritios of 
his school, he is a very bad boy. Harry, on the contrary, is 
gentle, and modest, and shy. 

Hi* fair eompUxioa and blue eyes were almost eiTeminste in their 
ezprsMioa, snd mtm Lin hair wa.<i blown back by tbi> vim) bi.i countenanc<> 
imiubled one of tboiu* angel face« which are rnnreil on the spouta of tbo 
ooUsge l>aildiii§a. Ilia acbuolfellows recognited the likeoess and called 
him •• tba Gargoyle." 

He, also, is an only child. His mother dotes on hira, and as 
he grows up not only tbinkii that nothing is tjo good for him, 
but that be is too goo<l for this world. It is given to few people 
(o be wholly angolic, however, and Harry Cave, in spite of 
snpeamices, is not one of tliem. He has left school and isat 
bonie preparing for Oxford when ho becomes conscious of the 
charms of Lucy Gordon, a young woman whom his motlior has 
engaged to do some sawin;; at the Rectory. Lucy is a romorkably 
pretty girl, and one summer evening Lord Larkspur, by the 
merest chance, discovers her in Harry's society. Larkspur is any- 
thing but a " goody-goo<1y " young man. In fact, his wild courses 
at Oxford have only just been condoned at the Rectory ; but ho 
is a msn of the world, and ho feels it to bu his duty to take his 
yi.  i-rely to task. The latter earnestly assures him 

til.. .'>nB are without foundation, and the subject is 

dropped. Soon afterwards, however, Lucy is ohli^^ed to leave 
the Bactory in disgrace. Harry's share in her fault is not yet 
diaeoTored, but the lad's sin has found him out ; his conpcience 
gires him no peace. Ho is tortured beyond endurance by the 
knowledge of the certain disgrace and humiliation which will 
follow to his father and mother from his misconduct. He con- 
feeeea to Richard when they ir.eot on the morning of a shooting 
' 1y afterwards shoots himself. It is at this point 
iir takes up his friend's burden. Hitherto no 
'ipon Harry. His suicide is believed to be 
•lit ; he is buried in the odour of sanctity, 
iig t > the stainless memory of their son as 
; ilion in their hour of grief, and rather than 
their boy's goodness shattered, Larkspiu* 

Ives to take the responsibility for his dead friend's sin u]xin 
himself. It was a chivalrous and Quix-jtic thing to do, and Dare- 
devil Dick little knew how heavy the burden would prove. It 
was destined to cost him many a bitter pan;;, and to estrange 
him from the woman be loved and who loved him in return. 
Tb«« is no preaching or moralizing in tbo book, which is 
clMr«ctcri7J>d by the fane and mature juilgment, and the 
tlKirDagh knowliilge of human nature, which we are accustomed 
to expect in everything that cmes from thu author's pen. It 
contains many bright flashta of wit, and the cimravtors are 
•kilfully drawn. The story it emphatically a g<xxl one ; non« 
th* leM so, mc reorer, because it ends happily. 



pMty, 
that 1 



theras 

ITsthM-and 
the one gri-i' 
•ee their faith 



Father and Son. Ky Arthur Paterson, Cr. 8vo.. 
330 pp. l.(<indon and New York, ISH7. Harpers. 6- 

Mr. Arthur I'utorson hero makes an oxcurHJon into ground of 
adiflferent character from that on uhioh ho has achiovod moist suc- 
cess. Ho does not move among scones of stirring adventure, in 
which ho has prove<l his capacity as a writer of vivid narrative ; 
and the field of operations is not across the sea, but in London 
and Lancashire, and is peopled, not with Rod Indians or fighting 
Americans, but with the unromantic figures of a liritich murchaiit, 
his friends, his family, and hiu manager. The only tasto of the 
author's lighting quality is in tho first chapter, which introduces 
the two leading ciiaractors of tlie story in tho great annual foot- 
ball match of Hrookport v. Kuinborough. Of this match thoro 
is a spirited account. It takes (ilacu in the halcyon days twenty 
years ago, when, so Mr. Paterson would havo us believe, tho 
field is crowded with onthusiastio spectators of tho woiking 
classes who regard with innocent astonishment the otfor made 
by an audacious stranger tu bet a sovereign on tho result. 
Cunlilfo, tho IJreckport captain, who wins tho match for his side, 
is tho " son " : tho interested visitor who is so free with his 
sovereigns is tho " father." Tho latter factis not actually dis- 
closed until we roach page 284 : but by tho end of tho second 
chapter the reailer has not failed to identify the spoculativo 
stmngor with Cunliffo's father, who had served a sciitenco of 
penal servitude for destroying his grandfather's will, and had 
long been supposed to bo doad. Mr. Paterson has many od- 
mirable qualities as a story toller ; but in less capable hands 
the interest of his story would suffer from the engaging sim- 
plicity with which ho helps the reader t<i the right conclusion. 
He lays all his :ards on tho table ; he keeps no surprises up bis 
sleeve. There is a goed deal to bo said for this plan, provided 
it does not leave tho narrative at any point dull or barren. 
Skilfully managed, it renders a story well suited for serial issue, 
and rea<lors of tho Weekly Edition of Thr. Timi-.i, in whicli this 
novel first appeared, wliilo they would unquestionably find 
enough to interest them in their periodical instalment, would 
not remain for wooks on tho tenter-hooks of expectation until 
the mystery enveloping some character or event were satisfac- 
torily explained. Indeed, what we like about Mr. Paterson is 
the busines'flikc straightforwardness of his method. He does 
not encumber himself with many characters. CunlifTo and his 
father ; the merchant of whoso business tho elder CunlifTo is tho 
manager, under tho name of .Alexander Wilson ; his oldest 
daughter, for whoso hand "father ond son " are rivals ; her 
brother and two sisters ; these almost exhaust tho ilrnmnii» 
ptrsorur. There are no interludes of general reflection or verbose 
description ; tho characters, though distinctly individual, aro 
not very subtle, and they do not indulge in any delicate refine- 
ments of love-making. Tho writer sticks to his last. He has a 
good plot, carefully thought out ; he keeps his narrative always 
moving, and his style is sensible, lucid, and facile. As a matter 
of construction, tho coincidence which loads to tho discovery of 
Wilson's identity is perhaps rather crude. Uiit tho scene itself 
is well described : and tho events which follow on the discovery 
are capitally hanillc<l. There aro a goo<l many strong situations 
in those closing chapters in which a rather intricate entangle- 
ment of lovoand business, affecting tho character of Cuiiliffe tho 
father, and his relations towards bis son, is unravelled with con- 
siderable skill. 



Maime o' the Comer. Hy M. B. Francis (Mrs. Francis 
niundell). Cr. 8vo., cloth. London and New York, IS!»7. 

Harpers. 6- 

This story may be regarded as a little study in Poor Law ad- 
ministration. Ita hero and its heroine were " children of tho 
Htate," and the career of the latter offers a capital text for dis- 
cussion on the a<lvaiitagos and disadvantages of " bouidiiig 
out." Poor little Maime o' the Corner, known to tho guardians 
as Mary Clarke, was happy enough till her foster-father dio<l, 
but in real life she would, before the union had done with her, 



October 30, 1897.] 



LITLUATLKF 



53 



not havo beon loft, wo truat, to the tin(»tter«(l iU«p«mI of 
)ior foKtor-mot)iur, who liaiulii ht>r ovor to Mr* Newton, • 
Imrit mill well-to-do furiiiur's wifu with n I for 

nnion cliiiilron. Nor, when iho gett iionr nt > )ii<r 

hiisbaiiil in Livoqiool.clo wo hoar a nyllftl'li' of any a 
workhougo for tho relief of II rfspwtihlo young coii|' 
lint wo do not wish to critirizo tho hook in the ipirit of a 
Oovcrnmont TnApoctor. Thero are unfortanatuly many cues of 
gonuiiio hanUhip which slip through tho fiiiguriof tho niott tigi- 
lunt pliiluntliro])ic aocictica, and thu ctory of Mainio and hor 
lover Joo lioattie, n farm litd from an induRtrial school, is not 
only oonvincing hut full of a (jonuiiio patlioa. Tho oonitriiction 
is rathor loof-o, and the aiitlmrt'i.H allows hor mumoriox 
of north pountry folk and maniiom to detain tho reoilar 
with incidents, often graphic and humoroni, which have 
not much to do with tho story. It ih, in fart, a viry 
simple talo -Maime rojoctcd by tho faithless Will Newton 
and taken over by Joo to a life of grinding jiovorty in town. 
When tilings got too bad to last tho unfortunate couple do 
not, wo aro glad to say, affeot tho now style and eko out tho 
agony to the bittor ond by starving or throwing themsidvos into 
tho rivor ; nor does Mnimc, like an old-fnshioned heroine, come 
into tho fortuiio which certain hints as to her origin seemed to 
onticipate. They simply iiinko their way hack through tho 
snow to thoir old home, where friends are ready to take pity on 
them, and join tho cl.is.i of a:;ricuUuial labourer in a district 
whore no sign appears of agricultural depression. Tho storj' of 
tho two waifs is vividly told, and Mrs. ]!Iundcll shows hor usual 
power of enlinting both tho imagination and the syoiiiathy of 
tho reader on its sadder hiilu. Mr. Prdsnap said that poi-erty 
was not a subject to bo introduced among our wives and young 
{wrsons. Wu are quite sure that ai here treatoil they can study 
it not only without harm, but «ith intorcat and oven with 
1 rofit. 

The People of Clopton. Hy Qeorge Bartram. 8vo.^ 
pp. iv.+ijii. Loiuloii. T. Fisher Unwln. 6 - 

" I think everything that smacks of the primitive and 
natural," says Mr. Itartram, " is gooil and beautiful, and the 
older it is tho better. Every man who |>ni)ses8ca it shouhl 
cheri.Mh this yearning after the pastoral, and if ho is of rural 
breeding should keep alive the menu ries of his youth." Con- 
sequently nur author has sot him.«olf to record his own memories 
of country life in the Midlands a generation ago. Wo do not, 
inileod, tuppofo that his nurrativo is just wliat it purjorts to be, 
tho truthful record of " a country boy's love and lawlessness 
and escape from consequencca ;" though, for that matter, 
whether it is exactly accurate or whether tho author is really as 
well as nominally the tJeorgie who made lovo to Jenny Hajiel- 
dino and went poaching with tho accomplished Fowsoy and 
Exotor Dick is neither here nor there. What concerns tho reader 
is that the old country life of a Midland village thirty years ago ia 
hero rovivitiod with remarkable skill and verisimilitude. Wo 
<lo not remember so etriking a description, for instance, 
al a rural merrymaking as " Clopton Fea.st " since Charles 
Kingsloy and Thomas Hughes described the same thing 
from such different points of view in " Yoast " and 
" Tom iSrown's Schooldays." A certain uncompromising 
realism marks Jfr. Bartram's episodic narrative, and occasion- 
ally lead.^ him into language which jars tho reader's sense of 
titnoss without materially aildini; to the power of his talo. Such 
descriptions as that of .lenny'a " soft Idack eyes, touched ir>r 
tho moment with a bc«'itching strabismus," cannot bo called 
(lappy. But in spito of some slips in taste Mr. Bartram lias 
written a very remarkable book ; his poaching scenea es] ocially 
are narrateii with a zest and vigour wnich one's memory c.innot 
easily {mrallel from our literature. His knowlodce of rustic 
character, shown in such ]Mirtraits as I'ncle Nrali, Hichartl 
Noedham, huey I'robert, Tom Waakolin, and, above all, Fowsi y 
and Dick, the poachers, is not unworthy of Mr. Hardy himself, 
the living mastor in this kind. If this is a first book it bears 
witness to a skill in characterization and a narrative art which 
promise to bring Mr. Bartram's name into considerable promi- 
nence within the next few years. 



387+ a<l pp. 
qn 



virdlet. Bjf 

l.i>ii>|i>n, iHUi, 



KnWi. 



'ate«t nns- 

ntrlavcr 



i WO vole. TlvSia. 



iiiuat Ui aniii 
aa a man "I < 
nov. 
ad 



KB 
>tl 
t, 

r- 
tit 
I- 
t«j 
it 
■T 

lie 
It 
!• 

'y 

it 



d 

iio 

ir- 



ru'd haK 








n* 


tial talk 




]»- 


iKirt of To III r e.. 
interest . .. goivl nod a i 
her fears ai to the i on^' 
in vain he rominda h 
hoirras o' ' ' 
said t'l i 




:-f 


. 1, 




tn 








it 14 

lob tho 

te 






pass fr-.n. i. • 
her and her '■' 




....^.at 






■a JO 


greedy. " V 

I do,'*'«ho ti : 

ri-rliiiti to ma: 

ii^ion, wo feel, is ii 
 is (lue to a for; 

i-i ^ A. ' A A. A.\ r 






.r. !l aa 

•'a 
lor 

ot 




f-a 


wliicli conrtitiito tlio man 
Thi« yoiiU'T matron, with . 
fon ' ''• S|eech, is diawi 






ByS 

IsbiBi 


rv. 
of 


K. 




a 


c|ui :mour. But. indeed 

to ino, n> : ' ' ' 

which they i 

bred writing in. a u.uAvn u^iwaui 


2l.^ 

lt«7. 


..d 

 rv in 
. well. 


Perpetua. A story of NlniMi in a.d 
Gould, M.A. 7^ >5iii., 810 pp. Lnndon. 

Stories i!" 
with the doi 


Baring- 
.«r & Ck>. 

•y 






.-va 


their numl>ci im.i j. luium ji 
multitude of readers.' •• I'erjiot 
who are sensible of tl'" •'''■' 
of the picturesque an 
played to advantage in : 
ritea in honour ot the tut- 


ua 




' a 




d 












rn 


city of Mmca. Thrr-' nri- 


.t* 


not altogether unv 


••• 


of Komo under N' 




I'a 


book is far more r. 
novelist. By loc 




h 
rd 


century i 
the olil 
subi — 




'■r 

to 

 iiaiid. 








^ .1 • 


ami 

are .. . 




roathat 

* thia 


class, Mr. 1 


■re 


originality. 1 ... aa, 
the bibulous slave. Tarnius. and the roat - aro very human, 
though primitive, Christiana. They are .iftor the school of 
Ciblion, rather than piipila of Dea- The patrician 
Itoman convert i^ 1 v po mr^na a ..,.*«w1 Vn,ilina 


Lcntulus Varro, t' 








•ore the 


pleadings and rea- 
ls the 1:11 .' 
that coi 
making tot- i>.Mi"|> l.;ik iin< 






dl. It 

ua 
ot 

■-'a 


style ia rather tou like n: 




• i.o 


modern reader will rightly t;- ; ... 


 .. 


. „, .....re 



54 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1807. 



^ anqnactioiwbl* fortre and rermcitv in iU 

OMia fcatlVM. Mr. Itarine-ttoiild U • trifle laviKh of 
anhmologj and bidory. lUit ho has, on the wholo. 
•nplojM^ his mktcriAl w:° tiicss and elTcct, not 

iMtftl^ M •mb*llishaieut« or | : foftorius, but as integral 

OOMtltasoto of tb* story. Asi :8 mtistic Iiitndliuf;, 

w« mmy cits the deaoription ' 11 l>> tlu> Cliriitians 

Iwfors oelebrsting tlie i: ntu : tho acsount 

ol th* Tmrioo* clnba or gtiild-' );>tioiis of KomniisiR, and 

t:  'of tiuir I unctions 8upi)lie<l by tho 

. ^r« : and, lastly, tho dfsonption 

.1 . ;i r P'Ouir, into which tho unlwppy 

!:;.:!.i- -,» ono of tho Hiost Spirited 



Menotah. liv Ernest Q. Henham. With Illustrations 
by llai Ludlow, ^vo.. pp. xii. ^ :)7(l. Ixndon. 

Skeflington & Sons. 6;- 



Ithss just been ni 
of unilertaking the 
Hitherto that great ti 
appearanco in literature. 



 tluit Sir \Vilfrid Jjaurior is thinking 
• '( tho Hudson's Bay Company. 
tnizatii)n hus not mado much 
H. M. Hallantyno intrmluced 
OS for boys, and Mr. Gilbert 
! • io tho lives of its servants, 

I . ...^ .. .Mr. Henham undortakos to 

other side <if the medal : hi.-i tale of the Riel 
. as a principal reason for that hopeless revolt of 
• ^ and Indians, " the unscrupulous treatment of 

t un bv tho white inva<lor8, " and aocuses th o 

Hudson's of having " |)aved tho way for this 

miwrable . • is of morality.'' Mr. Henham's ston' 

is readable inou^ii. tiiuuch as an indictment of the H.B.Cf. 
it raruK't be said to bo convincing. His Indian heroine 
" H«art that knows not sorrow " — is an engaging 
Ough she becomes somewhat melodramatic in the con- 
<in-i. II. i^amont is a pup|H,t who never seems to move by him- 
self. But the minor characters are much more lifelike, and Mr. 
Henham <lcacribes tho ccencry and customs of the far North- 
West with a pictorial power that eeems to bo based on intimate 
knowledge. 



BIEDIOAL. 



LEGAL. 



The Law of Motor Cars, Hackncv, and other Car- 
riaern«- Hv O. A. Bonner, Uai-rister^at-Law. 8vo., 252pp. 
London. IW7. .SU'Vous. 7s. Od. 

Mr. Bonner describes his work on Tue Law of Motor 
Caes as an " epitome of tho law, statutes, and regulations" 
applicable Ui vehicles of this character. In bo far ns the 
chapters on tho (general law of negligence, nuisance, bailments, 
carriers, m ' ' ' omotivcs on highways are ci>ncime<l, 

thia mod)  is not inappropriate. Tho author's 

treatment •  careful and accurate, and will be 

foiii.d u»< :" the lending principles and rules 

of l.-iu '. . ..r anything more the practitioner or 

rttub ultthe "bof)ks at largo,' and probably, 

in si.i , li. II (!;. Ii;!it locomotive bus evolved a 

rasc-Uw of it' i might with advantage 

^«  iri:?% ■!. !' If an injustice in includ- 

h (JoalB with tho Locomotives on 

■h B drfi;:Tiation as " epitome." 

'■<1 annotation of the 

o are in any way 

.tion. Topetherwith 

'■ns made mider it 

ment R'artl, to 

■0. It is to bo 

I.,.!. II..., i,i..i ,'., ; .II..1I1 lo tho now verj- 

gMMral practice rs of giving the date 

of rrei7 caso . • j,d cx{ie<.-tation which 

praraila amot> Ixoks that this prac- 

tic<- will be I tr.irv . n. An iininr.- 

neferenoe to th«! «latc of .; 

•■-n msMp« z »tnfbTit t' 
autb' 
logica 

tMM- ^ liiiii with 

a rea^ ; case is to 

be foaad in a scries ol rcj.xjrts wUicli his library contains. 



Masters of Medicine, bxlitoil by Ernest Hurt. I>.t'.L. 
John Hunter, Man uf .Science and (>urguun. By Stephen 
Paget. W'HU an Intrcnluctiou by Sir James Paget. Ciiiwu 
8vo., 27li pii. One Illustrution. London, ISO". 

T. Fisher Unwln. 8,6 

Charles Kingsley norer gave hotter advice than when bo 
said " Head biography, it is tho best kind of historj'." The 
lives of great statesmen are tolerably well known. But oven in 
the learned professions only a few wull-inforraod men know more 
than tho names of those to whom their jirofession owes tho 
greatest debt. In many coses the details of their lives aro lost, 
yet whon they have been ]ireserved they form pleasant and 
wholesome reading even for tho groat body of the general public 
who are not specially interested in tho work which made them 
great. Tho most eminent names in medicine aro sooner lost in 
oblivion than tho roasters in literature, art, or even commerce. 
Mr. Kishor I'nwin is therefoie to ho congratulated upon his 
present venture, and with so auspicious a beginning we wish it 
all succens. 

The story of John Hnnter's life has often been told, for in 
every alternate year tho Royal College of Surgeons of Kngland 
celebrates his birthday by an oration from tho most eloquent or 
learned surgeon in London. Horn early on St. Valentino's l)ay 
in 172S, the youngest child of a largo family living near Glas- 
gow, without any advantage of rank or fortune, John Hunter 
became tho most famous surgeon in tho world. Yet he was not 
a good operator, his manners were Warish without the eccentricity 
A-hich somotinios commands respect, and ho was so liad a teacher 
that it is said ho began each course of lectures with a dose of 
laudanum to give him confidence in speaking to his class. But 
in spit4) of all these drawbacks he attained the very highest 
rank in his profo-'^sion for, as Sir James Paget wisely says, 
" his mind was net on science, whilst bis business was practical 
surgery." He was tho first to experiment in surgery, not upon 
patients nor in detail, but to obtain an insight into tho prin< 
ciplos of disoase. Correct thinking founded U{Hin accurate obser- 
Tatioiis, innumerablo in numl^'r, led Hunter to a piisition far in 
advance of his )>redece8Sors, of his conteniponiries, and of many 
of his 8ucccs.surs. His work created Pathology, tho soienco upon 
which all remedial measures, whether in man or animals, of 
necessity depends. All surgeons had examined dead boilies, but 
none before him and only a few even of bis own pupils were 
able to generalize upon tho facts they had obserTed. Morbid 
anatomy would have progressed without Hunter, but had ho 
never been born the work of Haillie, of I'ujret, of Wilks, and of 
Listi-r would luive been much less fruitful than the leaven of bis 
genius enabled them to make it. 

It is, therefore, peculiarly lltting that Mr. Paget should have 
Iwen intrusted with tho preparation of a Life of Hunter, and tho 
introduction by Sir James Paget ndils to the value of a really 
valuable work. The book teems with g<!od stories, yet Mr. Paget 
has performed his task with zeal temi>ered with judgment. He 
has sifted the .■■candalous life by Jesse Foot, but ho has avoided 
the uniluo praisi- which market! some of tho older Hnnterian 
Orations. He lias availed himself, too, of many new sources of 
information, e.s]>ccinlly of the manuscript notes in the possession 
of MijB Hunter-llnillio, herself almost the last survivor of one 
of the most remarkable families in England, a family cminont 
alike in law, in medicine, and in surgery. Some interesting 
facts about Mrs. Hunter have thus been obtaiiieil. She was 
known to have K-en witty and beautiful. The friend of Madame 
D'Arblay and Mrs. Montagu, slio wrote poetry, and her little 
lyric, "My mother bids me l)iii(l my hair," lives for ever in the 
setting given to it by Havdn. But Mr. Paget has difcovored 
that sIio wrote the words for Hn^-dn's " Creation," os the mugh 
draft of them in her handwriting still exists. But Huntior 
did not always approve of his wife's pursuits, for 

*' On returning homo late one evening ho unexiicctedly 
found his drawing room filled with musical professors, con- 
noisseurs, and other iillers, whom Mrs. Hunter had assembled. 
He was greatly imtntod, and walking straight into tho room 
used the '1 guests pretty much in the following 

: -' 1 ki: • of this kick-up, ond 1 ought to have 

Ueeii informed ut it 1 ; but, as 1 am now roturne<l homo 

to study, I hojjo the  impony will retire.' " 

They lived pretty happily together in spite of tl'.o diycrsit.v 

' of their tastes, but of tlioir font children only two arrived at 

' matttrtty, and they died without issue. 



Oct. .!...,• :;o, 1897.J 



LITERATT'RE. 



55 



NAVAL. 



or;iniD^ iiiiiiiv 



ti 



tli< 



to 



1.4 |X>int(Ml 



Tlie liitoflt niimhor of Im Mitritxf /'.i,  
mattiTii of intorant. MM. lo('<>(iiiiiaiiiIaiir 
tho iiidiiHtrioiiii puliliriiit.'* wlio havo .1 
tlio in:iiitl« of tho latu Aili-iiral AuIki, < 
on tlio threat Froiich navnl iiimiuMivnm," i- 
of Admiral do C'uvervillo, coii! 
Moditorranonii, aro aoluuU'd 1 

lattor, " cniisors i ' ' 1 to iniiiiit:iiri l..uca 
armoured, fiisl, | a ^luat radius of actio 

proKorvo contact ,.. .>((/••, in any weuthur. 

'• tho dufoncu of tho Fioiich littoral " ought 
Hiinicing in the Moditorranonii no an not t" •• 
Kiliiadrona whoso vif^oroiis oironsivo action <- 
dofonco. " Tho absurdity of tho operation \ 
koepiiif; contact puro and siinplu during tho ni^iit 
out hy tho critics. Admiral do Ciivorvillo's condition raiinot ho 
fullillod. If tho so-called Ciiitact vohm'U oro to be Kpooially 
nrotectoil with a viow to thoir tightiiii^ a night action, thfir 
functions resolve thonisolves into those claimod for ' 
craft, and tlio general quostion of tho future of \< 
si|uadron» i.s thus raised. Tlio writor.-i hold that " the M. .1. • 1 
Admiral Aubo have not yot ponutratud tho braiii.s •>( tho chiffi ot 
tho Kronrh \,ivy," and that, "/'(nV i-.idvm < "itiHoiir 

Admiralty wliifh by building distroyors li .. fullest 

lioniago to. tho principles laid down by thel' :> " ''ios. 

This i.s correct in a certain sunsc. It has bucii ruoo ; in 

some waters of liniito<l extent tho groat llotilla of 1 : , ata 

which Admiral Aubo demanded constitutes a danger, and the 
Admiralty wi.scly dctnrminod to build a distinctly su()erinr class. 
In tho dostroyors. Admiral Oolomb sees the iloom of tho battle- 
ships ; but althoU(.'h this ponoral proposition that chango^ nre- 
probablo is evidently indisputable, there aro strong ron~ 
believing that vossols not dirt'oring greotly from our 
battloships will continue to be indispensable to tho iiiui-ii 
Empire. Tho conditions of France are not tho samo as our own, 
and it may bo that, an tho critics state, .Vdmiral (' '-■ '' 
oonclusions " apply better nml more logically to the 

than to tho Britisli Navy." A full itii.-t' .t;.,.! of the ., ;. 

is promised. As regards Admiral do ' .s secoml proiio.-ii- 

tion.MM. Z. amlH. Moiiti'chaiita.sk« i . , .ioil. "Thi-s famous 

Moditorrarioan squadron which has cost so many millions, and of 
which wo wore so proud, is apparently not able to aorvo for the 
dofonco of our coasts ! (.)f what use then ia it y " There is here 
a considorablo confusion of ideas. What is meant by the '■ do- 
fonco of our coasts" ? Does it mean tho protection of outgoing 
and incoming commerce, of coasting trade, or simply of liririH.iir.i 
and buililings on tho seaboard ( If tho last, then a fow I.h-.iI 
<Iofonco3 on .shore, backed by tho groat military ro.soun-es 
of Franco, amply suflico for all needs. Such oporations aslinat 
liritain carried out against Clierbourg and ottempted against 
H.icliefort aro now ab.iolutcly impossible. A coast line can, 
liowever, only bo rondorod sucure in tho broad s.miso by a mobile 
navy able to hold its own on tho sea, and tho views of Admiral 
do Oiiverville appear incontostable. 

Tho Naval Hiidgot is critically oxamine<l bv A. Oael in an 
open letter to tho President of the Uudget Commission. Frwich 
naval expenditure -258, "JOO.OOO francs in 18S)", will rise to about 
234,*X),000 francs in 1898, and if it is dosi^ 
(Iff'nixr mnritiin'' si'rifu.ie, must be brought up to 
(£12,000,0110 sterling), exclusive ot tho cost .1 a 

troops. Tho writer ci>nsiders that tho ilistribution c ti- 

dituro under its several heails should follow estabii^in'u inies, 
40 por cent, being allotted to now construction and 10 jior cent, 
to the service ot tho Hoot reserve. Tho latter important item at 
present only obtains a little more than 2(i per cent., and tho 
writer attributes tho great number of breakdowns to this cause. 
As ho most justly points out, the machinery of -ships constantly 
at sea is much more likely to bo trustworthy tlinn that which lies 
idle or is only omploye<l at long intervals. Tho '■ .Admirals of tho 
old school " aro ot a difTorent opinion, and hold that tho numlwr 
of breakdowns is simply proportional to that of tho s ti in 

commission. Tho life of the stnicturo of a steel ship I '■*) 

years, Frauoc. after replacing all her wooden or other>visr oi'soieto 
shipj and ohtaining at tho end of 1902 an active fleet of 24 
armour-clad'i, will tind her reserve ships rapi<Ily accumulating, 
and must either increase tho number ot vessel.'* in commi.ssion or 
discover some means of keeping the reserve ships in a state of 
greater ollicioiioy than at pre.tent. As roganis moii. the present 
active total is .11,00;), .showinir an increase of only 22 to 2S [n-r 
cent, in eight years, during which Groat Britain has otTocted an 
augmentation "of 'Si to 40 jMjr cent. A. Gaol, therefore, considers 



Our ! 

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at I 
in; 



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•vould do 



'tlwminhit; tn tlw 

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element 
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was' 
call ; 

quality oi 
lays down, 



b< twoen tho 



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must g'i Imci^ t^> tho 

ft'ldod richness was bo 

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r to a irre 

.ill i ' ' ' 
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 il 

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h 

1 with 

.^t th« 

' ill 

.c- 

•!:0 
h* 
n- 
\a 
t«i 



m 

i,v 
il 
1. 



of 
■t 

iT 

'T 

n tiimt 

liithcd 



•uly ou account 



•• fioni \ 
gem in re_ 



Iv 
il 



I. IS a 
■:■ is in 



56 



LITEUATURE. 



[October 30, 189 7. 






IviK'. cnltt'd tl; 



i"». 



type in Qennany, to 

<l the pix'iiis tlioin- 

foiiiit. (vuito B|iart 

itu *» literature, a Ihk k 

tl aa a £nu anti(|i:o coin, 

iiivt' luiich ill lominon, i>n u<c<'tint 

II u( itii littering and thu j urtoct 

f the lut book i»sued by Mr. Morria, " The 



far to <! 

>l «» mil* 



IS ■■:.<.:: ■-. . . . ^ _ -  _ , 

a type ih^ca not defeat ita own 
that, even in r</i(urij lie luj-t 
larger type than that known 
lie uaed if weight is given to 
be rtmd. Even where it ia not 



n of wirk- 

the matter 

, and this 

' 1.0 I age to look diity 

.... iifier u hliort »i ell of 

:» itself fur conhideration 

, -i-a, the UFe of bo largo 

ends, for there is no doubt 

on full paged paper, no 

aa great primer should ever 

the fact that the book may 

so much a <|ue*tion of tasto 



aa of normal ••yeiiuOit. nirn of yrint may err as easily in one 

• " ' !i with this question of 
i r (lueEtionwhcther the use 

• ;..:■, not ultimately tend 

of stereo plates lack 

.|iii--< iMiii II •ii~i.ii^iii&hes prints from a 

metal tyfe. lietidex which the Ktcreo letter 

 '■ the qualities of tl.c lincuBid in dry-imint 

y to lun over and heccme woolly on the 

It is allowed to lecome at all general 

.•■..• I refent generation will ctftr fewer attractions 

of the future than the books of thelGth and ITtli 

us. 

'(> did the art of decorating bookUndings emanate ; 

impcrtation broncbt into Europe at the end of 

ry tlifre is no doupt, but in what country did it 

ll.> ' opinion has always been that it was 



tiin iftMiii: 

good deal 



Cvtlti. 
I 



.1 



fri m 



U18. Many instsncos can be adduced in 
the decoration of bindings by mtans of 



1. ry heavily with o| Rqiio colours, so character- 

 ^  e. of the Orolicr bindings, can be matched by 

i < of a verj" much earlier date. Curiously cn< ugn 

,l..iM binilings the Perfians keep vcrj' closely to 
t jiast, and in matters of dcKign and execution 

' . ceiy any forward movement during the la£t 

4 x> years, ijome recent difcoveries of bindings executed in 
K^ypt under the later Mameluke rulers would appear to indicate 
that the carljr Italian binders owed much, if not all. of their in- 
spirntifn to Fgypt. This is a matter which it will take some 
' ' ''o. It is by no means improbable that amongst 

le as the Mamelukes there were Eome woikmcn 
'•I ii r.'-iaii • i:^in,an<l if this ia found to le so, it will be another 
f»ct<T in tupport of the theory so loag held that the art of 
decorating bookbindings was first brought to Europe from 
I'crsia. 



'Clnivcvsit\: Xcttcvs. 



OXFORD. 

IftW » Long Vacation, which to all intents and purpoFcs 
benn bat Maj, after sending a loval deputation to Windsor 
■ad a rspTMMltatiTa to King Otcar'a Jubilee at Stockholm, 
l»xford commence* her nca<Iemic year with the pleasing novelty 
of • n*w Begistrar and two recently-elected Heads of Houses. 
Tb* praatige of Mr. Gr<jeo's name caused him to bo returned un- 
ofkpoMd. fV.th Prf'f»-or Fi-lhnm ntrl I'l ofessor Lock were the 
fBToorit4«, ] oiiular. President and 

Warden hj. ,■ within our boundaries, 

and a the Hirlii of the learned in their 

rwspe- • this I.'ni»eniiiy. 

IVnii. iiei; ..... of Trinity College, 

all muat regret \Vo<.<U. The late 

Praaident'almou..- . iajly npeful in 

tbe control of thoM.- I niversity is 

•o often charged wit .-i.. we loco— 

what we can ill affor , i| ,,f niir 

UiCh] n'.vi'Ii't. . I'<.i Itl,,..,,.li .1 

I  nerer ow 

'1 .■.II novel 1 -  f 

Thyraia and the bcbolar Uipey, but there ia nothing academic 



about it. It is carious to see how differently two artists may 
utilize the camo background. To Mattl.ew Arnold the "warm 
green-muffled Cumm r liills " suggested a wealth of classic anil 
academic reminiscence. There is no harsh rculiKiii in his pastor.^il 
life — the half Virgilian shepherds of the Hur.^t, the boatman's 
daughter of the " shy Thames" — yet to Mrs. Woods those saitn* 
scenes and the rustics of lierkshiru jirovidod material for the 
Bonibrc anil cssentiii" ii story of a Village Tragedy. 

Novelists have y lost touch of tho life of Oxford 

itfeli. Poihaps exi-i. i. .• unio is lacking in incident ; |ierhap8 
it is the sterilizing intlueiice of a t.>o critical spirit. At any 
rate, the day isoturwlicn the nndergiadiiatu could lie a hero, as 
ho is, for instance, in " Tom Urown at Oxfortl." His achieve- 
ments in thu echotds and on the river utod to bo invested 
with a glamour and romanco born of enthusiasms wliich 
wo have now outlived ; and no one in the present day mttcl> 
cares to road stories alniut schoolboy pranlcs and athletic 
triumphs ; while if fiction catrios the hero into other tiolds, 
he is in danger, while appealing to wider human sympathies, 
of doing things incon.sistent with his residence at a University ; 
it Wing, of course, tho object of academic otiicials, like the goo<l 
gendarme in " L'Hommu !i I'Oroillo Cassi^o," to see that 
nothing unusual hapiieiia in tho lo<-ality. On the other hand, 
too much vivacity in dertciibinj' the life of Dons oiid tho " Park» 
System " is apt to be held lilellous. Tho thing hr.s been tried, 
but not with complete success — Oxford society is ntill t<io smalt 
to be satirized with safety. It is uiwlerstood that at Cambridgo 
the works of " Alan St. .\ubyn " are not productive of unmixed 
pleasure. Perhaps it is, on tho whole, inefitablo that, when tho 
narrator of those days essays to lift the veil from Oxford social 
life, the result shoufd bo rather unsatisfying, as it undoubtodly 
is in tho latest volume of local stories — publixhod this term 
and entitled " Within Sound of Great Tom." Hero arc na 
heroic undergradtiato figtires, as in " Tom Hrown," nor any im- 
possibly desiccated Professors of Ktnision as in " Pelinda." 
When the undorgraduato appears ho is tho colourless individual 
of the present day, and tliu Fellow is perhaps even milder am) 
more inelTectual than ho is in reality ; while when tho authoress 
ventures on a scene of collegiate life she does so obviously with- 
out personal knowledge, which is but natural. 

-Mr. T. (i. Jackson, who has created a good deal of modern 
Oxford, now appears as tho chronicler of its antiquities. Hia 
" Church of St. Mary tli') Virgin,'" a hpaiitifiil and profu.sely 
illustrated book, has recently been published by the Clarendon 
Press. The annals of our I niversity Church are not only inte- 
resting architecturally: for a long time the history of St. Mary's 
was really thu historj' of tho University : the story of tho many 
great am\ iitemorablo scones enacted within its precincts has a 
charm for every one. Altogether such a book appeals to all who 
know Oxford, even to that napless generation of undorgradiiatcs 
who never saw tho church at all, at least undrii] o<l by tcalfold- 
ing. Towards the end, Mr. .lacksoii deals at length with tho 
recent restoration of tho pinnacles, luckily not in a too tMilemica) 
spirit, though ho has a little fling at sentimental i>er8oiis who 
do not understand architecture. Fortf.nately tho fins of con- 
troversy which raged round that vexed qtiostioii are now extinct, 
and tho scarchings of heart which agitato<l Convocation for a. 
year or more have passed into thu limlio of the forgotten. 

Tho progress of Dr. Murray's Dictionary has been lately 
celebratofl in true academic fa.vhion that is, by a dinner, which 
is said to have been most succyHsfnl. There is reason to hope 
that unless the English language should multiply words abnor- 
mally, the work may be finished in I'JIO. For an Oxford 
magnum o^iun, this seems almost indecently precipitate. 



iforcion Xcttcvs. 



UNITED STATES. 

The October number of tho Atlnutie Muuihlij complotos 
the fortieth year of the perio<lical, which, more than any other, 
has endeavoured to be repntsentativo of American literature. 
The Atlnntir may sometimes have leon irreverently called 
doll, insipid, or anything else iinwolcome to (.ditors ; but 
nobody has questioned from tho beginning that it has tried to bo 
at once meritorious and native. The summary of its fortyyeara, 
with which this last number conoliidos, is, in its own way, im- 
pressive. Whatever else it has done, the Allanlic has roanage<l 



October 30, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



fi7 



to count nmojiR its • 

iliiritij^ tlmt [Mirioil, 1, 

liM iiioluili'd mro'i of their limtinR worlc. In ita rirnt ntirotior, 

for cxiwnplo. Dr. Kolmos bogan tlio " Autocrat of th« Drvakfaat 

TaMii," KuuirRon piibliihcil hit oiway on Illuiion*. Lowi-lt aiul 

Wliittior had poomH, ami no had LoiiKfollow, and thent wu 

aomothiiig by Motloy. In view of thii it i» a Httlo atattlinc to 

lind that, iiftor tho di^'iiit;od old faxhion, none of I' 

wu» siKnod. Forty years ngo an anonymity nn 

that of the Quartrrlii Htrirw waa on eliimontaiy 

of tho literaryniiinnerit of New Krif^land, at ihot tinio t!  

tentro of tho I'niteil States. Hut that anonymity coTerwl nam«a 

well known then ond I titer since. 

No sinj^lo fact could moro clearly mark tho present condition of 
American litoraturo than tho contrast between this state of thing* 
and tho recent announcomenta of American publishers for the 
coming season. In quant ity|thc8o oro said to l)o unprei-edi-ntod ; 
certainly tlioy outnumber, by twohuii<1rod or fo, tho ann'^iineo- 
inents of a year apo. And, almost without exception, t' 
tho authors who thus appeal to the American public, i 
impression which one j^ets from this rather bowildorin); lutxat »i 
prophetic information is perhaps mistaken. Tho very bulk of 
tho iinnouncemonts inevitably means that a givxl jMirt of what is 
nnnotniccd must prove ephemeral ; but among tho names spread 
lieforo us tliero are certainly a few which hove long boen 
rospectobly familiar. Not to speak of some stray letters which 
passed between Kmeraon nnd John Sterling, or of an unpublished 
diary of Hawthonio, whoso literary remains seem almost 
inoxhaustiblo : not to sjwak either of novels by Mr. Miirion 
Crawford and Mr. Henry Jamos, who may fairly lie held by this 
lime rather European writers thon Amurican, there is a clleoted 
edition of tho works of Mr. Aldrich, and a now volume of ; ooms 
by Mr. Stedman ; and there aro novels by Mr. Howell-, and 
Mr. Frank Stockton, and Mrs. Burnett ; ond there is a new 
historical work by Sir. J<ihn Fiske. Ali the same, as one turns 
over tho annoiuicomonts, what strikes ono most is the com- 
parative unfamiliarity of tho names so freely announced. That 
tho literary activity of America haa never been grcot«r is an 
undoubte<l fact. Equally undoubted seems tho fact that just ot 
this moment .\merica is not so rich as it nsed to be in esta- 
blished reputations. Fantastically enough, one begin-; t'> fee! as 
it tho Nineteenth Century were insensibly Ix^come a thin? < i tho 
jMist, while tho Twentieth is still a thing of tho future. 

Ot course, this impression is not only fantastic, but p<>rhaps 
a littlo unfair. When ono begins to consider tho announcomenta 
in detail, ono finds a good many titles which cannot bo over- 
looked. In the motter of .scholarly contribution to the study of 
English literature, a study rather moro orthodox in America 
than in England, where it has a far more deeply rooteil clos-'ical 
tradition to contend with, at least two works of first-rato import- 
ance aro promised: a new volume of Mr. H. H. Funiexs's 
" Variorum Shakespeare," comprising oil that his experienoetl 
ttcutcness and indu.stry can collect concerning T\- if. '-i-'i 
Tale ; and tho tenth and final volume of the late Professor 
Child's " English and Scottish Popul.ir IJallads," a work which 
is believed literally to include every known English or Scotch 
iuillad which can bo traced to o [xipular, as distinguished fr'>m a 
litorarj-, source, and to set forth every fact about them wl.icli tho 
■unceasing and enthusiastic labour of a scholar's lifetime C'>uld 
discover. Tho completion of this final volume has been occom- 
plisho<l by l'rofess<ir Kittredgo, of Harvard College, Professor 
Child's most trusted and intimate colleague. Then there is a 
second volume of Professor M. C. Tyler's " Literary Hi.'it ry of 
tho .American Revolution," tho most thorough and ut-.'. i.ised 
statement which has bjen made of what may bj called the 
mental condition of this country diu-ing the years which changed 
it from a loyal dependency of tho Pritish Crown to a region 
where for aliovo a century tho British Crown has been tmdition- 
nlly, though most infelicitously, held to be an hereditary er.emy. 
Thon, too, Mr. Tnoodoro Uoosevelt promises n volume on 
American Ideals, which ono may perhaps expect to uphold 
this tradition ; tho President of Harvard College, a man of 



of MMf* and ad* 

■..." uwlBiahop 



more pMO«fnl twnpar, will 

ilrsMM on " Amarioan Coo^^^^Bt' 

Potter, of Now Vork, a « 

eiititi. -I ■' The Scholar ami ••-■'ma 

of irs from Moa* oimI a man of :Ary 

a* ' ' . baa jiiat i»oi-<i a '>uijk of aaaayaalMJui <. ertain 

A< Mr. Harriaon, formariy fraaiiWtit of tba 

: •■.••,:-■••- T- vol 



. to 



 on 
ina 
.ira 

.ly 



of 



thorough compiler of lust' 
Amvriean history in itn 
oallod " Thu Westerly 

mora booka which roiKi.: . . ^ , . . 

thore ia no lack of rigoroiu an<I 

anif   '   rican men who might r. on k-iu 

in y \\ve» to have no spare time f 

b<H>k.'i. Ill" ' ts, though, are  

tlusu mon !■ I ronuivwl fron, -• . 

ail''' 

on. 

the must intoreating. 

It ia in tho region of pure lottera, aftar all, that one ranat 
■eek, if anywhere, for justification of one's iniprvaaion that on 

the whole tho writora of tho proaont moment arc r ' •.■>•«» 

well known as American men of lottera u«e<l to be i ry- 

body'a memory. A good deal of the work promnuxi, ^- t.<'-m 
appearing day by day, certainly haa merit : and mora ■;< . . . rv 
probably has. Ab ' . turut} 

bo clover. Dr. W- roughly 

aound histori t <iiu) of tho 

foremo.^t of ^ re generally 

recogni)ce<l as no amateur in lit. <ar mnat ac- 

complished living men of lott-r . ; Mr H \V. 

Mabie have bucomo ini|>ortant cnou;;h for . rm 

e<UtioD. Mr. Fus's " Kentuckiana '' has ...i.......  nl 

by tho roadera of Uarjier't Munlhtf. Mr. Owi t.i 

a new volume of atoriea, and hia atorioa aro n1 . . - ji.l 

works of art. And whoever haa read novels i  l-.'.rt 

Craddock, or Ellon d' ■' .r 

Paul r,<<ii'<>!iter Ford ; 

Mi who;e"r . ' uhI " IhhIi, ui i.iih. . » iio'v 

coi. , in those < ks of nonseiiae, a-t .-. -, !..~lv 

laughing who came art. .^ t . ni a year or two • s 

to reprint thom or pici'"*  i t.'ein. There ia no re;i: ;,.jrc 

of reapcctablo oasays ami fiction and the like. Only, aa one 
ponders over the announcomenta thereof one aomebow cannot 
quite forget that tho American literature which they eheerfally 
and ploaaantly continue is tho same A— - - '• -- — -' i -h 
forty years ago this month could anoi) i? 

in a new monthly i work b\ Lou^jiu'Uow, 

Emerson, Holmes, Wli i. Stow*. ;l. 

It is in poetry th.i- ,t nu^t. Beyond 

donbt, the poetry of Ne.i i r^n ratM ahor* 

its merit, till even in Now England i' of 

human nature has ended by rather n; At 

leaat one may confidently say now that our poeta were pure, 
wholes.ime, sincerely enthusiastic men of l.'H..r« who foumt in 
their rerses a genuine and a welcome ' > of what life 

meant to them. In mere technical fini!-ii Lm n.>ik of a dozen 
men and womon whom one could name is ]>r>bably better than 
moat of that which within the pa-' are has become locally 

classic. But aa one aoans tho .entH of this cloaing 

year for namos an shad prcj^. -etical tradi- 

tions, one is at n n. The ' y of Massa- 

chusetts, to" ife, was '. " .rd 

man of tho i. Harvard ■•; iiis 

degree in 'oo— ami that ot today. " We had poets. " he said, 
"andyou haven't." Which means in all likelihood, that the poeta 
of tho Nineteenth Century are falling asleep and tbe poeta oif tba 
Twentieth not yet awakened. 



LITEUATIUE. 



[October ao, 1897. 



©bituav\i. 



FKAXCIS TURXKR PAUilt.\VK. 
Fmt nMn haro clone so much for the intelligent study of 
■ngliah poetry m Mr. FVmnois Turner Pnlgniro, whoso death nt 
the ag* of 73 wm announced at tlie bogiiining of the week, lie 
wa* himaalf poet of no mean ordi«r, and published books of 
orifpnal poems from time to time for a long period ranging from 
18Mtol881. But his name is boat knnvm in connexion with 
" The U olden Treaaury " : and only a fortnight before his 
daath the public bad welcomed a loniT-oxpectoiI Second Series, 
ooatAuung aalections from thr ^ > [>oets. Selt'ctiuns from 

theKngliah poota hara become o. co tho appearance in 18C1 

of" ThaOoldan Treasury. " It wan not, indeed, a new departure. 
Tba praMatmant in a han ly volume of gems from tho vast 
storohooaa of English poetry was an idea which hod suggested 
itaalf to others— notably to Mr. C. Dana, whoso death we 
record abewhera. But few, if any, E<litor8 of jioetioal 
aeloetiona bare shown the taste and judgment of Mr. 
Fftlgrara. His " Golden Treasury " luis been universally 
aooeptod aa the most trostworthy guide to tho best productions 
of tbo Sngliah lyrista. It has probably done more to cultivate 
an appreciation for poetry among young and old than the 
work of teachers or critica far moro famous than Mr. 
Palgrare. The assistance he rendenxl to the study of English 
poetry waa not confined to tho "Golden Treasury. " Ho published 
a •• Children's Treasury " (1864), " Tho Treasury of Sacred 
8ong " (1888), a selection from Wordsworth, Shakspearo's 
Lyrics, a selection from Herrick, Tho works of Keats, 
" Lyrical Poems \ty Lord Tennyson," and he contributed a 
paper of Personal Kecollections to Lord Tennyson's Life of liis 
Father. IV ' V'.wod themselves in " Essays 

on Art " I r[iross which ho su]>plie<l to 

** Ucms of t.u'^ti-n 111 1.1 ill.-' V I'untry "' (18C9) — his versatile 
literary faculty "in " Five Days' Entertainment at Wontworth 
Grange." His work received a fitting recognition in his 
appointment by the University of Oxford, where he had been a 
Scuolar of lialliol :iii(l r,.Ii.i« of Exeter, to the Chair of Poetry 
on the deatli of 1 ;> in 1880. He had previously held 

for fire years f' l of V'ico-Princii)al of tho Training 

College for :it Kneller Hall. Ho had also actod 

as private .■^ id Granville, and from 18i».5 to 18rtl ho 

waaasBi 'a : > .ry t<> the Committee of the Privy Council 
onEdu'.^'.; 11 wnsasonof Sir Francis Palgrave, the his- 

torian and :i<I a brother of Mr. William Gilford 

Palgravo, t iur, and also of Sir licginald Palgrave, 

Clerk to UiH iionce oi commons. 



\' 






 '. . \-' . . - 


f- 




H • 




Oct;' 


I 

t 


1. 



•• j;- "fir. : • 
" I>ant« a:. 
btirc." II, 

a; ■? ~ ' ' •■-■ 
M- •    ' 
1 
t 



II vox Weoelb, who died on October IG, at 

:!i year, was a distinguished historian and 

ii  Mas known not only in loomed circles in 

•' '  Ii ral public also, owing to his co-editor- 

!:"i-hus von Lilicncron of tho " Allgcmeino 

■' — tho monumental work produce<l by the 

on of the Munich Academy. He began his 

.1 Jena in 1848, and in 18o7 was appointed 

■rv in th. '•' 'ty of Wlirzburg. Ho earned 

titfo of '• • :in of Gorman history " by 

'* "'  since tho advent of tho 

works may bo mentioned 

■' Kail August von Woimir,'' 

I : ,v ■• II • ry of the I nivorsity of Wilrz- 

:i .. ' ' i:i t'> tho school of (jcninus 

at ,-it Heidelberg. He was a 

• Mil of his lectures attracted 

.; nx.in l.esiiles tlio regular students of 

r von Wcgele, who was a " (iohoim- 

.'. '.tor of tho philosophical faculty of 



M. .Ixr-Qrr* AwArir Rrcy.\t-tT. who died on the 14th inat., 
V - re Najiolnor. I. liecamo 

1 I mnny of tho groatcst 

1" : . ntury, and ho wns 

i>} :iv with England. In 

franc i rcj ula.li"U as a scliolar, a traveller, and 



a historian of contemporary events, and his varied experiences 
rendered him an almost unicpie link w ilh tho past. " He had out- 
lived," as has been saidof hiincliiewlure, " two empires, two mon- 
archies, and two rojuiblios.," .\monj; his works may be mentioned 
" Histoin' du Conseil <rKtat," accounts of journeys to the 
East, to Kiissia, and to Norway nnd Denmark, translations of 
Byron, studies on English and French prisons, and " Kovuo 
anecdotitjue des Champs Elysi'es ot do lours environs dopuia 
1730 jusiiu' ik nos ujors. ' ' 



Mr. Charle.s A. D.ina, whose doath has been announced from 
Now York, was both an author ond a politician, but the practical 
business of his life throughout wiis juurnaliKni, in which ho 
achieved grout distinction as editor of tho New York Tribune 
during the ton years jireceding tho Civil War. Ho bKaino o<litor 
of tho SuH in IKC". So outspoken were his attacks on tho mal- 
adniinistrationof tho executive during(jeneral Grant's Presidency 
that anunsucccBsful attempt was made by the Government to remove 
him from New York on a charge of libel. He is well known both 
here and in America for his " Household Hook of English 
Poetry "' published in 1857. He had a large share in the " Now 
American Encyclops-dia," and with Gencrol .lames H. Wilson 
he wrote a life of General Grant. Ho also published a volume 
of stories translated from the German, entitle<l " Tho Black 
Ant." 

Tho death of " Tasma " (Madame Augvsib CovvuEUR)on the 
23rd inst. removes a most interestiiis figure from the ranks of 
coiiteinporary novelists. Miss Jessie Charlotte Huybers, to 
give her hiT iimideti name, was of Dutch ancestry on her father's 
side, and Anglo-French on her mother's ; yot her fame as a writer 
of fiction rests on her admirable presentation of .Yustralnsian 
life. She was boru in Highgate, but she accompanied hor parent* 
to Tasmania when she was <inly two years of iigo. 

In spite of tho fact that her most distinctive gift was not to 
reveal itself till comparatively late in life- for Mine. Couvrour 
was well over 30 before " Uncle Piper, of Piper's Hill," estab- 
lished her place among contemporary writers of fiction, she 
possessed even as a child an oxtroordiuarily vivid imagination. 
Her early Tasmanian homo lacked no beauty fovo that of archi- 
tecture, but this her fancy supplied, and both she and horfavourito 
sister would wander for hours in a wonderful dream-city of hor own 
creation, peopled with a whole society of fantastic beings. She woe 
only 16 wticn tho vJi(.'.fia/i(i>i Jouriml jmhiislied somes lines from 
her pen, which dealt with tho eoniowhat gloomy subject of a 
mother's feelings towards on idiot child. Shortly after she 
entered colonial journalism, ond some of hor critical articles 
attracted a good <leal of attention. " Taenia's '' first story, a 
short, brilliant sketch entitled " Barren Lovo," appeared just 19 
years ago, but a visit to Europocut short her literary work. At that 
time, and indeed to the end of her life, sho was much interested 
in the welfare of her early homo, and on the Continent it is by 
her work as a lecturer tm Tasmania that she is known, for she 
spoke in tlie principal towns of Fmucc, Belgium, and Holland, 
receiving tho violet rilmnd and tho silver palm-leaves of the 
Oflicier <le r Academic. Long before there was any question of 
tho ytmng Australian lady's niarrini^e to one of his nxst dis- 
tinguished subjects, tho King of tho Belgians accorded hor a 
special audience in ortler to discuss with her a scheme of Belgian 
emigration to Tasmania. 

" Tasma " married M. Auguste Couvrcur in 1884. Four 
years later " Undo Piper, of Piper's Hill " w.is ]inblished in 
London, but sho was a careful and conscientious worki.T, and 
refused to f<dlow up immediately her great success os so many 
would have been tempted to do. Accordingly, in tlio last nine 
years " Tasma " has appaared but too rarely in tlie world of 
fiction. " In Her Earliest Youth,'' " The I'enanco of Portia 
James," and " A Knight of the AVhite Feather," also 
a volume of somo short stories ropublisliod under tho 
titln of " h Sydney Sovereign," mako up tho susn of hor 
«■ i ' ' ' of hor distinguishod husband, so 

]■ I of the Cobden Club, and (,'orro- 

sp' ii'ii lu <M ( (!• /!//■< Ill 1>, uKBels, Madumo Couvrour gave up 
more and more of her time to journilism, for she siiccooded her 
husband as Tlie Tiiiics Corresiiondent. She lia<l a singularly 
modest and imaisuming personality, and hv.v biography is iniss- 
iji^r fri.in b ilh •' ^len of tho Time " ond Vhicti.iii. 



Mr. William I . of Cainbcrwell, who died last wook, 

was a man 'if son , ability, but will bu liost roinemlieretl 

iis lieing the founiler <.f tho first free library in South London. 
Tho librory grew <nt if tho Smith London Working Men's 
College, and was cftablithed in 1878 in K<'nniiigton-laiio. 



October ov, ioy/.j 



LITKRATtlil 



59 



THE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 



"" Tlio liibniry Asaociution, foundoil in ' 
muotiii); luHt wiu^k in thu r<H>inH n{ tli' 
now proHidont, Mr. Ht-nry Kiclianl 'I'oii.i.i, u 
iwUlross, said that tho ohjin-t of tlm iiMsoriiiti'-n 



pt'rxi'iiH ititcri'stid in ' 

tlm lul^t l">,'^.silll^^ ;l(lli, 

f<>riimtii<ni>l' nuwonus 
sincd tliH innu);inatii> 
iniiniriition Ix-twi'di 
Iiilinirv A»MO<;iati<)Ti In 



of till) IIMSO 

•rk fur tl. 

II of ex IS 



Ilia iimitKural 

»' t" ttnitc nil 



i...^.... .1, .., ,, 

.'an with a roll of 140 : it u 

til. if ., .Ir,,!. . 



ci'ntlll ii'.i. 



Th.. 

■t'h 



f).">0. Till) coiincil'M luport toUl tl 
tioii wiiuhl prolmtily booh 1)o gr 
sptmkor mentioned a nuinbor ' 
tho moilorn private hook collortor wan an importun' 
fonnutioii uf thu public lil>rary. In tho IHtli i-int' 
Alcboruo, whoMo books were incorpiirated in Lord Spumuri 
library, and Sir John Funn wtiro ainonj' tho firtit who 
attaclu'd value to tho dramatic and poetic litoratiiro of Did 
England. About tho sanio poriixl Mr. Crofts. Colonol 
StanK'v, and " Don " llowlo wi'i. 
SpaniNli litoraturo, whilo William 1; 

of colliH-tine Italian books, which h.iu in'im .i i..\ .ui.; j u iwi 
of English litorary men for more than two 
library of tho late Lord .Axhburnham boro witiM 
lovo of intorosting books combined with a ! 
ornamental beauty. The lirst of the great i U-. 

was that of the library of Henry I'erkins, formed betw. 
and 18J0, and dispor.sod in 1S7:I. Two copies of the 
Bible, one on [mpor, the other on vellum, wore sold for i.'L',o'>0 
and £;t,400 rosnectively. Amon>;Bt tho valuable MSS. in the 
Duke of Hamilton's linrary wore the celebrated " I>ante draw- 
ings " by Botticelli, now unfortunately lost to England. The 
late Earl of Crawford had created a representative library of all 
branches of literature, art, and si-ienco, both ancient and 
modern. In sunimari^ii'ng the main qualilications of a librarian, 
ho referred to Mr. I'radshaw as an exami>lo of professional 
ardour and technical excolliinci). 

Dr. Garnott, tho next speaker, in alluding to the recent 
I'aniz/.i centenary, said that it was gratifying to find that our 
adopted countryman, to whom tho hritioh Museum owed so 
much, WDs still held in high honour in his native land. 

The subject of a paper read by Mr. Sidney Webb' was " .\ 
Now S|)ocialist Lil>rary for Political Soiiui'." He I'Mdlctcil 
that, as thu natural sciences had been the main work of the l!)th, 
political and social seienoo would \w the chief object of tlio en- 
deavours of th-2.)th century, and ho culled npoji o.vh distiiil to 
colloct.all literary material ai"ecting tho social life of tlu- peot le. 
.Vniong other.papors rca I Mr. .J. Y. W. 31.. '■ ' '. ho hon. 
secretary of tho .Vssociation. discussed the of tho 

" Durability of .Modern Uooli I'ajiers," ond ca. iition to 

tho disiiuioting fact that many",modorn books, some "t them of 
great iniportauca, wero printed ' upon pafier which wr.s ecrtain 
to crumble to dust in a comparatively short jnii 'd. <'f 
almost all books tho worst in this respect were tho !''1;> -' • "ks, 
to which tho historian of the future must look forjl; 1. 

The ])rocoe:lings on Thur-'day wero of a moiv i o- 

fossion.il natiiro, dealing with the manngcmont asul . 
mont of libraries. On> interosting aniiouiu'eminuwa 
Mr. Cot:.:ioavo, of the West Ham Public Libraries. •. 
that ho was en.;a.'ed in a single-handed attempt to . 
contents subject-index on a small scale. Ho hn;^ ' 
example set in Amnriea, and also by the llcrinr m 

England, would lead to the prixluction of a truly n.il Icx 

umW the auspices of the Lini-aiy Association. 

Sir Edmund \'eniey ^nve at the concludiniT session a 
valuable ami amusing addre-is on "Vilbt:;" l^ilraries .tu 1 the 
Duties of tho N'illage Librarian." He instnncod t"-. vn if 
Middle Clayilon, wlioro the .-Vet had loon luloptcd 
most successful in its working. All that was wan' 
was an ndilitioiito tlie sources from whirh vilbige Hi ; <1 

he endowed. The village librarian must exercise a "f 

tact. She " nuist make horsolf ac<)i:aintod by .' .iie 

literary wants nml t:istes of each homo ; she w a 

b lok on Cromwell and the Civil War must n"t n. i ■, i , ii!ed 



to a hoisohold absorbed in gnidening, or a history of the e.irly 

Christi:in m.irtyrs to an obi lady devoted to ].etc;its. Vi.ih one 

who enters the library must l-ive pointed out t' hiin ;h 

tains the very liook ho wants ; the farinir ni >i i"n' 

agriculture : the boy a miiiual on carving : 

hints on dressmaking and cooking ; and the i 

attention might bo drawn to scandalous revelations oi ti.o Court 



h one 

•on- 

; on 

vn 

'.•"8 



of (jnoen I 

i»atii*ii>->> ail 



« hail Ut fruetitm 



W«1 -I'.t 



•m 

-•or 

•'8 

'it 

'■•f 
• If and 

'  fir 

■V. 

it 



IRotcs. 



We renew our thanks to all our «ont«mporari«a who («• 
think without exception) hare kindly gre«tod our fint niunber. 



In reply to inouiriea, all 

Itit,.!,.! f.ir revifW will 1 *• i)]ni  i1 



our 

delay m iC.-* m,-ii»»-i_\ . 



.. : ; K li>« 

tho dolivory of tbeir 



t ■<»<slo<l 
. 'ld.kblu 



Canon Kawnsloy has addiossid to us thu following 
sonnet : — 

Onoi» LrrK I T VoTAoa. 

Child of this ! 



Flsr 
t>ne 



Anil 



ir. 



■ar ; 



Mot 



of explaining our 



firft 

I'  



!l 

14 

sl 
lournai kept y 

Durham, .iml t 

of ].,onl I ' 
address i 

any lettcrii ot I^ird Diuium or othur iui»iiu-tiuu c«>u<;<iruing his 
career. 

 •* • • 



Does anr one rcml Southoy now f This que^ti'm. sometia 
asked, nsuafly calls forth a negative response. • fame 

IS little more than an echo with us, and probabl\ ' hancv 

of being known to future ages will come from tho fait that D* 



60 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



QuiiMwy haa enahrined hi- 
varioiu other writiiura. C 
libnrjr in f "-" " ' 
thoir wmy 

o«rncopvui ..i.i.i>., 
and well worth a plac« i i 
the booka hare oomeaomc .v... 
vaa ft cood ooiteapondeot, e\ 
it the liaal perurrauli <>f one ii 



.if the Ijikcs," and 
lirfakitifr up of an old 
■- have ri'oently found 
rtaut »f tlu'iii is his 

., .... i.,.^ .■ . (tilion, 

r with 

: ^outhoy 

.•t. Hero 

n the first 



flay of the pf*.--' y : — " Kstlin i« coming to I^omlon. I 

•apped there <- y -they pro<1ucc<l <.'art»i'i);ht's ' Armiito 

and EIrira ' for me to rvad aloud afttT gome half-liour's suporla- 
tire praiae upon its merit. I read a littlu at a haud-gallup-for 
an eaaier pace would havo put me to sloop— ami whon I had 
done you nwrpr witiic»>e I such a ileiuX flatnvss as ensued. 
r»iii\»r.. ' iii.l 1 gave Kuch a < : .u.s half-scruple 

. I [:.:-. next day thi>y laid :. r poem's failure 

up-)n my b»a roaiiiug — I raunlorod it— ims »"uui have been like 
killing dead mall beer." 

• « • ■« 

An oniinent living authority on art is said never to dress 

!iout an illuminated manuscript open on his 

:  are many students of medieval art who, if 

their enthusiasm liocs not carry them so far as this, take a keen 

int«re!it in the subject, and welcome any means of incroasinu 

their knowle<lge of it. Most books illustrating the history of 

illiimination pive si)«cimeas of the best work in the Uritish 

■•"  great collections which may not always Ikj 

itivo of the decorations generally met with. 

• •. of Birkenhead, who possesses a fine col- 

.llumin»te<l MSS., proposes to do something 

this defect in a work announced by Messrs. 

s, of LiverjKK)!, of which "iOO copies will bo 

•v.Miiber. The pictures which illustrate the 

I "Hooks of Hours" in Mr. Quaile'a own 

; ! .en specially chosen as being typical of the 

various ktylen of illumination and decoration usually met with 

by the onhnary collector of MSS. 



r, at any rate, their secretaries— and journalists 
fretp i it loss easy than they could wish to obtain at a 

mome:a » n..iice information aliout the political history of recent 
years. The same difliciilty is often felt by other persons less 
Tersad i<i the handling of books of reference. They do not like 
to appear ignorant of " matters of common knowlcugo " such as 
the datea and '''r.'ii.ii..tnuces of the rise and fall of successive 
Ministries siii. not to know which Government was re- 

sponsible for t y councils, and which for free e<lucation, 

or what have been the changes in our relati.ms with foreign 
Powers during the lafct 25 years. But they hanlly know where to 
go to obtain with the minimum of trouble at least a decent cloak 
of facts to veil their ignorance. Something is required which no 
one at present has exactly supplied. 

« « « « 

Mr. Justin McCarthy's, in many respects, admirable volume 
now brings " *>'r oun Times " up to date, and there are other 
bandy books c ",such as Messrs. Adand and ICinsome's, 

firing dironol ^ la of events, iiut they do not entirely 

Mee t the case. Whjit is wante<l is a compendium of information 
on apocial subjects— E<lucation,I<abour, Agriculture, the Church, 
Ac. — and on >!|>e<'ial countries all over the world, jireceded by a 
rhronicle of i".|iti.nl events, an<l furnished with an exhaustive 
index. Tlio !■ • t, of course, might require to be thrown 

into a se[iarat ' A very large number of persons wonld, 

we are an t "t such a work, and the only difficulty that 

mggesU iinexion with it is the necessity of re-editing 

it erery t.<u or tnreo years. 

•    

The  iry zest with which the English public have 

read Ix>. .'s " Korty-one Years in India '' is *hown by 

the fact that it uiis first pnblishc<1 at the beginning of January 
in the prmmt yt>»r, and the 21 »t of September saw its 2:ird 
~ ' <■<" rate of 'lee editions a month, 

'• fnittd ition and the Indian 

f ouioii. I .  . <lition, in i;r,iiii(,- lyje for the use <.f the 

blind, is aJao I. 

• « • « 

A new edition of Mr. Walter Thombtiry'* well-known Life of 
J. M. W. Tiim«r liai !• ^r». Chatto and 

WiiMliis. The book waf -02, and its very 

•zhaottivo troatmetit of lunitr, not '^nly l'j an aitist, but as a 



man, roused a good deal of controversy among the more devoted 
admirers of the artist. It has loon eonsideiably enlarged and 
recast since then, and it now contains eight coloured illustrations 
after Turner's originals — rather a bold, and not wholly successful, 
embellishment to the volume. 

 * « « 

Mr. Ce<lnc Chivers, in starting last your his " New IVo-k 
List " made far the best attempt to produce a really 
UFoful bibliography of current literature that we have yet seen, 
containing a monthly list, with tho fullest possible details of 
each ]iulilication, and occasional explanatoi-y notes, arrangoil 
alphabetically acconiing to authors' names, each entry being 
numbered. An ainhalxtical subject and title index in tho 
middle of tho booK referring tho student to these numbers 
enabled him to find at a moment's notice not only tho particu- 
lars of any book published during the month, but also whether 
during that period a book has been published by a particular 
author or on a particular subject. 

•  « • 

This numbcringof tho books, as Mr. Chivers says," enables us 
to compile and issue cumulative indexes at any do^ircd periods " 
and *' acts as a code for ordering books at any time." At tho 
end of the year these monthly parts are bound up together into 
annual volumes, with a new index, under the title " New 
Catalogue of Hritish Literature." We are sorry to see that in tho 
October List which Mr. Chivers has sent us he obandons the con- 
tinuous alphabetical list according tonuthor8,uiiddivide8thobook8 
according to subjects, tho list of which is somewhat arbitrarily 
chosen, and docs not, for instance, include " biography " as a 
separate heading. This very nnich impairs tho usefulness of tho 
book as a means of rapid reference, and tho more so as we aro 
not told on which page the ditTerent lieadings will bo found, and. 
although wo are promised a " cumulative author and subject 
and title index," it is not bound up with the Octolxu- New 

liook List. 

• « «  

Early next year is to bo published by tho Cambridge 
University Press a Facsimile Kdilion of the Greek and Latin 
manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, ]ire- 
served in tho Cambridge I'niversity Library, an<l goneially 
known as Codex Bezae or Codex I). M. Paul Dujardin, of 
Paris, will photograph the pages of tho manuscript and engrave 
them on copfier by the process known as " heliogravure." 
» « «  

The Fragment of Aquila, which Mr. F. C. Kurkitt recently 
unearthed in the Cambridge I'niversity Library, will bo pub- 
lifhed by tho Cambridge University Press. Mr. Ituikitt himself 
will edit it, and Dr. Taylor, Master of St. John's College, will 
probably write an excursus or ai)pendix. 

 » • « 



The 



Antiouary's Library " of Messrs. Elliot Stock, which 
began with Mr. M. G. Watkins's useful " Gleanings from the 
History of the Ancients," follows it uj) with " Sculptured 
Signs of Old London," by Mr. Philip Norman, a book which was 
published some years ago at a high price. Mr. H. li. Whoatloy 
writes a preface to the nook. A number oi other volumes aro 
! announced, the first two being "Tho History of Fairs," by 
' Cornelius Walford, and "Tho Histt)ry of Folk-lore Relics of 
Early Village Life," by G. L. Gomme. 

    

It is a satisfaction to know that M. Paul Bourgot, whore 
" V'oyageuscs " appeared only three or four weeks ago from tho 

tresses of M. Aliihonse Lemerro, will oiler us a new novel " La 
•amo Bkuo " in Novemlior, to lie published also by M. Lomorre. 
.4nd it is a satisfaction, not merely because wo are to havo 
another story from M. Bourget— this is tho third volume he will 
have brought out this year : we had " llecomraencements " in 
Moi'ch, and it is still selling like a new bfxik but Iwcause this is 
the best possible assurance that the quarrel between him and 
>I. Ijemerre is being arranged, if it bo not indeed entirely 

scttlcl. 

• « • • 

M. Lemerre is also publishing a new novel by M. Kemy 
St. Maurice entitled " Temple d'Amour " and three short storiis 
" TroisNouvolles," by M. Marcel Provost whoso " Les iJemi- 
Vierges," if the most jvipular, is not tho most distinguished 
work he has done. At the beginning of tho year M. Lemerre's 
name will figure on the title pages ot st< ries by M. I'atd Hervieu 
(" Amitie ' to Im) published in March), by iJaniel L. 
("Comediennes " for Febniary), by M. JI(innotain("L'Iin| 
also for February, although we should have it at an earlier (i;:tv 



October 30, 1897.] 



LilEKATLKE. 



if tho (iiithor worn not bu»y nt hi« po»t in Iiulu-China), by M. 
Rono Maizurciy (" Mom rAinour "), and by M v,„ir.: 
Thouriot, tlin now AcailfiniiMan wliom M. I<<iur|;i<t in • 
wolooino lit tiio I'aliiiH MuKuriii (" Duuil do Vouvo," 
tratud volumo alio for Fubmary). 



That oxcoodingly iiiefiil b<H>k by M. Jonoph Tuxt«, " Joan- 
.laqueH KosRoaii vt Ivh OriRinoB don C'o*iiio|><ilitiauia Lit- 
tcraire," piibliahod by Muhm-h. }{aobuttu a tMMik which 
8hotild immodiately bu trannbitvd into 1' ' ' 
»tli«r illiiiitrntiong of thu inluToiit tin 
fViitax mid f;oiiiu.s of tbo Kroiicb lnnniiaf;o. > . .i.^ ■. .-i^,,^ 
'lhoii)^ht>i," ill Uio laxt cuiitury, iiiadu fur tbiH ruanoii uu in- 
orodi)>lo impi'osHioii ill FraiU'O. VoiiH)' was i-umi .u. .1 I.. Il.in. i 
and.'Ksohyliisaiid riiidiir. Kwii in Italy tho " 
enjuyod hardly loss ooltbiity. Tito Kroncli 
tends to olirniiinto the provincialism in tho work of an Kngliih 
or Oormnn writer. And this is partly iHioar.so, as Itunan con- 
fosRos in the profaoo ;)f his *' L'Avonirdo la Soionco " (Calmnnn 
JjOvy), French cannot readily express certain ideas which a siibtlu , 
writer is tomptod to make it express. Tho Frcnth |  n'est 

/Its Fiani-itU i.M the |H'tnlunt testimony to tho Frei n for 

cloarnoss to which Ronan had -at fiist against hisuiii to sub- 
rait. 

» • » • 

Uon^ Le Olero, tho young poot whoso suicide made such a 
painful impression in Paris during tho early part of this month, 
was not without talent. I nlmppily. ho had 1 e<'onio reduced t> 
absolute destitution while wuitiiij; for the huccoh which never 
eauic. and it was misery wlueh |irompte<l him to take his lifu. 
Tho following are some of his verses : — 

UEQlfclE A NOEL. 
Point ne veiix p.\iitins ni |ioupves, 
Ni fanfrolucheA, ni l>ijoux ; 
Bon .It'sud, RunU' ti's joiijoux 
l*i'Ur li'ii itmefl tnoecup^cN ! 

Mtts lUiis men saliot do Noel 
l,o jruiip cspoir iiui nous fait libre, 
Mt t4 l« tli'iiir profoiiil dc rivrt* 
Et U Hour qui tlvurit uu riel ! 
M''t* 1#» di'-'Uin profond din nKK, 

I . .  

Mcls rcsprit factioe ct railleur 
(Jui fitit uubiier la KtitilTniiicr, 
Met»-y surtout line espCTanCB 
Ell quelque cliosc do mcilltur '. 

Mrts ror.;ucil dn la fantai^ie, 
T.e cnunipo — rnre pirfui« — 
De poursuivr« une >H<nne tii* 
La route quo I'un a choisie ! 

Mi'ts lo Buocis ilaiiii Ira rllorts. 
Lo travail, sanA souci ni doutp. 
Kt, coninic etoile siir tax rout«, 
L'orgucil simple qui fait lea furta ! 

* « « • 

The visit of tho King of Siiim to tho Guimct Museum has 
called attention to tho founder of this Museum of Relijjions. 
M. Emilo Guiniet was horn at Lyons in 183C. Ho has been a 
great traveller, and has visited Africa, America, Cliina, Jaiian, 
India, Ac. Having a considerable fortune, ho brought back 
with him most vnluablo artistic collections and objects of all 
kinds with which to found a Museum of Koligions. This most 
inttTOsting museum ho made over to tho city of Paris, but he 
still continues to watch over it himself with tho greatest care. 
M. tiiiimot is also a musician and a writer of much talent. 
Ho has noted down his impressions ,of various countries in 
tho following Iwoks :— " Croquis Kgyptiens," " Aiiuarelles 
Afrioainos," " Promenades Japonaises," " ICsquisses tjciindi- 
naves," &c. 



The city of Lyons seems ever ready to stretch out a helping 
hand to literary aspirants, and wo now hear that a committee 
has been formect there on very original lines. The meml>ors of this 
eommittoo consider that the writers of to-day t.iko up too many 
ditroiont branches. Voiing writers, for instance, are frequently 
conipolle<l to take up what pays, whilst tho divino spark of their 
particular genius has to go on smouldering within them for 
years, or, lierhaiw, for ever ; and tho world is undoubteiUy tho 
loser thereby in the end. This Lyons committee proposes that 
other committees should l>o formed in France, ea<-h one of which 
shall patronize some specially -determined class of literature, and 



Uiwivrtake to rtiiiuiivrata tho i 



take to rt'iiiiiiivrato tho y< 

.f it... 1 , ,1 >. ,.,■.•:., I Ti . 



61 



it 



«Miuuiitl««) la ui>, Kue ThuiiiiiaMkiu, L>uua. 
• < • 



St. 



ml 



t-. 
wl. 
in' 



tth'>»u 
are so V. 



M- '■ 



• •li»U." BOW I _ 
M.t at! (yi'intriw 

•«y. 

ii.f- 

• li.., :, ,. 
I^'jt Guuux " aiiU " Mano 



:ii:u1i' liv (he Ttur d'Aumola 

• ry. 

aiHl l,4lM tnauuacricU, aiuouula tn 
lo. 
• « • 

;.. . f> ,..^.._.„i ..I., ..^,.. -. 



w 
It 

1.. 

til' ■< oi Henr\- II 

til' -nvrr. It" Ix' 

fai 

IM' 

li< 

Tl: 

•mi ine I'.i 
bookseller, 
upon tho I- 
acquire<l it ^ 
»n«i o"" ■! I 



irly 
i(o. 

. in 
lUi 

on 
:.'U 

III 
II l>- 



I a 

i..'i-l I.ATO 

his librsry ; 



dli 



I ill 



.1. .An 
\ti, on r 



Tl. 
the It 
Pksquaie \ 
It is a crit: 
and of V 
polin. 
merit ».. 
difference w 
public life ;i ' 
private life. M. 
that he allowed 
was not only ex. 
same nuinlwr, b<. 
{Militica and thu l-'ranc ' Kussiau 
attention both in Italy and in utl 
lodgments a ' t-  

welcome it 

indication tii.ii in i.n^iaiKi Lhu j<>.iiii»iiiiiiii>'-:i'>iitiv^ lu'i.^-iuuitw 
is not dissociated from culture and literary studies." 

• '• • • 

The first number of a new Italian review was published on 
tho 1.*>th inst. It is entitled /" " ' i e Lttteraria, and 

has its oflices at 3, Via Marco >' u. 

* •• * • 

Tho third volume of Mr. Temple Scott's edition of tho 
" Prose Works of Jonathan Swift " is in the press, and will be 

ready early next year. It \i to irr!"<l<» nil th<- writings «>f tho 

Dean which dealt wit' ' •• to 

follow will i-ontain S-,^ urs. 

The Irish ti a !•.• 

extremely  '-' 

editions of . ' mru 

them with •• ! caro 

of George I- ^ .V.C. 



Mr. Pavid Nutt will 
Caxton's translation of " 1: 



an aomrato reprint of 
vu.>v<'ii a iiuM^-Mtiiviii ,.1 i. x." It will be prefixed 

by an exhaustix'e introduction tr^ lu the pen of Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs, who will trace tho intricate literary history of this 
remarkable story. 



62 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 1897. 



In the Pn>fi«« to th© " Poems of the Ix)ve and Prido of 
Bngluid," which Measr*. Wani and Look an' al><<ut to iiistie, 
edited by Mr. Frwli-rick Wodmoro nr' ' '-' .1-.. .l.i.r. Mr. 
WadoMire comments on the comi<ara-. ir as 

»nthi>Iv>L'Io» aro o>iiii m. .1 of •' niiv IIIIJ in 

I oxplaiiMinn, that, 

iration of tho oppo- 
»it' > '>m all ruconlod tiini' ; . ■■; nate lovo of 

K' • in h«>r jiorfurmancos, is ,.ii . 1. r of i\t most 

t - ikinfj further ot tho iiiontal atti- 

t "in cortain corners of Knglanii, 

• s ago, Mr. Wedmoro contrasts 

It is so much inuro clinractor- 

iatici. '- that a hook of English 

patri<': rhangoti circumstnnceH, a 

■eedfui ■•C1I.1U...I.I. 1.1.1. Ml .1'. r.^'i . .< e in reminding younii; and 
old " what an inheritance is ours, and what au obligation ! ' 
• • « « 

The poems nf Ttidar Aled, the last of the monkish bards of 
Wales, w) -a 1(VJ7, hare been prepared for tho |>ress hv 

Mr. J. H. 1 him-oln's Inn, and Mr. (Jwenoi;vryn Evans. 

Mr. Daries, i:. of a recent visit to the roni.irth 

Library, will bi .is to.xt on tho Peniarth MS. I'lC, 

which was written u'jout tliL' time of the author's death. 



The Literary Section of the Guild of Graduates of tho Welsh 
^-..; — .:... i.,.o announced their intention of issuing a series of 
r. ing mainly of rare Welsh books published in 

T -. .rt times. A completo edition of tho works of 

Mo:jri I.Siry.l I I'V.'O-IGJI)), by the Wanlen of tho Guild (Mr. 
T. K. Kill', M.l' ;, is in an advanced stage of preparation. 



A volume of Welsh lialUds, by Mr. Ernest Uhys, will be 
nady by the middle or end of November. Tho publisher will bo 
Mr. Sptirrell, of Carmarthen. 

• •« * « 

Mr. Cyril Davenport has nearly completed the series of 
ilj.i. »...,»,..,,, which he has been for some time preparing to illus- 
t.-^ ".antor Lectures, on the origin and art of bookbinding, 

w  t . il,Ii\.r in January next. Tho lectures will \>o 

<i 'US Oriental, Medieval, and Modem, 

an . .1 section thoroughly roiirusentativo Mr. 

DftVDOport liaa been at cor.siderablo pains to procure the very 
fineai examples in existence. Great ditliculty lias been oxpo- 
rienoed in ro;^rd to tho Oriental bindings of the 15th and lOth 
centuries, most of which aro covere<l with a thick glaze or 
vmmi8h,p"- loh a hanl and brilliant surface as to render 

it impossil ograph tho designs. It has, thoref<ire, boon 

: ail to copy tl. ' s in block .ind white, and 

I them, subso<i :i|)leting the photographs 

IB the '^i.-<\ in the origiu;ii». .-<oiiio idea of tho time and 

labour in this process m.iy bo gained from tho fact that 

«re«t>l. ;. .,uarto binding has to bo exactly copied in every 

detail on a lantern slide only 3^ inches long and 2 inches wide. 



Mr. Gweno^rrrm 
<l*to seven ! 
type facsit! 
of Harel lAla is m. 
•11 the negatirea for 
M8. (eirc4k V. -' ' 
thU MS.. 
Mr. Henrj- 
•atotype J. 
Talieain, w 
pected. 



K%-ans, of Oxford, will issue at an early 

'lumcs of old Welsh texts. An auto- 

f W.l-h MS. (rirra 1200) of tho Laws 

•lio press at Oxford, and 

ilo of the oldest Latin 

isQ been taken. The text of 

u translated into English by 

:i t« priiit4.-d iinmediatoly. An 

-!• vellum jiaper of the Book of 

v>...i. by Mr. Evans, may shortly be ex- 



Probably towbrda the end of next year Messrs. Boll and 
SoM will issoe the ••'■■' Id's " lUi- 

Arcbiteot' hoon pub- 

.^ I nor, and will 
re anil Art." Mr. 
.. ..,1.. ,. !.;„!, ^.„ 

t.wth 



liahwl. It will 
hmr the title 
Prior, l»--.;i.!nri 

of Kn^: 

tbatoi Northerr 

to indppendont 

gwniiu 

oonsia' 

from the actual i 



Tom, 

and 

 lonnl 

Msnt. Tlis illuttratioiis to tho work will 

.rawing! by Mr. Gerald Horsley, exocutod 

xamples. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



THE NORTH-WEST FUONTIER OF INDIA. 

The following list of books does not include works bearing on 
tho advance of Russia in Asia, or on " The Kustern Question, " 
in so far as it includes thu relations of Knirlaiul und Rus.sia 
on tho Indian border. It inoludus only works bearing on the 
relation of tho llritinh Empire in India to neighbouring tribes, 
and works descriptive and historical about tho country and jwoplo 
of tho North-Woat Frontier : — 

General : — 

OrR IxDiAN Pkotectorate, an Introduction to tho Study of 
tho Kolatiuns between the Uritish Government and its Indian 
Feudatories. By C. L. Tupper, I.C.S. 18lt3. 

Hansard's PAnLUMKXTABV Dkbates. May and Aug., 1893, 
Aug., 1894. 

I'noBLKMR OF Gkp..itrk IJkitain. By Sir C. W. Dilko. 1890. 

India. By Sir John Strachoy, G.C8.I. New and Revised 
Edition. 1«1>4. 

In-dia's SriESTiFic Fboniieb. By Col. H. B. Hanna, 1895. 
(Indian Problems Series.) 

India ani> iikk NKioiinouKS, and Ocb ScisNTirio Fbontieb. 
By Sir W. P. Andrew, 1878-1880. 

Asiatic Nkiohuoi'r.s. By S. 8. Thorbum, Bongal C.8. 1894. 

Eni:ii.sh Colonization- akd E.vipire. By A. Caldeoott. 
(University Extension Manuals.) 1891. 

Tho Frontier Wars. — A few out of tho enormous number of 
volumes published on these wars, especially the later ones, may 
be mentioned : — 

Fobty-xine Years is Ixdia. By Lord Roberts. 1897. 

The Relief of Chitbal. By Captains G. J. and F. E. Young- 
husband. 1896. 

The Ciiitkal Campaion. A Narrative of Events in Chitral, 
Swat, and Bajour. By H. C. Thomson. 18!)5. 

Thbbb Campaiuxs in Afohakistan. Lt. C. G. Robertson. 
1881. 

The Afchax Wabs, 1839-12 and 1878^0. Archibald Forbes. 
1892. 

HisTOBY OF the War IN Apohakistas, 1838-1842. By Sir J. 
W. Kayo. 3 vols. 1878. 

The Afoiian Campaioks of 1878-30. By S. H. Shadbolt. 2 
vols. 1883. 
Descriptive and Historical. 

The ThinEs and Castes of the Nobth-West Provinces and 
OiDH. By W. Crooko. 4 vols. Calcutta. 1896. 

The Nortii-We.st Pbovinces of India, their History, Ethno- 
logy, and Administration. By W. Crooke. 1897. 

The Indian Empire. By Sir W. W. Hunter. 189.3. 

The Impkuial Gazrteer of India. My Sir W. W. Hunter. 
2nd Ed. 1887. [See Vols. I., VI., X., XL] 

The Heart of a Continent. A Narrative of Travels in 
Manchuria across the Gobi Desert through the Himalayas, tho 
Pamirs, and Chitral. 1884-94. By Capt. F. E. Younghusband. 
1894i. 

The Kafir.s of the Hmnoo Kush. By Sir G. R. Robertson. 
1896. 

Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. By Major J. B. Biddulph. 
1880. 

Abbidomknt of the History of India. By J. Clark Marsh- 
man. New Edition, issued after the author's death. 1893. 
.\fghaniHtan : — 

History of Afohanistan to 1878. By Colonel 0. B. 
Malloscm. 1882. 

A Short History of India, and of tho Frontier States of 
Afghanistan, Nijial, and Buraia. By J. Talboys Wheeler. 1880. 

Across the Bobdeb, or Pathan and Biluch. By E. E. Oliver. 
1890. 

The Chitral Relief Expedition. 1895. Photographic Views 
taken during the advance of thu Relief Force under General 
Gatacre. By Sergoai^Major Dovolin. 1896. 
See also : — 

The Statesman's Year Book. 
The QfARTr.iiLY Review. Vol 176. 

The Ahiatii; Qi-abteblt Review. Apr., 1894 : Jan., July, 
and Oct., 181»r>. 

The United Sekvici Maoazixk. July, 189B. 



October ov, 16'J7.j 



LITERATURE. 



03 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS. 



ARCH/EOLOOY. 

The Ruins nnd Kxoavntlons 
or Ancient Rome. Iiv /■'. 

/^tnrnnti, H  .'liln.. xiil. -. (hJI |tp. 
liOiuluii and Nu\%' Vnrk. ISUT, 

Miu-iiiillan. IfW, 

Efrypt Exploration Fund : 
Ai-ohieoloKlcnl Ro|>ort,l800- 

97. Willi M.i,.,. Ity K I.. 
llriO'UhH, .M..\. Ill • .Hill,. 70 li|i 
Lnniluii unci lliiKton, Idt!. 

KPKnn I'liul. di. 6<I. 

The RollquRry and Illus- 
tnatod ApchasoIOKlst. Il\ .'. 

Jlom'llu Allrii. K.S.A. loj • Tilii.. 
SM |ip. Luntlun nnil Itorby. IM!. 

Ik'iiirutw. 1:^4. net, 

ART. 

T1>e Magazine of Apt. Itltio- 
tmU-il. .Miiy toOololMT. lilx»lln.. 
viii. t :IIH pp. Loiiiluii, I'uriN, ntid 
Mcllwiiriu'. I.W. 

(iwtoll. 10«. fid. 

Lire and Work or W. Q. 
Opchapdson. R.A. ily Jmiirit s. 
I.ittlf. lOirisiiiiJi-^ niinilicr nf till* 
.\rt .\iiimal.) i:il  liiiiii., 31 pp. 
IaiiiiIuii, 1K!I7. Vinuc. in, tld 



BIOQRAPHY. 

Philip II. of Spain. Dy Mnrtin 

A.KIhim,-. .i.,'.!!!!., x..^ai7pp. 
Loiidoti mill Ni-'\v York. lK!t". 

.Miirinlll.'in. 'l-. M. 

The True Qoorge Washing- 
ton. Hy I'aul Ford. SJxSJln.. 
31!t pp. Lunduii. mn. 

Upplncott. 7c. Od. 

The Lire of Bishop Maples. I)r 

//m SisI, r. »  .ijlii.. vili. i va PI). 
Ltiiuloii, ISUr. l.nM^inaiis. 7h. (Jd. 

Life of K. B. Pusey, D.D. Vol. 
IV. by //. J\ lAililoii.Stxain.. x\l.+ 
461 pp. London, 1S<.>7. 

LongrmnnH. IS.*^ 

Vepdl : Man aad Musician. By 

h'riil'-rii-k Croin.il. ill Nliiii., xlv.+ 
SW pp. Liiiulnn. ISirr. 

Jiilin .Miliio. 7i<. Od. 

Mapy Quocn of Scots : from licr 
liirlTi 1 hiiiil. 

Ily />.' .Vii! 

pp. I.' -.fid. 

Life of Roddy Owen, llr //iVi 
.SiWrr. .V.I I Uorill. and (7. /l. Ai<k- 

iritll. SJx.iiiii., vii. -; -.^a pp. T.OI1- 
doii, I8a7. Jliimiy. 

Ollvep Cpomwell. TJr Rnlirrt F. 
Ifortiin, D.n. 7i>'>li".. 34.i pp. 
I.uiiiluii. 1S'.>7. J. t'larkc. 'M. lid. 

Martha Washlng'ton. llr Annr 

J/ollin'_isw:trth It'horton. (u'oiiu'n 
of (.'oitinial nnd Krvoliitlonnry 
Tinuw ill Amoric'ii.l WiUi rnrtrrtll. 
'Ixain., xiv.+3UBpp, Ix>iidon. ItiW. 
JIurrny. 5h. 

AVIIIlam the Silent. Ky 

l't-,u>, fir Htnvlsnn. 7| x.'t^^iii.. 
\ ii.  Jiil) pp. Ijtindon nnd Now 
York, 1S;)7. .Mai-niilliui. Cs 

TheThreeCrulkshanks. Illns- 

Initnl by Isiuic (u'oixr and Itobort 
('niik.<ibunk.('oiiipilod by KMarrh- 
vtnnt. S| \Hin., xvii M"2S pp. I.on- 
dun. ISSI7. Spi'ni'or. 8s. M. 

The Letters of Elizabeth 
Brownlntr. IMit.iI. witb llio- 
jjraphiiMl iiii Frcttcrick 

Krni/oti. \\ '.^. ii vol-*. 

7;  .*»lin., \. : pp. l.<>n- 

don. I."i!l7. Smiih. l.lilir. l.'w. not. 

My LonsLlfe. Hy Mtiri/Cowttcn 
Ctarkr, {\n Autobioicrapliic 
SkcliW. Sw. Kd. 7x.Mn., a»p|i. 
London, IStT. Unwln. 3s. fid. 

CLASSICAL. 

Tho Works of Xenophon. 

Vol. HI. Pail II. Uy tlAI.I>ukvn«. 
>I..\. 7rv:.lin.. fxxvii.- »|j pp. 
London nnd N'l'W York. 1WI7. 

Mai'iiillbui, IOh. Od. 
Eplctotus. '.' vols. ,SJ>.71in., 
;iJe< r Uit) pp. London, IMC 

IlHUipbrcy^. 



EDUCATIONAL. 




Italian Sell 
Self TauK 
Tausht. 

7t^<{lM. L 


- 






. Od. 


each. 


Tl- 






Cup Boys. 




■/KH, 


8<.'>iln., INI 1 

lioVl.M 


'U'lM- 1 -. . 




FICTION. 




BPV..I' 
/. 
1- 




lit 
1 pp. 

(Vl. 


Chlppupee. Ilv 

81a«11ii., 17 pp. 


I.oinlt'it, 1^ *. 


jiv. 



Clear 



Waters. liT 

.'/(/r. 7J " Mn., «. 



f'^'f'If^'Xi'W! 



AC- 



r- T"--'l r- 



The Wltoh ^^ 
Tytkr. 71 X ilia.. 
1!«7. Clintto nil 

Concern 1'i 

Hv /• 

pp. 1. 



S«K5Pe*iPV to I 
By ir. Vrtt Hill.: 
pp. I.,oiHlun. 1S!I7. 

Tho Chronic!*"!! 

fher n '   
^i.lirl 

'I 

The Flamp, and i 
for Children. 

51 slUin.. Ii>i pp. 1 
(trant i\ 

Nethepdyke. Hy /. 

.s..>Un.. vi. ^yifipp. 
New York, IS97. 



.M. 



The Lk' 

llelmi 
pp. 1.. 



Loiitttui 
Arnold. 

of Jov*. 

f. s :>jin.. 



The King with T 

M. J-:. <Q,ri,tpi: .-. . , 

Uiiidon nnd Now York, Ivul. 

Arnold. 

Jol- •' 



Hy 
pp. 

fiN. 



LS 



Leohlnvap. liy 

»)<l|ln., 4«7 |>p. I' 

The VIcap of Lar . 

!-'■ ir' „. 7 
I 



IloibU'.- 

A Dauchtep of Strife. Ily 

Jitnr IT. fiHiUnlrr. >  .■.)ln., SU 
pp. Ixiiidon. I.SU7. Miduii'ii. IV>. 

Clovls Dapden?' ' 

I'l-m. 71 <.'i'ln. .' 
Ihli7. 

Katheplne Cromep. l<y Htlm 

f'rtirrn. 8 - .'"Jin., S3I )ip. Ixndoii, 
IWr. Inia-^. *(•«. 

Miss Mouse and Hop Boys. Ry 

.Wm. Molmtrnrth. 7i • .Mn.. I!«t pp. 
lAindon and New York. 1SU7. 

Mni-inlllikn. 1h. fill. 



By 

pp. 



Our PayliiK 

( ■. Tcrrvt. .' 
IM»7. 

The Mllllonalpe of Papkeps- 

vllle. Ilv .w.ir-A-./Mrn.../ 111. isiii.. 
liU pp. Uiii' ' " ' •■•'17. 

^ u. 

rnk 
Ion, 
.fid. 

I'les rtovdant. 
/, S.v.'.Jln., Ml 



fri. 

M.P. 
. »< 

. tt. (j*.. 



of Chrlsto- 



I'.I. 



Imi. 

nnd 

tin. 

Br 

3M 



Dauarhtcra of Th • 

JliiX^rrlykf. .•*,■>;: 

don. IS!t7. ."^imiiki l.tr>.;..ul. li.. 

At the Cross Roads. Hr K 

.l/o/;.'ir.vHr. 

don. Ii$t7. < < 

Cupid's G ' ' 

Fmrtrr, 8>-Ji'i:i.. :!•_■ :^;'. I.<'""l.'ii, 

1M»I7. t n-<ill. liK, 

B!ir*>r'"'T ^^""■•v.o.'..-. It. t:^ori] 

I pp. 

! ■^ U«. 

Throutli L ndows. 

Ut »I". ./. 1> i.. viii.  

zii ]':•■ I.""' 

lIo<ldc:-.i:;ii Su.iiI;ton. i-. 



Do.. 


I, 

. ( 1 '.r. ■/ 

pp. Londt 


Suwanc 


.  


ta 


II,.,,; 

m. W.i 
K 


./.v., 


I>i.'il 


Th. 

1 
I 








Th. 

(. 

a.... 

Rob 

1 

Th. 
; 




hy 

pp. 




Roy. 

House 

bles. II 


Of 


Li.i 


I'l 






The 
Oa 







Quo Vadls. 

Till.- •■! - 

.s 

1 

Va! 

\ 

I 

Th. 

/ 
I 

Th. 
/ 

J;...r . - 

XII pp. London nn.i 

Mei-' 
I 
1 



iam In 



»/ni. 



Timothy's Quest. 

M'ipi'i". CJxijin.. iM ii>. Lon- 
don. IHC. Uny and Hlnl. U. 



Stoi' 



Quaint Nant . 

H. HIi-- 
Bo*tou 



'- lis*. By 
9-.JUn.. 



n. II.W 



Ths Ht^tr Man, 

ItilU' 
Th« «.. 



OM 



:.. •  d'une Amc 

. nln. 7 • «tln.. i:* 

Ij^^r. t*alnMnn 1.4\>. 1-.. ....-' 

The Wpestler of Phlllppl. I>v 



Tub. i\,. ^5.. tk!. 

Fop the Flag. Krom fh^ rtrtirh 
at JiiKm Vcnw. I' 
TJ-SlIu.. vil.iSl-' 
IST 

Caiv 

V 

I 



r. 
llr 



The Coil 



Skid. 



1 Hio-. 



ot, ioM. 



Arrowaanltli. U 



i.l -V«:« Y..rk. l'<r. 

MaomUlan. <>. 



% 



oon, 1"^'. 



Horrka and Paton. Sk M. 
V^avsrlev Novels. 2 rolx Ily 

'l«p|c w e«. 

The Bride of Lammepinoor. 



Rambles In P 

llinrnfr, •. 

I'-C. ... 

The Flf- . ,1^ 

iCSTT 

.^i.tl.-. an.i ..:n>iu |.a. iiiioitnUkia*. 

»]x71n.. xU.-inpp. Loodaa, Mr. 

I _T>«i». m'.t/Lntt. 

PljBt.. . : . Uy Jfr». 

\ T i« pp. 

I L iU. Dct. 

OEOLOOY. 

' The Foundrrs of Oeology. Hy 
Sir A.  iita;. Si pp.. 

London rk. uw. 

NlacmUfaui. *«. 

HISTORY. 
' Ugollno e Michelo Verlno: 

Modi Ili.vn»r . t ..nui- 

btitlo alla^t..: .^iriioln 

^'irvna''. Mv ^..--ori. 

S>o,. -.V 

, f*. 

HIstorv v 

or< 
/• 

»! 



Thr 

ar 

.s* 

!■«.. ' . 

TheCentuHr- 
.*■■' n*>l*.i- 
f.T Tin 
Id'fiiin. .. 






Od. 



64 



LITERATURE. 



[October 30, 189- 



Le AaslounulonlConsldarat* 
■otto I'Aapotto Ourtdloo- 
MBtaMtaatadioTccwtcoPmttca 

n Oot  nell' 



A. f. i« 

"Th* Prim 

l<\ If />• 

U'lM. >,. -• 



HmradansCoH 

llv It. JUcinu/rr 

aKSHa., Ixxvl. 

T :-"-■ 

Prin 






1. ny 

VIU.+ 



AUrn. IlKSd. 
i>.k<a «CT RondllUF. 

•o pp. 

tubar, 

.1 n.-t. 



LavengTv. 



.N.wucf. '^6d. 

:-ary Studies. By Joieph 
:  liin., xxlv. + 19S pp. 
: -iV Xutt. 

N'limVirr I. 



Sppctatop. 



Ttxiln., xxiz.-fMJ pp. Ixindon, 
Utr. Itrnt. 24k. the aeL 

(rJoM only in wtx of s vols. I 
MontalKne and Shakspere. 
JJv John M. Iti'Krtson. Ua jlin., 
ids pp. Luiidon. I.H97. 

Inivcrsity ProDS. 611. 

•L'----— '^--^phlet•. WyEmtitt 

  ijin.. 278+273 pp. 

I, . , t Mil and Co. .S«. cnrh. 
T.-ia Ethics of Bpownlncr** 

Poems. J*v Mr". I*< rr/j J^.ukt. 
Jx«Jin., IMi.p. Uuirton. l.S<(7. 

Gnint I:i<'lmnK 21. 6d. 

MATHEMATICS. 
Theopetloal Mechanics. An 

Irttn*!'!'-*<'r>- Tn-'i'i-- *'M the PHn- 

,<. 

Krll'i" .i .KtlinH 

< ollcfCC I II., xlv. 

-t ITS i»p. 1 

I uy. lai. 

MEDICINB. 

II Concetto W della 

AutodlfesaO ontpo 

leMalattlo: )' Uvi 



Medical Hints fop Hot 
Climates, lit rhnrlm Uraton, 
M.l). :i  iln..xll. • 1:A pp. l.<.n- 
Ana and C'«lrutU, 1(V7. Thacker. 





MILITARY. 




Amo 




MM de 


II f 


Knd. 


•■• 




Kr..1.>l 


Thpl 


. • 


iHnshl- 






'7. 

.1. 




1lllt«ry 

:. »  4iir 


Ufa. Ily 


M^'ft' 


... i .... 





MISCELLANEOUS. 
The Enirllsh Sta^e. Hy 

•.i:.-! ,'..! f.'..|I| 

r . 



Tie Enfiisr 



PpMStlcal Building Construc- 
tion 

(tmci 

ofSeiaaot-. 
(txaili.. xi! 

Oesta TypoBT«ph'o* ; <"■■ " 
.M<..lUy f..r lYliitorH umll) llioix. Hy 
«*<ij«. Jiicobi. 7^4Jln.. 1X1 pp. 
London. 1W7. 

Klkin MntUicnii. Sit. (hi. 

Chronicles of the Bank of 
England. Hy H. II. Turnrr. 
8 » 5|ln.. xll i aw pp. l-»nd»n and 
New York. Sonnonnchcin. ih. Od. 

*,' (1e VIvre. Par 
>«(. 71 X Din.. 310 

\rniand Colin. Kr.XSO. 



firt 
Pl>. 



Am* 



'OS to 

If. 



Voyageu s e s . I'ar Pntil liournrt. 
iXuiv (Mitiuii. 7xi)in., JX) pp. 
l>iiriis 18U'. 

Alphonsc Lomerro. Kr.3.S0. 

Majftc 

litl.- 

U. Kvrtitf.. M..-t*iia.. 
400 UlUHtratiuns. I»ii 

Bplttsh Museum. C'atnloKue of 
I*rinl<><l H<MikK. (Shakcxpcarc.) 
\ U >. lOiin.. 2ai PI). Londun. IXSI7. 
\ C'iowcs. 

The Love Affairs of Some 
Famous Men. Ity tlio Ki-r. K 
J. Iliirdy. 7i ^.'>ii•^■. xx. + »41 pp. 
lx)iidoii, isi7. 

Ki^hcr I'nwin. fit*. 

Blakey and Armstponf Ouns. 

Bv //. C. UUikry. W  Titln., ai pp. 
London. 1W7. John Pliilliiw. 2H.<id. 

La Famlg-lla e In '~ -i : 
Studiii Kill liivm >. 1 
Colo. 8vo.. 1!M pp. N 

l.uiKi I^ior;-". J..'"" lire. 

Oil Infortunl sul Lavoro e la 
LofiTffe. liii t'tn-lo I-\i-rftrts. 4to., 
n« pp. ItoliK'. 1MI7. 

The Ooldflelds of Klondyke. 

Hy John If. Lfomiril. SA^Jin., 
216pp. London. isy7. 

KiilitT Inwin. .V. M. 

Marriage Customs In Many 
Lands. liy /.'i r. //i/'.7n"jj.s<);i. !i . 
ijin., xii.+:W8 pp. I^rfrndon. 1H!I7. 

Hofli'y. 1(K Cd. 

The Fla««of the^Vorld ; llioir 
HiKlory. Hlazonry. nnd ,\««o«*ia- 
tinnn. ' Hy F. Efh'rard ffiilmr. 7} < 
.•VJin.. 2(1 plato?*. Ii2 pi>. London and 
.Now York. Warnc. Gs. 

An Introduction to Folk-lore. 

Ky Marian Cox. 71> 5iin., 344 pp. 
London, 1887. Null. 3m. ed. 

The Rivers of Oreat Britain. 

i:{ ' loin., vlii,  .ITii pp. l/ondon, 
l"ari% and Mi;ll>oiirnc. 1*7. 

Burdett's Hospitals and 
Charities, ily /I. UunMt. 7ix 
.'liin.. UIG pji. Ixmilon and Now 
York. Tlic.'<(ionllHc I'rww. ta. 



MUSIC. 



4ir2pp. Ixmdon and I'liiladelpliia 
IW. DcnU 2S«. not." 

Oaetano Donizetti : Numrrn 

f niro nid Prinio < '( nli-niirio d^'lla 

HIM Nawila, niK-lter " ■•'■ '■•wi- 

niil«. 4l<i.. 4)t pp. I' c. 

InxtituU) llalianod 

PHILOSOPHY. 

Philosophic Lectures and Re- 
mains of Richard Lewis 
Nettleshlp. Hy .1 '. //r</ .//.;/. 
:< vain. Itl'^in.. Ivi.^lMpp. Ixin- 
don and Now York. imr. 

Miu-niillan. 17". 

A Dlf.   ' ' .. \r. 

Il> 

i';i 1 1. 

The Works ofOeorse Berke- 
ley. Vol I. Hv /Jr/irtf ^iimnftfn. 

wV' •- — -■ ' • •  • ■■•. 

Til. i\ 

7J-. 



The Subconscious Self, and itH 
iiid Health. 
1 I). 8x51ln., 

lir.iul lailianU. .In. Ikl. 

Hallucinations nndllluslons: 

A Sii!. I'.n'iip- 

tion. 1 -Jin., 

xlv. 

W ulti r .■<. ott. On. 

Sleep, Ita PhysloloiTT. PntholoitT, 
llytoono, and r ' ' v. liy 
.\faHc (/<■ Mil .''in.. 

vlll.<3llpp. III. .iidon, 

I.SSI7. Will:. r.~. i.ii. >. («i. 

Essays of Schopenhauer. 

Tran«latod hy .V™. Kuilalf Dirckn. 
7>4Jin., xxxiv. fJ'.'l pp. Scolt 
Libran". Ixiiidon. l.'«(7. 

ScotU iH. Od. 

POETRY. 

PoentS. Hy Mnltliiax nnrr. 
7J>.6Jin., 21)3 pp. I.,ondon, 1897. 

llarr. fi«. 

Poems. Ht Ororpf Cookunn. 
7i  .'liin.. viu.4 10l pp. London. 
1S!I7. InncM. 4s. (id. 

A Book of Verses for 
Children. Hy Kilirant f. l.iirtts. 
71>:5Jln., xii.-t3IS pp. London, 
18U7. Urant KichanlH. tJH. 

Collected Poems. Hy A 11.1! in 
J>oh.toii. 73 X 'liin.. .Vi7 pp. I><indon, 
lS!t7. ivf^an I*aul. tin. 

May Carols ; or, AnclUa 
Domini, and other Poems. 

Hy Anhrcu de t'rrr. 7^.510.. 
xxxviii. + 421pp. I..ondon and Niw 
York. 1SU7. Jlacniillan. 7«.ti<l. 

The Poems and Sonnets of 
Henry Constable. Hy ' linrlis 
Jiickctl". m...iiiu.. lul pp. Luiidun. 
18S7. 210 copies. 

]IaU-on and ItiokcttK. £1 Ik. 

PIdells and Other Poems. Hy 

('. M. (>t titrnrr. 7 .■ liin., xii. 1 1*7 pp. 
Londun. Ih1i7. 

ConKtablp. Ss.fid. npt. 

Realms of Unknown Kings. 

Hy lAiurenff Toilrma. 7x4iTn., 
x£+78pp. London. IKK7. 

Hii'hardx. 2rt. 

The Coming: of Lovo. Hy Thro- 
ttorr Wtitts-Uuiiton. 7Jx.'ii.in.. 
xi. -i^ Jfi.** pp. London and New 
York. ISOv. John l>ane. 

The Lady of the Lake. Hy .SiV 
If. Sroll. SxSJln., xxx+2:i5 pp. 
Ivondon. I.W. 

Scnicc and Paton. 2h. fid. 

Lays of Love and Liberty. 

Hy Jnmr.t .Markrrcth. 8 vilili., 
\nll.4 in pp. London. 18II7. 

f'tock. :)(i. M. ml. 

Candlewlcks. A Yfarof ThoiiiflTtH 
and Kamiw. liy Carolinr Tilbury. 
8i x6}in., 'J6 pp. London, 1897. 

8t<K:k. .5s. 

Voices In the Twillffht. Hy 

/,. (irinimrr Jlynii. 8- .'>lln., 88 pp. 
London, 1«)7. WallK. 2s. W. 

The Royal Shepherdess. Hy 

Dudley JiunhUy. 7|x6iin., 41 pp. 
London, 18U7. 

niKby, I»nfr. 2h. ffcl. 

Songs In Many Moods. Hy 

.Minn I.fiytiril. 7J''.'iin.. 120 pp. 
London ^ind .New ^ ork. \>ifi. 

].rfinKinans. fm. 

Wordswrorth at RydaJ, and 

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Sun and MIsU Hy K. SI. (I. 

Ilrllii. 7 A liin., 70 pp. l.ondon. 
18U7. I nwin. a*. 8d. 



POLITICAL 

Die Deperchon des Nuntlus. 

Hy 7 '(111/ Knikoff. 91>llln., xii. t 
aw pp. HailiHt. ■'(., 1887. 

Max Nlonieyor. fin. 



TTilnf 

J.J 11 
PP- 



ofOups. Hy Urn- 

~\ • .'lin.. \\\ . < :tl.'» 
IWC. .s.iUiniTH. 



SCIENCE. 

Lezlonl sulla Teorla delle 
Superflcle. Hy />r. (in-fiDrin 

/.'■'•'■i. bvo.. Il'jpp. Verona-Padovrt, 
: c. Urueker. 10 lire. 



Hanuale del Chlmloo e dell' 
Industrials. Hy I>r. J.uii/l 
(IiiUhi. 8V.1.. 412 pp. Milan. I81I7. 
Iloepli and Co. .V.'id lire. 
La Fabhplcazlone dell' Aoldo 
Soirorlco. Itv Dr. K IVm/.r. 
.''vo.. i:(l p|.. Milan. 1K!I7. 

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Leshe Meta.lllcho ed Amal- 

arome. By J. nhrr.ii. With is 

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The Story of Oerm Life (Hac- 

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Boxing. CI' I 

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Nights With an Old Gunner, 

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pp. Ixindon, 1.SU7. Sooloy. flu. 

Reminiscences ot a Hunts- 
man. Hy Jloii. /•'. (Iriiiilliy 
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London and .New York. 18U7. 

Arnold. Us. 

THEOLOOY. 

In a Plain Path. Hy Her. FoxrII. 

71 X. 'lin.. 2I«; pji. London and New 
V.irk, 18SI7. Mueniillan. 3s. IM. 

Africa Waiting. Hy DouglaK 
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Howr to Become Like Christ. 
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London, l.x<,)7. J. I'larke. Is. lid. 

Faith and Self Surrender. Hy 
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London, 1897. J.Clarke. Is. Ii.1. 

How to Read the Bible, Hy 
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J. Clarke. Ik. fid. 

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11^ f' '  ' '' 

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TOPOGRAPHY. 

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xvlli. t37« pii. I'l 

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ChanlerH an.i ' 
Ulx(ijiri.,clv.^ I 
Ucrhy, l«B,'. He: 



Edited by 5R. U. ffralU 



Citcicituic 



E J ' J ^X -T 1»J. 



No. 3.— Vol. I. 



SATUKDA^ 



CONTENTS. 



Ijeadine: Article— TJjo Dominntinn of tho Nov<>l 
"'Among my Books," by Ian Maclaron .. 
Hevlews 

Tin- I'oi'try of BurriM 

Oporgc Mcrc<lith'H Pwms 

Autobioffi-aphy of a Veteran 



ivoie 

it:> 

HI) 



70 



Oostiip from a Miiiiinient Ro'om 71 

Th<> Water of the Wondrous Isles Ti 

Kiifflisli Henetlietines Ti 

Histoire Contenijwraine : Le Mannequin d'Osier T.'i 

Philosopliy of Knowledge 7.'i 

Tjife of Kndyniion Porter "fl 

KiiRlisli (^Innvh History 70 

•Cliiiicse Characteristics and the Gist of Japan 77 

Shakespeai-e, Piiritnn and Recusant 77 

Romance of the Irish Stage 78 

A Primer of Wordsworth 78 

Le^nl Mac Swlnnoy on Mincs-Hunter'n Roman Lnw 70 
Fiction - 

<'aj>tains tlourageous ... SI 

Ijochinvar S2 

One of the Broken Brigade 82 

T)i>r«'Hcta— By a Ilaii's Breadth— Claude Duval of 

Ninety-flvo— Liuly Uosuliiid 83 

Liav of Ijunlx'th— Broken Aivs -The Temple of Folly— 
(ii'orgo Malcolm— A Creel of Irish Stories —The Fall 

of the Spiurow SI & 85 

Correspondence- The Novel— Historical Accuracy 85 

Foreign Letters— France— Uu88ia—Unite<l SUtes 86, 87, & 88 
Obituary The Oiiche.ss of Te<k— Henry George -Very 

Uev. James Byrne Dr. Stoiik'hton— Ilev. T. E. Bn)wn 80 

ITotes 90. 01. 02. OB. & 91 

Bibliography— Nigciia 04 

List of Books and Reprints 06 & 06 



THE DOMINATION OF THE NOVEL. 



On another pnfje of this Review we puhlish a letter 
from a eorrps|M-)iult>iit who, in a strain of iH'rha|xs somewhat 
<oo ironical liitterneiis, p;ive8 exprestiion to a feeling wliich 
■wo susjiect to be nowadays more often entertained than 
jivowed. Not, indeed, that he is absolutely the first to 
iiuike public avowal of it. A well-known critic and man 
of letters delivered his soul on the subject, it may be 
nMuembered, a year or so h'^o ; but his urbane complaint of 
*' The Tyniiniy of the Novel,"' though it must have com- 
manded, we should think, a good deal of assent in literary 
quarters, failed to the best of our knowledge to provoke 
any serious discussion. This indifference oa the part of 



Published by Zkt timti. 



sfxmfrv. 



tlie victiniH of f 
enough. No doii 



I Id, of <■ ':•' 

majority •• • ir 

chains and bU>(tn the benevolent dMjiot under whoae ruin 
our correHp'! - to groan. Ho far from brin;; 

irritat«-4i or v the c««ele*« flow and fvrx- 

increasing volume of contemporary fiction, they thank 
their stara that they were Inirn in this age ofnoveU. 
They are as grateful for that good fortune as they 
are for liaving been bom in the ag(> of rteam and 
the telegraph and the ]. * -^ «! of locomo- 

tion and ease of commn ily more prizol 

by them than ^heir inexlutustible supply of tho«t> 
ingenious motlem appliances which nave them from 
alwolute Ixiredom during their after-ilinner hour>< and at 
the same time protect the integrity of their night's rest by 
keeping them awake till bed-time. 

The truth — and it is exi>1anatory of our corre- 
spondent's state of mind — is that that comparatively small 
class of person.-* who take books »<»riously as works of art, 
who regani them a*! a jviinter regards a jwrtniit or a 
musician a sonata, can seldom comprehend the attitude* 
of those others, the overuhelming mass of mankind in all 
ages, to whom a lx)ok is. like a bicycle or a mowing 
machine, merely a cunning device of  'H for 

getting rapidly and without fatigue throug:. . .i...ii work 
(in this case the business of living), which without such 
assistance would have to be much more slowly and 
tiresomely i)erformed. To rt'sent this mn'*"^' '''-tic 
view of books and their functions is, < ng 

the situation and circm ,. »•!„, j,,,|,i n^ 

a little absurd. The i)r<>l ....... setters is always 

too apt to forget that his own higher and more serious 
intere.st in books is not wholly due to an in- ty 

of taste, but that, to some extent, at anj. ......i>s 

from the fact that the study of books is the business of his 
life. It is, therefore, a« unre- :ik 

scorn of the merchant or i.. in- 
sensibility to literature as it woald be for them to d(*s]iise 
his indifference to the state of th>- - or the 
price of stocks. He should remen, ^ is and 
always will be to this numerous class of his fellow- 
creatnres what golf, or cycling, if he is a golfer 
or a cyclist, is to him ; and, regnnh'd from this ])oint of 
view, the inordinately augmente<l " output " of novels (to 
use a word li rue 

a largely mi- . ^ ,'>r- 

tentous symptom of national decline than the annual 
multiplication of golf links or the " boom "^ in pneumatic 
tires. 

That there should be certain persons who " talk as if 
literature meant novels "' and nothing el.se is in the 
interests of accuracy, of course, to be deplored. But 



«6 



LITERATURE. 



[November G, 1897. 



whether it much matters or not dejiends upon who they 
are that talk in that way. If it i« only the novel-reader 
we have heen considering; — the man who n-ads novels ns 
he go«i to an opera bouffe because he needs relief from the 
cam of bnxineits, and Reeks it, small blame to him, nt a 
tMiilimMm expenilitur»' of mental effort^ — it surely matters 
not at all. If he uses the word literature as synonjTnous 
with novel it can only be because he has cauf^ht the trick 
from S4imebixly else ; there is no pretension about his nse 
of it, if he is a true specimen of his class ; for, to do the 
honest fellow justice, he would jirobablyat once admit that, 
■0 fiu- from meaning seriously to affirm that novels are 
the whole of literature, he wonld not care, so long as they 
•ma«e him, if they were not literature at all. The only 
daas of iK'rsons whose misuse of language in this wise can 
be aaid to have the smallest importance are tiie literary 
daas thems(>lves, and this, in the first ])lace, because it is 
only polite to credit them with meaning something when 
they thus exjjn'KS themselves ; and, s^condl}', liecause it 
i» probably they who set the fashion in ]io]>nlar sjieech. 
Among this class, more esjjecially among its jounger 
reprewntatives, there are certainly some whose habit 
it is to talk and write in a manner which does un- 
doubtedly ai)j>ear to convey the assumption against which 
oar correspondent has protested. In theory they may 
recognize other literature than that strictly limited amount 
which finds its way into fiction, but in practice you find 
that when they talk and write of literatures it is fiction, 
and fiction only, of which their heads are full. Their 
addiction, indeed, to a certain hackneyed formula contain- 
inj; an element of too easily exaggerated trtith affords 
evidence enough of their inmost mind on the matter. The 
novel, they solemnly reiterate on every suitable and un- 
suitable occasion, is as essentially and characteristically the 
one great literary " form " of the nineteenth century : a 
projtosition which they sometimes am])lify by declaring 
thatthehighestliterary genius of the Victorian era — thatis 
toiiay,the genius which is richest in spiritual, intellectual, 
and artistic power — " as naturally seeks expression in the 
novel as in the age of Elizabeth it sought expression in 
the drama." If this meant no more than that we have 
amongKt ns a certainly small but distinguished body of 
men who, having much that is valuable to say, and. in 
Mmie but not in all cases, the capacity of saying it with 
that combination of truth, force, and charm which con- 
Ktitutes lit»Tature. and in its highest examples great litera- 
ture, do in fact «ei*k exjjression in the novel and not in tho 
drama, there would be no ground for objecting to the j)ro- 
poaition if therewert- also n<me for welcoming it as a brilliant 
diacwery. Hut, unfortunately, from recognizing the 
dintinction of some of those writers by whom this form of 
ezprewion has lieen so employed, it is but too easy a step 
to the aiutumption that there is something esj)ecially 
"litiTary" in the form itself. Shakespeare, we are sometimes 
•amrcd in moments of enthusiasm, would have chosen the 
novel a« his vciiich- of utterance if it had existed ; it was 
onlj because his public could be reachcnl from the stage 
alone that, »!  ness as he was, he devoted 

himadf to i:. .«-. ih> dunKi if in a j.roud 



reflection for the young novelist that he is following in 
what would have been the footstej»s of Shakespeare if only 
the jMith hatl l>een in existence ; but ajiart from its highly 
conjectural character it is not a reflection which it is good 
for the young novelist to indulge too freely. And it is, 
we suggest, a natural coiisc(juence of its too free indul- 
gence that writers of fiction of every degree of imjiortance, 
and of no imiwrtance at all, have of late contracted n 
habit of absurdly magnifying their office. They ought 
reall}' to understjind that tlieir adojition of the " fonn," 
in which all the " highest literary genius of the jwriod 
seeks its natural, &c.," does not of itself afford any presump- 
tion that what they write is literature, any more than the- 
once general employment of I jitin as the common language 
of educated EuroiK' proved that the Western world was 
peopled with letter-writers, essayists, and orators of 
Ciceronian elegance. They should lie further reminded that 
neither is this presumption of literary merit to he fonndet? 
ujKjn the fact that their books are more widely read and 
more frecjuently written alx)ut than any other works out- 
side the department of fiction. For, in most cases, 
the real reason of tlii-ir Iwing more widely read — namely, 
that such b<x)k8 af^oni the readiest and simplest (though 
not i>erhaps the surest) refuge from boredom — is a reason 
of an entirely non-literary character; while, if it is still 
true that they are more frequently written about than any 
other class of works, it is also true that this excessive 
frequency of criticism and comment is sensibly diminish- 
ing, and that there are welcome signs of a tendency, in 
the literar}' world, at any rate, to form a saner and less 
extravagant view of the importance of the novel. Nobody 
would wish to see fiction thrust luick again into the jKjsi- 
tion it occupied at the date of .Jane Austen's ajjology for 
it ; but from Cinderella to elder sister is too big a jump. 



IRcvicws, 



Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey. Hy H. P. Liddon, 
D.D. Vol. iv. Svo., xvi. + 4<i".i|ip. l^Jiiilon, 1S1>7. 

Long-mans. 18 

The present volume, which is marked by great skill in 
the arrangement of material, and conscientious care in the 
niurration of events, cnmiiU'tcs the laborious task which the 
late Dr. T^iddon imdrrtook in 1882. He seems to havc 
contempjatcd a biograi>iiy which would in any case have 
reiiched tiie dimensions of the work as it now stands, the 
four volumes corresiKmding roughly to four divisions in 
Dr. Pu.sey's life — the " Pre|«ration, the Movement, the 
Struggle, the Victory." In fact, however, the ])resent 
volume describes a ]>eriod in Pusey 's career scarcely less 
troubled and stc)rniy thiin the years covered by the third 
volume, and few readers can follow without emotion tlie 
ripening, under the pressure of most difficult circum- 
stances, of a character which seems never to fail in patient, 
dignity, in meek endurance, and in whole-hearted devotion 
to the cause of riglit<'ousness and truth. 

The present volume enables us to form a just and dis- 
jiassionate estimate of incidents in Dr. Pusey 's career wliicli 
it has b«'eii till- (:i-lii()ii in sctne i:niii(ers to coiiileirin souN 



NoTcmber 0, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



phraae — e.g., liiH conduct in the matter of Mr. .lowi-tf's 
a]i[M)iiitinciit to tin- I'rofcHHor.ihii) of (irrck nt '•  It 

now iippcarH that I'uscy ri'cojjnizcd miicli m irly 

than soiiio witli wliom ht< acted tlu> nwvtimiry limitM of 
JtiHtitiahIc o|)])0.sition iu hucIi a caoe. Jle had the courage 
of his (•onvictionH at a time wiien " even Kfble twpin to 
waver in liis sa]i|Mjrt " ; and he j>er>iisti'<l in his efTorta 
to HOfure a scttlt-mfnt. by the I'nivcrsity itxelf, of a 
]>ainful controvcisy which, liad his fiinids piincd their 
object, would havi- rctniirfd the intervention of I'arlianient. 
Tlie whole incident ilhistrateK his sense of what was justly 
due to an honourable <)p]H)nent, and his anxious care for 
the interests of learniuf; and reliijion. 

The editors have done well to jx)int out, in ref«'nM! 
to more than one ]>jissaf;e in I'usey's career, the neces,-i 
of fairly considering the altere<i conditions of I'niversity 
life, which make it hard, after an inter%al of thirty or forty 
years, to apjireciate the motives or approve the action of 
the Tnictarian leaders. The vital difference, as it seems 
to us, between I'usey antl the liberalizini^ theolo^iims of 
whom Dean Stanley was so ardent a chiitniiion lies in the 
fact that Pnsey liatl a consistent and iletinite faith to 
<lefend, while they were jiractically without a jxjsitive 
creed. Indeed what sjx'cially strikes us in the ])resent 
volume is the light it throws on the main work of I'usey's 
life. " My name," he tells the Church ("onLjress in 186.5, 
** has been a by-word for things with which I am little 
<'onccrned.'' '• I am in this strange jxisition," he wrote to 
Bisho]) Tait in ISliO, "that my name is made a by-wonl 
for that with whicii I never had any symixithy, that which 
the writers of the Tracts, with whom in early days I was 
associated, always depn'cated — any innovations in the way 
of conducting the service, anything of Hitualism, or 
«>sj)ecially any revival of disused vestments." It is clear 
that the main interest of I'usey's life was the defence of 
fundamental Christian truth. In the attiuk ujwn the 
Athanasian Creed he saw " a grave injury to the mainte- 
nance of the dogmatic princijjle in the Church of Eng- 
land " ; it seemed to him an endorsement of '' the central 
heresy of the day " — " It is of no imiwrtance what 
we believe." I'usey might apjtear to some not fully 
to ap])reciate the difficulties which are often urged against 
the retention of the Creed in the public senices of the 
Church ; but none of his sermons excels in large-hearted 
wisdom and charity that which he preache<l in defence of 
it before the I'niversity in Advent, 1872 — " The responsi- 
bility of intellect in matters of faith." A jH^nisal of this 
powerful sermon can hardly fail to dispd much ignorant 
prejudice against I'usey and those who share his con- 
victions. His eager desire to aid jxTplexed faith also 
mmle Pusey a diligent student of scientific literature. 
*' While others talked of sympathizing with scientific 
progress, he reail the scientific books whenever he found 
that the faith of bt^lievers was imi>erilletl by theni." 
Almost the last sermon he vnroto was one, the de- 
livery of which by Dr. Liddon will never be forgotten 
by those who heani it. on '• Unscience, not science, con- 
trary to faith." The Iwldness, insight, and strength of 
thought displayed in this sermon pnxluced a remarkable 
impression. It is scarcely suqirising that •' seveml well- 
known men of science, some of whom could by no means 
be reckoned on the side of Christianity, thanked I'us«'y 
heartily for it." It was even welcomed as " an Eirenicon, 
ns the preliminaries of peace between genuine science and 
genuin(» theology."' 

There is very much in this volume which is of sjiecial 
interest in view of the present condition of thought in 
the English Church. In his various " Eirenica " I'usey 



inudi- an eanie>t, (•! 
bring nlwut an ir 
and liome. Ifi 
that" The.i 

entirely di»i •-. j-  .- , .- 

explanation of certain |M)intM v 



67 

to 

h 

it »«• ha 

..• reunion uj-m 

V liave Liid rluwn a 

it ; tUej, 

»'." In 

■:.! 



Hpite of the ultimate fru.>tnttion  
did not lose heart. " l{«'fore th^ ' .-.,■' 

hn writes to Newman, " I wonden-<l whether I mi(rht 
not live to see the union of the Cluirch)-* ; you will 
have seen and mounii^I how that luu alreadv refiellMl 
ids." " I have done," ! T 1, 

i now have don" with  ." 

I'he lapse of a ii has not made an il 

ditlerence in the .....; of Home, to judge at ; ... 

the nxrent public action of the Po|>e. But the < 
rightly draw att<'ntion to the " grandeur" of the jurinn" 
prewnted l)y I'usey's untiring laU)urs in the cauite of 
j»eace. 

Anotlier point on which attention i« nure to be fixed 
is the contrast lx'twe«'n Dr. I'usey and some of his 
professed followers in the matter of Old Te«tament 
criticism. It is a fair question whether the " I^-ctunii on 
Daniel " would have been written if the tone of German 
<'riticism thirty years ago hml N'»'n otlti-r thnn it wnst. 
I'usey's eye \  not " ujion i if 
a school of • M, but ujxjn ^ ,t 
out of which that school first sprang." B<*hind the im- 
mediate theses of the dor- • :-:'•'■•' ' ' r tliat 

day he detected the -; of 

rationalistic i ' " - ..^ 

" with an < ;- 

cism than that witii v In 

fact, the jieriod of nv liul 

scarcely yet arrived. The difference, we t. u 

I'usey and his modem discij' • *' ir 

having heen e«iucate<i in a ■!. 

They have h  ' A 

methods, anii 
to a great ext«'nt, ciiangeti its basis, it • '( 

now in the form of an historical science , l.s 

no longer merely on a priori a8sum])tion«,such aa a denial 
of the |»08sibility of ri ' ''' or of miracle. It is quite 
jwssible that, iindi-r • et-inditions, Pus<'V nould 

have Wi' :;. 

or at an_\ , _ ,' 

attitude towards it. 

We have not space to touch on many points of j«.- 
sonal inten'st with which this volume abounds. Th«< 
' '  't\\ of I'usey's cli :'>t hn 

om th'» dftaih-*! • eon- 

tlul.t in wiiicii he was in " 

glimi>ses of his inner Ir . '•* 

nature shines out. One of his last acts was to destroy 

"all old letters in which 'any one said anv"  <" 

fault of any one.' " Two charming letters t" 

writi 

and 

ofa life which from tlio first iiad l)een consecrated to 

great ends. 

The biography as a whole recalls some well-known 
remarks of the late Dr. Mozley on Pnsey's p- '  ::. In 
all his recorded utterances we catch the li- -ofa 

voice which " imi>arts to its 

what of th.it serenity, awe, ai. i 

itself issues ; and which creates amid the confusions and 

»-2 



68 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



bustle of the mind'ii foininoii|ilace inU'llectual liie a 
temfionirj ivlm, during wliicli ideas, Iio]m's, aiid longings 
wliiih u«'re never entertainitl In^fon' find an iiitJiince into 
111 ind, to produce llieir living and permanent fruits 



The Poetry of Robert Bums. E<lit.Hl Jiy W. B. Henley 

•nd F. F. Henilerson. \\ ith KttliinKs by Williani Ilul.-, 

FAA. 4 VoIb. 9x52in.. 4»U+^47:>+:.1S+:MS pp. F:4liiil.in-Kli. IMr?. 

T. C. and B. O.Jack. 10,6 th.- V..I., 

with Front it!pi€>ce only, 76 

With the publii-ation of the two eonchiding vohiines 
of the Centenary Burns, its joint editors have completed 
their arduous ta.«k. The extent of their labours may be 
l>e«t estimated by briefly summarizing the statement of 
their ninjs, which j)r«*faces the fourtli volume. In the tirst 
J.! . souglit to create a " cla.*sic text " of the jKtet — 

ai. iking wiiich involved an e.xhaustive collation of 

all the available versions, and the overhauling of such a 
ma.«s of M.S'^., including many not hitherto utilized, that, 
in the opinion of the Editors, these volumes " may fairly 
claim to be reganled as a complete lexicon of the text of 
Bums's verse.*' In the second place, they have thought it 
right to " give the history so far as known, and the local 
fietting of his every several piece, together with an expla- 
nation of the chief allusions, many among them of the 
most fleeting kind."' Thirdly, they had to provide the 
Southron reader with a full and sufticient glossary, and, 
lastly, they had " to define and determine the relations of 
Burns to the j^ast." All this elalxjrate programme they 
Iiave so conscientiously fulfilled that if there were any 
Fuch thing in reality as what is called a " definitive " 
edition — or. at all events, if there were any ))ossibiiity of 
<!• " t like Burns, who, true to his 

li. . ^ts editions as fast and copiously 

as controversial j)amphlets (which, indeed, they sometimes 
are) this product of ^Ir. Henley's and Mr. Henderson's 
editorial labours might well achieve that ])osition. For to 
tljat c-areful recension of the te.xt whicli the i)reface 
jiromisetl us they have added a cojjious liody of 
notes, for the most ]>art admirably illustrative, from lioth 
the literary and the historical \mi\t of view, of the poet's 
work and life. Ap|)ended, moreover, to the fourth volume 
is an e«say from the hand of one of the editors on " The 
Life, (jenius, and Achievement of the Poet," which, if 
Bums were any one but Burns — and, ])erhai)s, we ought to 
add, if .Mr. Henley were not Mr. Henley — would give the 
eiliti'in a still stronger claim to l)e pronounced definitive. 
But Bums and .Mr. Henley being who and what they are it 
will 8ur]»ri«e no one who knows either of them to hear that 
it is precisely this " terminal essay " which is certain to 
deprive the Iniok of that character. For the terminal essay, 
«leeply marked as it is with the milit^mt individuiility of 
it- nM"' author, has alxiut as much " definitiveness " as a 
< to mortal combat, and looks as likely to jiut an 

• im. V iitroversy as the trailing of a coat at an Irish fair. 

Inde<-d, if any less than half of the .'Scottish admirers of 
I'liriis refrain from bringing out sejiarate editions of the 
j«Mt lor the siMH-ial jiurjwse of refuting Mr. Henley's 
th<-<'rie», it will argue either extniordinary wlf-restraint on 
their own |«rt. or a singukr lack of j«itriotism on tliat of 
Hcottish publishers. 

We must admit, however, that even if they did resort 
io thin eUlxjnite form of n-prisals and t-atisfii-d themselves 
t Mr. Henley's theories out of the field, 

1 '  iitenary Kdition in other resjiects 

extremely hard to beat in any one of thoec qualities of 



perfect tyinigraphy, lightness in the hand, and sober 
beauty of exterior, wliich are so much more jirized by many 
readers than the strictest critical and biogniphical ortho- 
doxy inside. The only ))oint of material arrangement of 
which tiie ultm-jiatriotic Scot might j)ossihly complain is 
one wiiich will lend to these volumes an additional attrac- 
tion for the ignorant Southron. We refer to the new 
method of inteqiretation which the editors have sub- 
stituted for that of the old-fiushioned glo.ssary at the end of a 
l)ook. No doubt it is not wholly free from otl'ence both to the 
eye and the mind. Those Knglish eijuivalents tliat sopienti- 
fully besjirinkle the Inirder of the text are not flowers exactly" 
cakuUited to adorn that '• mejidow of margin " through., 
which Sir Benjamin Backbite tiiought that verses should 
meander; nor is it altogether )>Ieasimt to be pulled up in. 
the middle of a Bunisian lyric by a reminder that " braes" 
means " hill sides," and that " sark " is Scotch for '* shirt." 
But it is mere hyjKH-risy to jiretend that the ordinary 
English reader can disjiense with all translation from the 
vemacular,and when the alternative to defacing the margin 
would have been to send him continually from the middle,. 
say,of the first volume to the end of the fourth, it is im- 
jwssible to contest the wisdom of the editorial choice. 

It is the e.ssay on the " Life, Genius, and Achieve- 
ment " of the ]Kjet which will \)C tiie apple of discord flung 
into the midst of the critical banquet, indeed, it is, so to 
speak, a threefold fruit of strife ; for while the "life" has 
been fought over for years, Mr. Henley's tlieory of the- 
"achievement"" will be, in fact lias been, found highly pro- 
vocative by the more fanatical sect of Burns's worsliipj>ers, 
and though he wannly jjraiscs tlie " genius " of their 
Divinity, he is likely to have inflamed their wrath still 
further by praising him in what they will consider to be- 
the wrong way. Upon the "life," that rather squalid 
battle-ground of sentimentalist and cynic, Mr. Henley 
cannot be said to have lingereil long — at least not long by 
the foot-rule ; f(jr what he has to say alx)ut it in the way 
of actual narrative fills less than a fifth of the essay. The 
trouble is that by reason of the needless crudity, not to- 
say coarseness, with which he puts the "cynical" case — 
so mucli the stronger of the two that it needs no violent 
enforcement — he manages to leave the iini)ression that 
much more imiKirta'nce has been given to the matter than 
it really jiossesses. This is the less easily to be j)ardoned 
because he himself representsthe jwintatissue — ifanytiiing 
can be said to be atissue — as oneof the sim]ilest kind. Tliose 
who labour it have not even the excuse which might be 
pleaded on behalf of that tiresome crew of casuists who 
have so i)ersistently bored tiie world witii the " Harriet 
question " in the domestic life of Siielley. For tiie 
domestic life of Bums is all " questions." There is an 
" Elizabeth Baton question " in it, and a " Jean Armour 
question,"' and a " Higliland Mary question," and a 
" Clarinda (jue.stion," not to reckon otiiers of aa 
innominate ciiaracter ; and wiien a man's life is all 
questions of tliis sort we are surely justified in saying that 
it is a case of cttdit qwtslio as to the ciiaracter of tiie man 
iiimself. Instead of being " dark with excess of liglit," 
it becomes so liglit with exci-ss of darkness — or, to jiut it 
more mildly, let us say siiadiiiess — as to need no biogra- 
])hical iilumination wiiatever. Mr. Henley, in one of ids. 
happiest moments, describes Bums an an " inspired 
faun" ; but if he means, as he doulitless does, to set u» 
thinking of the famous antitpie in tiie A'atican, the com- 
jMirison, tliougli admii'a1>iy picturcMjue, is not (juite exiict. 
Nothing, it is tme, could more aptiy suggest tiiat simple 
and cart^iess grace and that air of cliildlike feilowsiiiji witlj 
Nature's wilder children, which aj peals to iw with a 



November C, 1897.] 



LITKKATrilE. 



r>9 



scarcely more touching bt'anty in t)ie marble of Praxiti'lw 
tlian ill tlu' sorifj.M of Miirnn. Hut tho Ktntuc w' ' ' 
cisi'ly sviiili<>iiz('8 tlu* jKx-t dm-H not mo jhm :■ 
the iiiiin. It mif^ht Imvt' <x'ciirr<'<l to Mr. llciilfy that the 
fniin iind a comnulf wlio livfd iw closo to nature afl 
liinisolf, and wad, for all wA know, at) goo<l a fellow ; yet 
who, by otluT and more conKpictiouH markx than that of a 
slifjhtlv-iHiinted car, imK-laiinc*! liis kinshi]i with tin- tfiiat- 
foot j;<h1. And if Mr. llcidi'V could have hnin 
to define Hurns as an " insjiired satyr" hi- woiil. 
Rtill strai^hter to the mark, aiicl might have cut the 
controversy even shorter than he has. 

But it is the dissertation on the "genius" and 
" aehievenient " whieh will roust> the hornets' nest on the 
other side cif the Twrcd. Or, rather, it is .Mr. Ilt-nleyV 
definition of the achievement, with the inferences inevit- 
ably ileducible from it as to the genius, which will do the 
mi.schief. Indee<l, it is to he gatlien-d froni the preface to 
the fourth volume that i.ulihie bu/zings were aroused in 
the nest by the introductory remarks prefi.xed to Vol. I. 
There were Scotsmen who bitterly n-senfed the remark of 
the editors, that Hurns was " what is called a local jMK't"; 
and we suspect that they will b<' hut incompletely molli- 
fitH.1 by being reminde<l, as they are in this later preface, 
that " no finer eulogy could be }>as.sed on Hurns, no nobler 
tribute jiaid to his gift, than is contained in the demonstra- 
tion that, though ' the satirist and singer of a jtarish,' he 
ai>peals to a world-wide public,' since he must of necessity 
conunand such an audience by virtue of intrinsic splendour 
and moral magnificence, and in desi)ite of Im-al an<l 
peculiar accidents." Nevertheless, it is jjerfectly true, and 
very much to the jwint : a.s also is the jiroposition that 
no jKiet was " ever more directly the pnxluet of imme- 
diate and remote forbears " than Hurns. To si>eak of him 
as the founiler of a new jxu'tic school in the sensc> in which 
the word may be justly api)licd to Wurdsworth and (.'ole- 
ridg(^ and the other Naturalist and Romantic rel)els 
against the rule of an effete Cliussicalism is absurd. These 
men were essentially the destroyers of a tradition, while 
Hums WHS simply the inheritor of one. That he carried it 
to triumphs far beyond the power of the gi-eatest of his 
predecessors to achieve is the highest proof of his genius 
as a singer, and so sure a title to fame that one would 
think it suju'rfluous to press, as so many of his country- 
men do, his unfoundetl claim to the honoui-s of a pioneer. 
The idea that he in any way influenced Wonlsworth 
l)ecause Wordsworth admired him is as jijejxisterous as it 
would be to call Hurns himself a disciple of that objtn-t of 
his own sincere admiration, Cowper. And the value of 
Wordsworth's admiration for Hurns is amusingly revealed in 
the anecdote which Mr. Aubrey de Vere contributed to the 
Life of Tennyson, and which clearly shows that what 
Wordsworth admired in Hurns's jKK'try was its element of 
resemblance to the weaker parts of his own. No ; it is 
not by the .\nglici/e«l verse wliich the Knglish jxiet lovi>d 
but by the vernacular lyrics which he despised that the 
Scotch iK)et will live. What Burns took up and put to his 
lips was no new fashioned reed : it wius one which had been 
])a.s.sed on to him through a long line of Scottish singers ; 
it was as old and rude almost as the ])'\\x' of I'an. But he 
was the first to j)lay ujwn it so that the whole world 
listened, and is listening still. Ife played ui»on it as the 
wood-god himself plays in Mre. Browning's jjoem : — 

Sweet, swoot, sweet, O Pan ! 

Pieriiiip swoot on the river 
Blinding sweet, O great g<;d I'an ! 
The sun <.n tlio hills forgot to ilio 
Anil the lilies revived anil the dragon-fly 

Came back to dream on the river. 



inelytluit iH glory enoocb for any man. 

'. nothing Iwa tluiu lluii. 



Selected Poems. TSy George MeredUh. 8yS|ln., SUpp. 
\V(.-atutin>ti'r, 1K>7 Coziatabte. t- 

T' 
to revi : 
that .Mr. .Meredith will live by iccom- 

]ilished but sometimes wayward ^... ;luU tlio 

immortal jwirt of .Shelley's Uiiuert to us i* hln pro«e. So 
skilful is the selection wi- ' ' ' ' ♦' ' ' 

]«X'f whom we t<M> often 

 has it to make a- leniwry 

;i and reinemher only t 'T. A 

1>relatory note informs us that '"the ►election here made 
UM been under the snjKrvision of the author"; and 
even if this means only that Mr. Meretlith has ratified the 
choice of sonje one '" 
his having, in so doi: 
to the weaker bn-threnwhicli lys 

obtained! at his hands. Fori.' 'Uii 

jiieces of reasoning in rhyme with which the pix ue- 

times exercised the labouring brain of thereuii< i uii<> \ia» 
sfniggled through them. not. indeed, without profit to his 
mind, but w irt. 

There is n^ im 

its cryptic comiMinion of the same volii; .rt, 

from any of those jxx?ms the study of u.... i. -nly 

in intelh>ctual as.sent, en1ivene<l ]ierha|M by admiration for 
the subtlety or profundity of the *' ' '. but by nothing 
else. In their stead w<« have \i lus, or jiortiond 

of j>oems, which, if  -and ihey rarely do — 

yield up their full at a first jK-ni-.iI, yet 

reward a closer study with lla.shes of spiritual ;ik1 

glimjMies of material beauty such as few poiL- -■ 
any other |>eri(Hl bos bad power to reveal. 

It i  !onote,a-  -• '•• ;,,.. ttr 

of the) .. h Mr. M 1 K*t 

wisely, in our opinion, >at 

nearly two-thirds of the 1 ion 

have been culled from the two volumes r> y pub- 

lishinl by him in 1888 and 1883, and mx i.nx entitled 
" A Kcailing of Karth " and " Poems anil Lyrics of the 
Joy of Earth." From •' V " ' ' r ' 

Life," the volume of 1887, 1 
have been extracted — the " Song of •• llie 

Young Princess," and that splendid l. -.i uajie 

Mr. Meredith's highest achievement in this oni  ry, 

*' The Nuptials of Attila." We could wish tiuu ne liad 
addwithe imj«ssionetl " France " from the same volume; 
but these are enough to show the sti- ■• of bis 

inspiration when dealing with the •• ^'f men 

and women u}Km earth, while, as we have said, it is 
evidently as the }Mx-t of Earth herself tliat be would lain 
be judged. 

.\nd beyond doubt he ' ' ' ' '' ' in- 

porary crifici>im hns never " " of 

Mr. M I do M> u 

far mnv , here. I. 

it must sufKce to .say that his spiritual attitude tou-ards 
Nature is one which appears to us to have neither pre- 
cedent in the ]x)etry of any j^ast generation nor countei^ 
part in that of our own. It ^ ' r of the 

jxhH's own attitude — a subj on the 

objective side, on the side of the arti«t as distinguished 



70 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 189/ 



from the seer and the thinker, there is no new way of 

!>■ \t'r\»ill be. Tln-r 

\>: - tlie iH'aiity of til- 

world ilip inosi vividly before the imagination of the reader 
and impresse.-; it,* niystery the most deeply uiwn his soul. 
And to the exact extent to which the ix)et mi.<ses this way, 
h\ 'mages which apjienl only to the mind instead 

<>t ijvon the inner eye," and thoughts which 

hj y, to the understanding, but linve 

I lit — to that extent his jKietry only 

1 >. new " at the expense of cea.sing to be poetry at 

ail. JiiiU Mr. Meredith sometimes goes astray in this 
fo^hion even his warmest admirers will admit ; but that at 
his best he tak«-s a jwth of victorious directness to the eye 
niid heart of his reader not even his coldest critics will 
deny. We can forgive niany things " too curious!}' con- 
sidered " when we turn to such a ]*anorama of the cloud- 
piled heavens a.s ♦* The South-Wester," or to such a revela- 
tion of tln' ' '*v and (for the unworthy) the menace 
of the fon- IS " The WckkIs of Westcrmain." And 

w .' ve for tliis single picture from the 

ii. i.  N'alley,'" that one |>oem which not 

even the most obstinate of Sir. Meredith's detractors has 
• - nt least in our e.Ti)erience, been able to resist : — 

rtloas fhr' ;« us the shadow in the meadows 
i'°lying ' . on a blue and breezy noon. 

Ko, abe i- . ud drinking op her wonder; 

Earth to iior is yonng aa the slip of the new moon. 
Drala she an unkindncss, 'tis but her rapid measure, 

Even as in a dance ; and her imile can lieal no less, 
Like the swinging May-cloud that pelts theflowors with hail- 
stones 
Off a sunny border she was made to bruise and bless. 

When Mr. Meredith deals with Nature in her out- 
ward aspect, at his best. he speaks the eternal and universal 
In- Xo novelty of treatment is, Imjipily, 

t'' in lit these highest moments. It is his 

'• Ijrading oi tarth," to use his own expression, his report 
of her inner meaning — his spiritual attitude, in a woi-d, 
towards tiie Great Mother — which is new in ix>etry. His 
I*-  ' ' ajMirt even from that of Tennyson, 

w- - it is divided, in more senses than 

on*-, by H \ . To an extreme Wordsworthian, 

indtfd, it , ably apjiear blankly materialistic; 

and certainly there are no "obstinate questionings of sense 
and o-T*  ' •' •::8" to be found in Mr, Meredith. 
Ncvcit ink acceptance of Nature, alike in her 

< : ' 'las a virile faith behind it, and a 

i- not to be always l)mcing itself to 

J>enr, i any moments of ui)lifting with a solx-r 

K'"''"' It is the stoicism of the philosopher 

uA: .!■ <i 'iid illumined by the poet's joy. 



Autobloerrafla <li txn Veteran©. Ricordi storici e 
aaeddoUct del Oenerale £nrico della Rocca, 1807-1859. 
8«oonda edi/.ione. Hvo., 5fJiJ pp. U«>|c^ini. 1H(>7. 

Nicola ZanichelU. 4 lire. 

TMiile it mipht be an exaggeration to assert that a 

IKTUsal of  I work is indis|)ensable to a clear 

••''■•''• '  rlier pha-ses of the Italian 

/•' Iwsaid that no lirxik ]>nl>lislied 

f' . the 

I" , ^ 1- in 

t' iuabiean (tddition to 

•iii. ;... ..... , of the period. Born 

at Turin on Jane 20, 1807— a few* days after the battle of 



Friedland. and on the eve of the first Franco-RussiaB 
alliance — Knrico della Hocca began his career at the age 
of nine as a jwge of Hie (Vmrt of t'liurles Alltert of 
Carignano, heir-presumptive to the crown of Piedmont. 
Cavour, a few years later, made his delmt in a similar 
capacity. From his earliest youth Della Kocca was thus 
in a jwsition to hear and observe all that took ))lace in the 
neiglibourh(Kxl of the I'iwlmontese throne, and the pages 
of the jiresent volume, written, or rather dictat<><l, by him 
at the age of 80 years, lH»ar witness both to the keenness 
of his jxjwers of observation and to the freshness of his 
memory. Like most works of its kind it alwimds in 
details, and is more adapted for steady iktusuI than for 
review ; but it contains many jtassages of higli dramatic 
value and of no little historical interest. .Such, for in- 
stance, is the descri])tion of the young C'harles AIIkmI at 
the moment when N'ictor Kmmanuel 1, summoned him to 
Turin — tall, exceedingly handsome, affable, gay ; a con- 
trast in every resjiect to what he became in after years 
when suspicion, slander, disillusionment, and exile had 
changed his jovial humour into melancholy, his buoyancy 
into desiwndent faUilism, and his natural jjiety into exag- 
gerated asceticism. In regard to the diameter of t'harles 
Albert, at least, General della Kocca's memoirs can hardly 
fail to spread a juster view. They show conclusively that 
throughout life he was stemiily faithful to his ideal — the 
lilieration of the peninsula — and that his alxlication in 
favour of his son Victor P^innianuel II., after the disastrous 
battle of Novara. was but the crowniujr sacrifice of a life 
full of disapiwintment and bitterness. 

As intimate friend and brother-in-arms of Victor 
Emmanuel II., Delia Kocca was constantly at his 
Sovereign's side and always in his confidence. He 
rej^eatetUy served liim as si>ecial envoy, accomjianied him 
to Paris and London in 1855 after the Crimean War, and 
later on returned to Paris to draft with NajKileon III. the 
basis of the Franco-Italian alliance. In Najtoleon he 
believed he had found a true friend of Italy, and his 
comment on tlie French Kmperoi's military (jualities as 
evinced during the camjxiign of 1859 is l)oth abundant 
and aj)preciative. The triumphal entry of tiie allieti 
iwvereigns into Milan on June 8th, 1859. formed a re- 
markable contrast to Charles Albert's flight from the same 
city 11 years l)efore, and Della Hocca, wlio was present on 
both occa.sions, does not neglect to note the ditVerence. On 
the one occasion weseeCliarles Albert, jMile, thin, and down- 
cast, holding hiii sabre under his arm, smlly ejaculating, 
" Ah, Delia Kocca, quelle joum^e, quelle joumee ! " 
on the otlier, we hear the plaudits of the multitude and 
the Te Deuin in the Cathedral attended by Najx)- 
leon and A'ictor Kmmanuel. Hut jierhaps the most 
strikingly dramatic jMige in the l)<M)k is that in which 
the author describes the scene between N'ictor Emmanuel 
and Napoleon after Solferino, when the French Emperor 
intimated to his ally the urgent necessity of coming 
to tenns with the Austrians. The two JVIonarchs htul 
gone out to examine the )K»sitions of the troops in view of 
cro.>*sing the Mincio. Victor Emmanuel made n sign to 
Della Koc(» to accomiwiny them, but after furnisliing various 
ex])lanations of the merits and demerits of the ground the 
latter imderstood that Na|K>leon wished to be left alone 
with Victor Emmanuel, and retired to a distance. But 
lx*fore Della Kocia was out of earshot Napoleon suddenly 
drew up his horse. Victor luniiianiicl did likewise, while 
Najwleon took from his jKH-ket a li'tt<'r and began to reiul 
in a loud voice. The letter was from the Empress 
Eugenie, and evidently one of many on the same sub- 
ject. It spoke of certain designs on the part of the 



November 6, 1897.] 



LITKUATUKK. 



71 



(ierman (jonf«*<lenition ; of thu pre«euu« of PruMian 
troops near O)blenco and (.'olopno ; of th« inrulo<|iia('y of 
the fori:e« left in Kranc«i to rcMirtt a I'niHhiiiii iiiMiftion ; of 
tlie imiHrious ntHvsHity of N<Mulin){ back a jMirt i>f i' 
French Army i-niployc^l in Italy. Tht? niiiiHivt- hirti  
j)oint<'<l out the terrible ooiiscciiicnoeH of a dufeat on the 
Rhine, and urjjed Napoleon to protib hy tho vielorien 
obtained to secure an «ulvantaj;eouH p«'ace ho an to be free 
to return to Frrtuco and allay the diBcontcnt crenttHl by 
the I'rusHiiiu lulvance. Victor F.nuiiaiuii'l li.sti'iied in 
silence, then gave way to dt'jcction, uiider^tuniling that 
all was over. Hoth Munarchs .slowly ami .silently de- 
scended the hill, dreaming no longer of crotiiiing the 
Mincio. 

Scarcely less intej^sting are the descriptions of the 
terrible wrath of favour, jwirt of which was wreaked on 
Delhi Kwca's heiul ; of the cold reception of the allieil 
Sovereigns on tiieir return to Turin ; and of the close of 
tho camiiaign. In one of the ap|K'ndice8 are given the two 
proclamations issued after the peace of Villufranca. In the 
original «lraft of tho proclamation signinl by Victor 
Emmanuel, Nai)ohH)n had written, " The preliminaries of 
peace have assured to the jx'oples of Ix)nil)ardy that inde- 
j)endenco which was the chief object of our common de- 
sires "; but Victor Emmanuel struck out tho sentence and 
with his own hand wrote, " Have assured indej)endence to 
the Lombanl iH>oples." The dift'erence is an index of the 
feelings with wiiich Frenchmen and lUdians have evex 
since regarded the treaty. 

If one tiling more than another strikes the reader of 
these memoirs it is the extreme directne.>»s and simplicity 
of the language, the absence of any striving after literary 
effect, anil the air of good faith and veracity which 
l)er\adea the book. If to (leneral della Kocca age and 
experience brought no other boon, they at h^ast enabled 
him to attain that serenity which is above and beyond all 
IMirti.sanship. To the student of Italian i>olitics the 
(juality is jRH.-uliarly refreshing. 

The second and final volume of the memoirs will Ix* 
publiuhed within a year. 



Oossip fVom a Muniment Room. HeiiiK Pa-s.-uiRes in the 
Lives of Aime iiikI .Mary l<\tt<in, l."i7l-llH.S. TniiisciilH-d and 
Kaiteil hy Lady Newdlgate-Newdegate. sjxTiin., l.'>i> pp. 
London,' isn. Nutt. 7,6 

We have to thank T>ady Newdigate-Newdegate for a 
volume which is in itself of great interest as a jnctnre of 
social life in the Elizidiethan age, but which is of particu- 
lar interest as contributing to exjiose one of the most 
extraordinary mare's ne.'»ts in Shakespearian literature. 
The papers ])ul>lislietl by l.A<ly Newdiiiate from the 
archives at Arbury consist practically of the memoirs 
of two sisters, Anne and Mary Fytton, daughters of Sir 
Edwanl Fytton, of (iawsworth, in Cheshin-, one of whom 
became the wife of Sir John Newdegate, of Arbury, the 
otiier a Maid of Honour to tjueen Elizabeth and the wife 
successively of William Polwheele, of I'erton. and of John 
lx)ugher. The career of the first differed in no resjxx-t 
from that of an ordinary English lady in the same sphere 
of life who fulfils fa'ithfully her maternal and social 
duties, and carries an unblemishetl character to the grave. 
But, when we say that the second had to retire in disgrace 
from the CViurt of Eliwibeth because it w.is discoven>d that 
she was with child by the Fjirl of I'embroke, and that she 
liecame subsequently the reputed mother of two other 
illegitimate children, it will be seen with conceni that 



tlie records priutMi by I.«dy Newdif(8t« have tlteir 

... : . .. .. .. :. ...;., . .i ^r pLi»- 

', and 

•I- 

ri 

for the ingenuity i>\ lar. In ir. 

Thoma-t Tyler, in an  ii of Slu^. j. — - i 

.Sonnets, attemptt-il to jirove tliat .Mary Fytton was no 
'..in the '* dark la<ly " of thoMc .-oi ' -i- 

y, the miHtn>t«ri of Shakenpeare. s 

liieoiy hiiA succeedtxl in making in •>•» 

appearance of the present volume, nu'- ;■< j it 

throws new light on the que.stion, offers a litlmg opjior- 

tunity of ■■- 'Tiing the evidence ' N'- Tyler'u 

th«H)ry 1 I'd. 

In IGi)  *.r 

Thomas Tl. 'a 

Sonnets, ne\. .1." Tot 

fixe-l il>e r. ' . ., :— " To r 

oft Mr. W. H., l 

thai i'.i' nii^eii oy our ••" ' - 'h 

the wel  adventurer in 1 .' 

There t .d ends Ay 

known .1 ii is noi d 

conjecture. No one knows when the ^K>nnet^■ 
written; no one knows who Mr. W. H. was; i.u ■.. . 
knows what sense is to bd attributed to the word 
" iH'getter," whether it J ' ' 'kj 

jierson who got or procun r 

it means the |>crson who iunpired liit-ui. in oii.er wurds, 
the youth who is the hero of them, tlie '• master- 
mistress " of the poet's passion. Nor is any light thrown 
on these questions by the S)nnet8 themsehes. All 
tliat is certain is that they record, or profess to record, 
a pa>isionate att • "   ' no 

youth and to si.; 1^ 

in a su{'>erior social position to tite .it 

pers<inal beauty, the worn.in Ivein- , » 

married woman, not dist ;ty, but having 

a very tlark complexion ium jh * '■'' in 

masie. It is clear also that she wn d 

had playe*! him fal.se w' i<l 

have us Ix'lieve with I'm .th 

was William Herbert, third tjirl of 1 . and, in 

acconlance with an hypothesis nf k;< ., i. u,,t.iiii 

wa-s Mary Fytton. 

Now, in the first place, tiieie ii, 

Shnkesivcare was even ac<piaint<Hl with 1 ••, 

or ' 'lo on int ;<• 

in t II of the i is 

brother, the Earl of Montgonv 

men as " prosecuting them (.^..-i.-. , ....;..._.y .^id 

their author living with so much favour," being the sole 
indication of any connexion at all b«?tween Shakespeare 
and Pembroke, .\gain, there is every r»n'r.n to b<>l?f*Te 
that most of the .Sonnet* had b«^n v. r  ho 
Pembroke-Fj-tton scandal occurred. 1 in 
1600, but ^leres, writing in 1598, sj)eak8 of their circula- 
tion, or of the circulation of some of f' ■• :ig 

Shakesp(>are's private friends at aii.i pr ro 

that date, while th- ~ .^y 

.Jagganl in the foil '.e 

that the .Smncts referred to by .Mejes are the SonnetJ 
on which Jlr. Tyler relies for the ...n- \:<in between 
Shakespeare and Pembroke. Thorjie'- 11 seems to 

us in it.self almost conclusive against i.r -. " Theory. 

In 1601 William Herbert became l-jul of ! % In 

1609 he was Knight of the Garter and in pos&ci«ioQ of 



72 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



other honours and distinctions, all of wliich Thoq>o is 
cai ' ' ' ' ihedwlicntions of th«" M'vj-ral other 

». -to him. Is it likt'lv thut in this 

CUM' Uv «<'i ' i it. -. .i liim as " Mr. W. H." Kven 

on the sii; , . liiat it wa.« "a blind" it is in- 

credible. It must be addtni that, whoever the youth of the 
Sonnetp may have been, he was conspicuously handsome, 
his l>eauty lieing of a somewhat ctTfininate cast. A glance 
at th»> iMirtraits of Herlx'rt will show that he could never 
have hud at any time the smallest claim to such distinc- 
tion. 

But if the foundations of the theory identifying ttn* 
youth of the .Sonnetti with the Earl of Pembroke are thus 
unstable, the theory identifying Mary Fytton with the 
dark ladv is absolutely baseless. We will even go so far as 
to Bay tluit, afisuming the identification of Pembroke with 
Shakesjieare's friend to Ite proved, tlie dithcultics in the 
way of identifying Mary Fytton with the lady would l>e 
almost as insu|>erable as they now are. The first condition 
that the heroine of the Sonnets must fulfil is that she should 
|i- tte, and a brunette of a ver}' j)ronounced type, 

w . - niven black," with hairs like "black wires" ; in 

short, " a black beauty." Of Mary Fytton there liapi>en 
to be extant, as we learn from lAdy Newdigate's 
book, two i>ortraits, one of them taken about the 
very time of her intrigue with Pembroke. " It is that of 
a higli-bnxl-looking Imly iiHk grey eyes and a fnvr com- 
jjfxicni ;" the other, taken when she was ayoimg girl, is, 
it may be added, a corroboration of the features of the 
first. This alone would be fatal to Mr. Tyler's theory. The 
next condition must be that she wa.s a married woman, for 
otherwise it would be difficult to explain the words in 
Sonnet CLII., " in act thy be<l-vow broke." But Mary 
Fvtton wasnot married till about 1G07, beingcertainly,sofar 
&1 is known, unmarried in or In-fore 1604, for in that year her 
father made a bequest to her in her maiden name. With 
the first of these difficulties Mr. Tyler does not attempt to 
g^pple ; ]>os8ibly the jwrtraits were unknown to him. The 
8p<-ond he tries to get over by assuming, on the strength 
f evidence he has of the very free life led by the 

^ Honour, and of a document in tiie Record Office 

ny that marriages could be easily and lightly con- 
.:..• i.-l. that Mary Fytton may have been married without 
her friends lx>ing aware of the circumstance. 

It might have Ix'en exjx'cted that Mr. Tyler would at 
lei-i* !in\<> l>een able to show that Shakesi)eare had some 
n :ioe with a woman who is a.ssumed to have played 

?■ t.-int a part in his life. But evidence of their 

.1 nee he has none. All he adduces in presumption 

' ' * 'lat " l/ove's linbour Ixist " was acted before the 

' , ly at (Christmas, 1597, when .Mary Fytton wa-; 

I  ]■■ i;t ; i!:'i. -c-condiy, that William Kempe, 

I 1 111 .'^ii.il 'I'lMp'^ company, dedicat('<l to her his 

•♦ Nine Daies Wonder." Now, granting, as Mr. Tyler has 

f, r;,,1 f to have granted to him, the generally skittish 

of the Maids of Honour, and more es[)ecially of 

" :i. it yet seems a far cry from witnessing the 

II of a play to an intrigue with the ])rol>ably 

T. We submit also to Mr. Tyler that if the 

-^ .ike«f«eare"s comjany dedicated to her, it by 

no means follows that the ix)et of that comjjany made love 

to her. 

Wp have not space to examine Mr. Tyler's collateral 
i"' ., ; V." ,_,ive bim full credit for 

. but he must forgive 
>\ nothing to the soiu- 

1 .... li--' '. ... .;^ ,y.w.>lcm in our literature. 

The enigma of thete .Sonnets is as impenetrable as ever, 



and we are very much inclined to think that it will remain 
so ; that it will continue to be. as it now is, im]v)ssible to 
decide whether or how far they are autobiographical, 
whether or how far they are merely dnunntic studies. 

Of the facility, however, with wliidi Mr. Tyler's theory 
gains convert.s there has re<'ently l')een an amusing illus- 
tration. In the hundnxl and thirty-fifth Sonnet occur 
these lines : — 

WHioovor hath hor widh thou hast thy Will, 
Ami will t« )>oot and will in ovoriOim : 
More than enough am I that vex thoo still 
To thy SHcot will making addition thus. 



\A!t no unkind, no fair l)e8eochorg kill 
Think all but one, and me in that <ino Will. 
Now. it apjH'ars from Lady Newdigate's volume that 
among Mary Fytton's admirers was old Sir William 
Knollys, who, though his wife was alive, was anxious to 
secure as wife in reversion this frail Maid of Honour and 
was jmying ardent court to her. Wiiat, it has l>een argued 
by a convert to Mr. Tyler's theory, could be jAainer than 
this passage ? — " Thou luust tiiy Will (Sliakesi)eare), thy 
Will (Herliert), and thy MV/i! (Knollys)." The iMis.sage 
is sufficiently ambiguous, but it is very doubtful whether 
more than one " Will " is included in the ])oem ; there is 
certainly no evidence of a third Will ; the " all " in the 
last line most probably refers to " lK>seechers," not to the 
« Wills." 



The Water of the Wondrous Islea. Hy William 
Horris. 8ix5!iin., rxxipp. Lmulon. 1KI>7. Ijong:iuana. 7.6 

During the year now i)ast there have been many 
endeavours to a.^certain for the world the place of William 
Morris in English literature ; and now, as though he were 
to be numlxred among his own critics, comes a volume 
from his jien which is itself almost an ejiitome of his 
qualities. It is in the familuir form of the romances which 
read like prose continuations of his " Eiirthly Paradise," 
and the well-known A])ology of that work expresses the 
object with which " The Water of the Wondrous Isles " 
would seem to have Ix'en written. It is a story of those 
days mxjn which his imagination loved to dwell 
When all the year was summer everj'whero 
And every man and woman bleat and fair, 

and the scene passes in that borderland Ijetween faery and 
romance where skies are lovelier, streams purer, and tiie 
valleys deejier and more soft than those we know, where 
Nature is not as we see her, but as we dream of her. The 
o])ening words, like the magic horn in " Oberon," spirit us 
at once into a land of mystery : — 

Whilom, as tolh the tale, was a walled cheaping-town hight 
Utterhay, which was buildod in a bight of the land a little off 
the great highway which went from over the moinitoins to the 
sea. The said town was hard on the borders of a wood, which 
men held to Ikj mighty great, or maybe measurolcss ; though 
few indeed had entered it, and they that hod brought back talus 
wild and confused thereof. Therein was neither highway nor 
byway, nor wood-reeve n<ir waywordon ; never came chajimaii 
thence into Utterhay ; no man of Utterhay woa no poor or so 
bold that ho durst raise the hunt therein ; no outlaw durst floe 
thereto ; no man of God Imd such trust in the saints that ho 
durst build him a coll in that wo<mI. 

Into this wood, called Evilshaw, the child Birdidone is 
stolen by a witch, and on the far side of it, liy the edge of 
the great water, she grows to womanhood in Ijondage, 
seeing no one to love or to sjieak to except the Wood-wife, • 



November 6, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



73 



or spirit of thw wood, by wIioko aid iihe leanu the fi|)ell 
for the witrhV Imut, anil ho at IhmI i'i«:a|K-M alone over the 
great water to a fur inland. Here nhe. in Haved from death 
hy three maidens who are held there enslavtMl hy another 
witch, while their ])li^'hte(l lovers lire sn-kiii;; them ui»on 
the muinland ; and Hirdiiloiie, escii|iin>( fri)rn the iNhind, ' 
finds tlie three knij^hts at Inst, and hy her aid the maiileim 
are rescued. Thenceforward tlie story is of the friendship 
of these seven ; but IJirdalone's great Ix'auty brin>;« sorrow 
upon them for a while. For the Wood-wife has told her — 

My frioiul, when tliou hast u miiror, nomo of all thin ahalt 
thou HOC, but not hII ; and when thou hast a lovor sumo deal wilt 
thou hoar, but not all. Kut now tliy iihe-frioiul may toll it thee 
all, if sho liavo oyos to toe it, as hnve I ; whoroas no man could 
say so much of thee before the mere love should ovortakv him, 
unci turn his sieoch into the folly of love and the madness of 
clesiro. 

And so it comes that Hinlaione loves and is IovihI hv 
the Black .S(juire, the lover of Aim, her dear frien<l ; and 
in great sorrow she steals away from them to seek lier 
livelihood ajwrt. She jMisses, like I'na, unsentluHl through 
all adventures, though young and old .-dike cannot but 
declare their love for her ; and the joy of being so love<l, 
and the pain of not so loving in return, fills her with pity 
for herself and the world, lus she 

Ponders upon this unaiike<l gift of love 
And all the changing wonder of her life. 

After five years she is constrained by love to seek her 
friends again, but, finding they have dis[)ersed and left 
their castle in despair of living without her, she retraces 
her way back to the house of her captivity in Kvilshaw, 
whereat last her guardian spirit, the Wood-wife, contrives 
to bring the company of friends together again ; and so 
Birdalone is ha]>py at Utterhay in the love of the Block 
Squire and of Atra. 

.Such is the outline of this most charming romance ; 
but to disentangle the main story from the overgrowth of 
episode aiid description with which it is surrounded is, per- 
haps, a mistaken task ; for story and episode are here en- 
twined like threads of one web. As a whole it is more like a 
tajH\stry than a picture, both in this respect, and al.-<o in 
the abundance and, one may almost say, the insuhordin.a- 
tion of detjiil. For just as in taj)estry there is little 
heightening of a central effect by varying strength of 
light or by gradual leading of the eye to a centnil figure, 
so here there is no dramatic culmination of the story, no 
attempt to adjust tiie projiortionate value of incidents. 
Mr. >Iorris has written througiiout with a studietl unifor- 
mity of emi)ha.sis, so that the effect ujxni the ri'ader is in 
kinil the same whether he reads ten or a hundred jwiges of 
a liook in which each chapter is a miniature of the whole ; 
while the removal of an entire episode here or there would 
only diminish tlie sum of the reader's deligiit without 
discomjwsing the balance of the work. Hut the effect is 
none the less one of real and delightful beauty ; and 
although des]>ite all the comliats and escajies one's blood 
does not run faster, and though it is never impossible for 
the story's sake to lay the book aside, it does exercise a 
strong sjjcll by it.s unfailing witchery and its consistent 
and dignified lieauty of phrase and thought. There may 
be, as has Ix-en suggeste<l, an allegory lurking in this 
charming story ; and Hinlalone's journey from tlie Isle of 
Increase Unsought to the City of the Five Crafts may 
t)q')ify some sort of social progress. But if one .searches 
for the key, it should be only for the pleasure of discard- 
ing it when found. It is not for the allegory that we read 
" Comus." The true key-notes of this romance are the vivid 



•ense of beauty, and the calm melaocholv. of which the 
following |>H.•*^>age u an euiuiaite iiutaoce : 

In like wise t! 'he next tiay, ami < an i- ,>■. < .< i.ti'ie 

to a thorp in 1 fa. !» of tiie downl.unl. aii'l th.-m ih'^ 

gu<' i folk, wh:> wfjiMh " .tt th" 

hfti ' at tirst they acorx '.tir« tu 

:,<■[ until (iurard an<i hia m ua ba.l iia<l xnne 
' with thorn ; tlion iiwht-d tlwy <'X'«<|. <1 in 
kiiidnesa toward them, in thuir rough upland f.ixhK'ii, l>at ever 
found it hani t<> keep their eyea off Rirlalonc, and that the met* 
after they had hconl the full swcetneaa of her voice ; wheieaa aha 
sang to tht-m cortain song* which abe had learned in the Caatle 
of the Quest, though it nia<lo her heart aoro ; bnt she doeineil 
ahe must needs pay that kindly folk for their ^^nentful and blithe 
ways. And thereafter thov sang to the pipe ami the liarp their 
own downlaiid t^np* ; and thi« she fotiiKl straiifo : ' -aii 

bar eyes were dry wliuti iiho wan singing the fongn < : tlie 

knightbo«>d, tlio wildiicai of the shepherd-muuM: drew ihu ioar* 
from her, would the, would »hc not. llbmcliko and dc.tr seemwl 
the green willowy dale to her, and in the night eve she slept, 
and she lay quiet amidit of the poa«efal p<-oplc, she cuuld not 
choose but weep a(;ain, for pity for the bitt< r-swcet if her own 
love, and for pity of the wide world withal, aitd all the ways of 
its many folk that lay so new before her. 

It is this )••• 'irn 

awhile from it _ 't ; 

and if an allegory is to be rvad into his fancies wu ])refer 
to find it in this jiassage at the close of the story : — 

But of all those followa it was Atra that had lorg.^st de*l- 
ings with the Wood-wife ; for whiloa would r.he leave I'ttorhay 
and hor friends and fare lunosome up int" Kvilnhtw. nml finil 
Habundia and abide with her in all kindii' nth 

or more. And ever a little before these '•■•,- uhl 

she fall moo<ly and few-spoken, but the came Lack ever from the 
wood calm and kind and well-liking. 

It is with some such feelinfr of calm and rest that one 
returns to the world from ' ' her 

company of friends from th'  ••ii<i 

Isles, through the labours of the truest anil tii<- l)ays of 
Absence up to "the ahii'i"" in rttiTl.nv n 1 . i- ainl 
contentment." 



The English Black Monks of St t<-h 

of their llistiuy fi-om the Coining of the 

Present Day. By Rov. Ethelred L. T.i i VoN. 

8vo. London, 1807. John ( :o. 21/- 

The work of the historian ia not always aa«y ^  the 

diflicultios which beset hia path, that of '■•'■ hi< 

special subject to a broa<Ier view of the world ' : the 

least. To fail in keeping this due pmpvTtion la, lu reality, to 
defeat the very piirpoee of his labour : and yet one, who, so to 
spoak, has been even for a time regarding the scenes and aetorn 
of his story with a magnifying glass, frecitiently forgets their 
true dimensions and importance. At first sight the two large 
and handsome volumes, in which Mr. Taont^m tell* the story of 
" Tlie English lilaok Monka of 8t. Benedict," may seem to bo a 
case in point. Some, not particularly well »< '" wlio 

these monks are and what thny have done. 1 to 

think that the author has ^' n of 

beginners, and has drawn '. :.im- 

self has seen it undiT the t its 

real proportion in regani t' ' our- 

selves think this is the case, and we believe that those who will 
take the trouble to read those volumer, as wc have done, will 
readily acknowle<)ge the justice of the author's treatment of bis 
subject. Mr. Taunton has a story to tell that is wortli tho 
telling, and, a|>art from a little slipebod English, soma slight 
and perhaps panlonable pedantry and the moat extraordinary 
auti(>atliy he displays to following tbe ordinary are ot oi^Mtal 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 189' 



l«tt«ra. which it apt to irritate tho rmder, he manifests an an- 
Joubtni ca|>acit5 (or writing readable hiMtoiy. IndtxHl, in 
MTWral instance* we are struck with tlie akill with which ho 



nf 



a aomowhat oomplicatod story and 

' ra. 



,1 



has maatared the dataila 

t!' 'J be haa aet it 

y speaking. Mi 
thifUwn huiidiud yean), ai 

ealU it, " A SkeUh " of i. . : i 

England (roni their coining with i^t. Augustine in C'J7 to tho 
pcascnt dajr. In the c^^urso of those long centuries it would 
iiidsad be stran;{o liad thu Order not witnessed many changes and 
riciaKitadcK : l>ut not the least wonderful point in their history- is 
the extraordinary vitality which lias been displayed by the Kni:liah 
monka in ti. ";ii>», diaaator, and even of . 

OTMihrow. *. :)>er the words of tho lati 

Kewins-  works in the rustoralion of 

clTilia.^: ! i^tccs than one of the volumes 

before us ibeir iiiiicst juatilication. "Ho" (St. lienedict), ho 
aajrs, " found Uic world, physical and (social, in ruins, and his 
miaaion was to restore it in the way— not of science, but of 
natiuv ; not as if setting about to do it ; not professing to do it 
by any sot time, or by any series of strokes ; but so quietly, 
p^t -' gradually that often till the work was done it was 
n ;> be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visi- 

t--! I, or conversion . . . and then, when they 

h . f'f many years gained their peaceful viotories, 

pi ' camo and with fire and sword luidid 

t'  : toil in an hour. . . . Down in tho 

dust lay the latiour and civilization of centuries —churches, col- 
leges, cloisters, libraries — and nothing was loft to them but to 
begin all ovir again, but this they did without grudging, so 
'iilly, and tranquilly, as if it were by some law of 
•itoration camo ; and they wore like tho flowers 
• nt tn-cs wliich they roared, and which, when 
. • T.ik. Vi 1^ iiiico or remember evil, but give 
.. . s, and blossoms, perhaps in greater pro- 
 1 ;.ility, for the very reason that tho old 
In these words we have an epitome of 
•li liiaok monks ; and certainly one of the 
.; points in connexion with that history which 
i- '"^ "ut is tho fact that, though Tudor disosta- 
«ment swept tho Ilenedictinesfromtbcir old 
.'111 «as never utterly rooted out of the soil. Tlie 
present Engiisb congregation of " Black Monks "is, as our author 
shows, by a singular providenca— or shall we call it cliance ?— 
linkad in strirt rnntinuity with the old national congregation 
*''■ 'tofonnation days. At tho beginning of the 

"«• • is true, tho English branch of tho Order was 

rfluced to :i vivor, named Sigebert Buckley, a professed 

mombar of • astery of Westminster, who was then 

naturally an old man in failing health. From him the corporate 
rights nt! '■■ ■■■•'■'•rahip of that ancient fingliah monastic body 
"■a* ha: a sacred inheritance to tho present English 

Black WouK!.. i>roadly speaking, this event forms the division 
between tho two volumes : in the first Mr. Taunton rapidly, but 
nererthelea* pleasantly, paaacs in review the main facta in tho 
history of the Unglish Order up to tho close of tho sixteenth 
century ; in the sacond be deals mainly with the revived con- 
prerstt'tn srd llir rarioua re-ostablished monasteries abroad and 
'•e, aa tho Benedictines were cloioly Con- 
or a thousand years before the destruction 
Henry VIII., only tho briefest outline of 
' !• in the space available : and our author 
tho attention of his rcadt-rs to tho 
111 Uio monks rather than to th«-ir history. 
' note that in dealing with this matter onr 
rstand* what ho is talking about, and Inn 
";• hy th.ems who desire information on 
 ur personal viuws abfjut monks 
<ii and alms, we must all admit, 
upon tlia tMatinony o( indobiuble fscU, that we, as a nition, 
mucb to tJbem. Wo cannot shut our eyes to the (act, for 



v 

n.'t 

a:ri 

ill t 1 
i<.r; f i 

fl:M ;. .r. v 
«-<-r.' : . i ■!■, 
till! t'.'r.\ • ; ; 

many in* :<■ ;. 
Mr. Tauiil..: ' 
bliabment ai! 
homes, the dIu 



in f 
ni > 
of the 

their b 

wisely, we 
work and m 
Here wo cai 
aatlior*Tid 
pageaars w ' 
tlw cubjert 
and nnns, or 



thin 



the Benedictines, in all coaaeience, hare written their names 
large enough U]>on the pages of our national history. We tiiul 
them everywhere, whether it bo as missionaries, ns elmnqiions 
of tho lil>ortic8 of Church and of [leople, as upostlos of a ver- 
nocuhir literature, as our historians and our teachers, or as the 
builders of many of the mo.st sjilendid of our national monuments. 
How did they a< ill this except in virtue of thu training 

they received in I ura? We arc glad, therefore, to find in 

Mr. Taunton's ]>upers a jK>pular account of the inner life of tho 
monk, in order tliat tho world at large may understand better tho 
spirit which prompted, and which carried to a successful issue, 
many works for tho commonwealth of England of which we to- 
day have the evidence. 

The concluding chapter of the first volume contains an 
interesting and instructive account of the state of Kiiglish 
Catliolics during tho reign of KliKabcth. Here Mr. Taunton 
sliows that ho does not write in the spirit of n partisan. He by 
no means is inclined to hide and cover out of sight unpleasant 
points in that history, but distributes his criticisms boldly. The 
result is a picture not all thickly covered with " rose colour." 
Tho issue of tho bull Kegiians inExcelsUia plainly condemned as a 
mistake, and is mi^de responsible for much of the dilticultios and 
sufferings which English Catholics had subsequently to endure. 
The policy and tactics of Father Parsons, the famous Jesuit, both 
in this chapter and in many places in tho second volume, are 
chronicled and stigmatize<l us wo are glad to think one of the 
most distinguishcHl of modem English Jesuits, tho late Father 
John Moni.s, thought they ought to be ; and the intrigues and 
internal diflorences which existed among the Catholics them- 
selves are fairly and iu a straightforward manner set forth in 
these pages. 

To those who are interested in such matters the r^nituj of 
the old consuetudinary of St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury 
(contained in the Cotton MS., Faustina, c, xii.), which is 
printed in the Appendix, will form a welcome addition to the 
first volume. Wo cannot resist quoting the account given of 
the oflice of almoner. MtHlern writers have callwl attention to 
tho absence of any froijuent mention of alms in the accounts of 
the various monastic oliediontiaries and have asked |)eople to 
believe that tho alms-giving of the monasteries was a popular 
mj-th. Hatl Mr. Kirk, for example, or Dean Kitchin before 
generalizing consulted the words of this consuetudinar>-, they 
would have understoo<l that monastic alms were distributed in 
kind rather th.in in money. This is the rhnme given by Mr. 
Taunton (p. 201) :— " The Almonor. — The almoner had to visit 
the almonry two or three times a day. and seo to the distribu- 
tion of food to tho i)oor which was made daily on belialf of the 
monasterj'. He also visited the sick poor of the neighl>ourlio(>d 
and took thorn certain 'consolations,' and saw that they were 
properly provide<l with what was necessary. Anything they 
asked for was to be got if possible. Tho olmoner did not per- 
sonally visit sick women, but sent bis servants in his place." 

We have left ourselves very little space in which to speak of 
the seccmd volume of Mr. Taunton's work. It consists mainly of 
the story of the renewed English Benedictines and the esta- 
blishment of the existing miin.'kstorios. It must not be under- 
stood, however, that the interest is confined or narrowe<l to 
what many may regard as mere private concerns. There is 
much of general importanro in those pa|>cr8, oven to tho clearing 
up of some points of English history which have seemed to us 
before somewhat obscure. Chapter XIV., for example, which is 
namiMl " Dom Leander and his Mission," puts very clearly the 
relations which existe<l liotwot^ii Archbishop Laud and Father 
Ijoaiider. Tho story of the negotiations bclwoon tho then Anglicaii 
party in tho Estalili»he<l Church and the Catholic authorities for 
a renewal of relations with Homo : of tho hopes and aspirations 
of some, of tho opposition and active hostility of others to any 
scheme for the ronnion of the Churches ; of tho overwhelming 
difTicnlties and fin.il fiiiliire of the scheme, is all well told in tho 
sixty pages which form this chapter. 

The work {n fumislio<l with a full index and, apart from the 
rather numcrotu t^Tiographical errors, is ezoellently printed an<l 



November (J, 1897.] 



LITICKATUUE. 



got up. Our impreiuton v th«t Uiom who will read tbo voluniw 
will find Mr. Tniintoii'H story mure onUtrtaining than thoy might 
purhnps cxpuct fr.ini tlui tillu nf his book. 



irnny U ihm oonaoUtion of tho jiwt. U. l-'&i.oi ham '.bvi 



>u»ljr 



Hiatolre OontemiMraine : Le Mannequin d'Osler. I'ar 
Anatole Prance, <l«) rAawlL'iJiio ' Dix .s<|>ii.iin' 

Kilitioii. rnri.M, IHi/7. c • Levy. 8f. 60o. 

Tho now book of M. Anstolo Franco is hotn(( lolil and r*. 
viewed as a novel. Itn niithi>r nnnniiiirns it an " ' 
history." In roality it is iioithor tnulitii'njilly th" 
faithfully tho other. In itw niolhn<l of cn: 
in its ii\togrity nsfinishoil roaultit is a mm \ 
as well as a di'licutn oxercino in irony, and an ailiiiirabli' 
mentof modi'in Kronch litornry art. It is this, and i 
things, and nioro, b«it above all it is a nharactoristio red. 
its author's l)ric-,\-brao mind and a further juctilicatiou .., ma 
playful disillusioni/od tomiM^r. 

Nothing appears simpler than the method of itfl construc- 
tion. For some weeks, which linally grow into months, two 
columns of matter signctl by M. Anutolo Franco in tho Hi-ho <tr 
Paris rocallod every Monday morning to tho memory "f 
Parisians tho typical tribulations, tho wretched !;■ 
worries, of tho estimable M. IJorgerot, and his »iia.imodic olh 
to seek refuge in his cliissiciil studies from the c<>mmoni>hico 
annoyances of his oxistonce ;— a gentleman who, by more 
force of u constant unassuming presence, had booome mildly 
sympathetio, but at whom— and this betrays the author's 
art — any one of thoso Parisians, if he had crossed their i>ath 
in tho boulevards, wearing tho acadomio blue riband, woidd 
have shrugged an amused and Pharisaic shoulder, intending 
to designate him thus as probably oidy a poor profossnr 
of the provinces. His little circle of friends, all th^se 
provincials whom wo recognized as so delicioiisly typical 
when wo road nl>out them tirst in L'Ormr <lu Mtiil, tho Jew 
Prefect Worms-Clavolin, Abbo Uuitrie, M. do Terremondre, and 
the rest; tho coquettiah, ignorant Mnie. Pergeret.who instiillcd 
the odious wicker manne^iuin on which she trieii her toilettes in 
her poor husband's study and with its creakings cut, as by an un- 
timely civsura, tlio rhythm of tho Virgilian lines upon which he 
was engaged : the big youth M. Roux, whom poor M. Ucrgoret 
discovers with his wife inidor circumstances which it would 
lie iua*k<q\iato to describe as compromising ; all these very 
usual and, in themselves, uninteresting people M. Anatole 
Franco brought back once a week in the columns of a Paris 
daily paper to our friendly recollection. Olimpsos of what thoy 
thought about, snatches of what thoy talked about — problems of 
philosophy and of philology, tjuestions of local politics, modern 
matters of pressing social interest, depopulation, disarmament, 
tho French Revolution, tho planet Mars, and the probabilities of 
life-fermentation therein. Church and State, capital punish- 
ment, Ac. — M. Anatolo Franco revealed ami reported for us, 
the while tolling us what his interlocutors did in tho thin air of 
tlie provincial town, until they Iwcamo one of the best-' 
little comic companies introduce*! to tho appreciation lU 
of taste by any literary im/«c.«i;-io in Paris. In vivacity and 
distinction they wore inimitable, far sujicrior in these resfioetsto 
earlier creations of their author. But tho salient thing is this, 
that what M. Anatolo Franco has been doing once a week for years 
ho might continue to do, with even more felicity than M.Claretio 
is wont to display in arranging the programme of tl>o month 
at tho Comodie Frau^aise. In a word, in this easy, somewhat 
lazy way he has invented a now novel-form. He has applie«l 
tho principle adopted by Theocritus from tho mothmis of 
the plustio arts, the priaciplo, that is, of the idyll, of i' 
littU pii-ture, to tho problem of book-making iu tho n<i% 
form, and tho result is something cnkirely original as to 
method. Lot us hasten to say, however, that this invention is 
not what gives to tho Iwjok its essential distinction. That dis- 
tinction is duo partly to tho author's incomparably delicikto irony 
— a quality wilfully imitated from Renan, whose principle, that 



book roador, a bookworm. WUat, ^^ 

can do, not nieroly f<'r tasto but : i 

roault* in artistio dotaolimont, ia shown by tho .la 

i>.-, ; „ i.i'itnnU. Ho i« a scholar and a urit. •• - »t 

' ia above all an ironist, who, m m 

^Towi nior. ' :lhy<'i hi m.iBi. r, iLft 

:x<io " hi.' ■."." 



Philosophy of KnoxvlCKlire : An Inqniry Into lh» Votiim. 

............ y. 

Hvo., ciolh, 10-rl>14 pp. Ltiiidiiii, \iifi. LougUUUltt. 18/- 

of I 



sation of fc' 
in his ! 



inr against'' 'ofcwora 

tbay « ' /.ad «i- 

aUfi agatmt 

■•"% ffnmtt ot;t 

h 



knowledge " is e: m, the case is ' 

among disputed ty.L ath a bearln 

de.itiny, and the tone of the official : 
easily dotecUHl. It is undoubtedly \: 
book, though ho quite obviously writ' 
passage of this kind on the '' 
lelisra " :-'• The old-fashi. 
case was this : body and mii 
Br<> »<>rnr«t«»d by ' tho whole 



.1- 

:i0 

■y 

tu 

:!.0 

to 



the present »loctrine ot ; 

nny one look at the not' ,. ,. 

to subjects liko determinism, scepticism. «m will 

at once be perccivwl. The «■■•— ;. «- . :>, ^ 

text-book of Neo-St-holaatii- il 

philosophy of New Englaiui i.ol omv i. < t tlie 

Catholic Kcminories but is hiittorically n Liko tho 

"C  ii.«e Philosophy " of  ' ' 

the r." of tho present 1 1 

rcuctiuu towards scholasticism produced t-^ tiu> M^pUciMit > i 

liumc. 

Oui '■- " natural realism " ami " 

are not ; i to us again in so many w 

Ladd. He rather seeks to reconcile them witli what .ng 

to find hero in the opposed doctrines of idealism u... la 

For all that, they form the core of his doctrino. I'pon this are 
8uperp<>se<l ideas derived from Lotto and fr '° 'ish Hagoli- 

anism. Tho factors of feeling and will in t lun of belief 

': 111 ourselves K' . lud 

to a kind '': 'Is 

u lu tlio '>ality in ita ui < U> l>o 

::s •' the al' I.'' Many soil: •■ mado 

in tho course of tho exjKtgition, aa, for oxampie, that " tito 
problem of knowledge cannot bo properly atat<'d. much l'--<u 
satisfactorily discussed, without onceaaing reference to tho 
conclusions of a scientific psychology ; " or that " in the stihiy 
of tho epistomulogical problem, as in tho &tudy of all philo- 
sophical problems, psyr' ' * ' -" '  I a pro- 
predoutic." This is t: w. To 

•d 

;t 

liiu Very n 

eclectic n 

of <■' > ' u hich the author think 'le 

anoti c. thdu in bringing them by a j.'. .. . „'it 

under a single point of view. Indeed, if this . were effectircly 



7G 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



dune, Um book could nu longer be deaeribed m ecleotio in mnv 
dopmcUtnry aenae. 

The aathor** central poeltion ii th«t " feroeption helievee, 
end mnet bolivre, in iUelf at an indubitable experience of the 
trane-aubjectire." Thi» term, '• trana-subjfwtive," ie derived 
from the Uerman writer Volkelt, to whom Iho author give* a 
reference in firat intrcducing it. He, indeed, drawa attention 
to recent Gern«an writora en KrkmntniMiUhforif as having to 
•one extent prece<)ed him in the taak ho has undertaken ; but 
of courae the true " pioneers " in the subject are Ij<H-ke ;nd 
Kant, as he often rooogniiea in spite of the curious remark 
quoted above from the prefaee. It may be xaid of <ioiman bo<A8 
on " Kpiatemology " generally, aa IVofessor Ladd says inci- 
ilentally of another claas of critics, that thor display 
•' untiring {atienco ami tircaome irolixity," and, indeed, books 
on the " theoiy of knowledge, " eren when they are not German, 
tend tu bo too long. What is realljr to be dosirod from a writer 
on the subject is pit>ci»ion and condensation. These iiualities 
we certainly do n it find in Professtir I.i»dd'8 work. We get 
e wd leaa reatatement) of the position that " the Boi:rcos of u 
philosophy of knowledge and of a trustworthy iiiotai>hysic» also 
exist, inexhaustible, in the incontestable fact that knowledge is 
tr»ti8-«ubjective, sr.d. in its very nature, impHcnt(>s existence 
beyaotl the procas of knowledj^e ; that cognition itself 
gaaranteos the extra-mtntal being of that which, by the very 
nature i>f this process, the eognitire subject is com()ellod to 
rroognizo aa not identical with its own present state." Profeiwor 
Lddd has not the peculiar |K>wer8 that enable a writer to make 
reklly telliii- a from this or any other point of view. The 

book is we'' : and well-informed, but will hardly got 

aeiiotu atteutiuu as an original ooutribntion to thought. 



Life and Letters of Mr. Endjrmion Porter, Sometime 
Oenll«-ni;in <if tie- I{<-<li'liiuiilM'r to Kinx Chailes the Kii-st. By 
Dorothea Townshend. 8iz Portrait«. svo. 2Ui) |i|>. lyomlon, 
ld»7. Fisher Unwln. 12,- 

Tht^ i* a delightful little memoir of one of the lessor 
w the early Stuart pcriml. Endymion Porter, " that 

gi  . II of all ingenious men, especially of poets " (aa 
Anthony Wood calls bim), was bom in the year Imfoce the 
Armad* ; he was the grandson of a S|>anish lady of high rank ; 
and he received much of his early e<lucation in Sp<tin. This 
chance connection by birth and training with the great enemy of 
Kliaabath'a Merrie England marked him out under James aa a 
fit peraon to be chargc<l with mis-sions to 8|iain, when that 
country wns rather courted than fearo<l. Family influence had 
pi n a foot in the service of tho Royal favourite, the 

D' kingliam ; and hero his tact and dignified bearing 

tec r I ' !• I him to the Princo of Wales, to whose household 
he »;:.•!   II transferred. It is ni<t surj rising, therefore, that he 
WM one of the three chosen to accompany the Prince on his 
romantic journey into 8pain to seek the hand of tho Infanta. 
Miss Townshend givot a virid skctt^'h of that remarkable episode 
in ' ' y, which occupied eight months in all, though tho 

o^i niey tam Paris to< k only thirteen days. In the 

CK >'» reign Purtcr was often emjiloyed as an 

•,' :> secret niii-sions ; and, as such, he was 

*!' t suspicion by th<) popular Jiarty, who re- 

gar .f .TpHuit in disguifo. On tho outbreak of 

Iho Civil War t. jireiuly excluded from amnesty : all 

hi« priv-.t.. i«r-.s .. .„ .A;ircd, and have since remained at the 
Ktato r •< 

Till- I iLi- 1 misfortune, aa he might justly have considere<1 it, 
h.^a alone made poasible tho inaight which this book gives into 
t'l' - life of a courtier of Uio time. The series of interest- 

in ' hi* Axmowbat too high-spirite<l wife Olivia disclose 

a I'l manly, yet sensitive and affoctioMate, 

irl.. ' nde in the home circle, but feels unkind- 

noM most keenly. The Parliament must have been aorely dis- 
appointed to fini only tbeee lover-like epistles iiuteod of the 



espected evidence of treaaon ; yet to that «ditrge the lapao of 
his wife to Konianism ha<l prob.ibly given some colour. Wo 
tiiiok Miss Townshend is right in raying that Porter liiniHcIf could 
never boclainicdasa convert ; but she seems totlii'ou'iioe<1lehS'.loubt 
on the sincerity of his attachment to the Church of his fathers. 
Prj'nne's lilntl in his " ll<>mo'8 Masterpiooo " may safely be 
disregarded ; and the fact that thoro is no whisper of Porter's 
conversion in tho dreary years of his oxile seems proof positive 
against it. Tho letters of James Howell from the Fleet to 
Porter atParis (which, strango to soy, are not mentione<l in this 
memoir) at least show that the writer never BU8pecte<l his friend 
of changing his religion. Porter was a connoisseur in art, and 
wns employed in buying pictures for tho King ; while in 
literature his chief merit lay in acting as Miecenas in a modest 
waytoneodier bardsthan hiini-elf. Homck, in tho '* Uosjeridcs," 
luts five poems addressed to Endymion, one of which, on a 
Country Life, is worthy of comparison with the famous E|xide 
of Horace. 

There are very few slijis, either by authoress or printer, in 
this brightly written volume. If wo point out one or two, it is 
with tho frank admission that Miss Townshend has in general 
made a caicfu) and intelligent ufo of rather scanty materials. 
The father-in-law of Porter's eldest 8( n is said in the po<ligreo 
to have been the Eorl of Ihistol, in tho text to huvo been tho 
Earl of Norwich — tho latter being correct, though not precisely 
so, for Lord Goring was not raiseil tu an Earldom till some years 
after tho marriage. In the Appendix is printed a letter from a 
Richard " Groville," grandson of Endymion, whoso mother is 
Bup|x>8od by Miss Townshend to have been born to " the 
Porters " in the early days oi their union, and to have married 
into tho family of their ol«l friends, tho Grovilles of Gloucester- 
shire. Yot, in a note to [>. 2:58, this daughter is more correctly 
called " Mrs. Grenvillo ''-a different name ; and if Endymion 
married Olivia as stated, about ICIO, he must then have been a 
widower with at least one child. For in tho State PoiKjrs (1630) 
there is a letter of March 16 from Sir liarnard Grenville, of 
Tresmcre, in Cornwall to "his father-in-law Endymion Porter," 
in which he expresses "hia strong filial regard to him and to the 
writer's honourable mother, with alfoction to his protty 
brothers, Ac." Another letter, six months earlier, from the 
same person, who held the Lieutenancy of his county, alludes to 
Porter as " his father." This is fairly strong proof of an earlier 
marriage ; pwrhaps there are existing rocords of the Gronvillu 
family which would give further details. 



Beginning's of the English Church and Kingdom, 
Expliiined to the People. IJy Thomas Moore, M.A., Rector 
of St. Michael Put<»rnoster Royal, lyonddii. Cr. Hvo., ai2 pp. 
I»ndun, 18U7, Skefflngton. 6- 

The Church of England before the Reformation. 
By the Rev. Dyson Hague, M.A., Rector of St. Paul's 
Church, Ilalifiix, Nova Scotia. Cr. Svo., .'BKI ])p. l><ind>>n, 
1807. Hodder ic Stoughton. 7 6 

Two moro hooka on a topic which has occupied so large a 
place in recent literature, and which is at tho present moment 
being treate<l in an exhaustive and popular style by Dean 
•StubliH, would Mtom to rejuire some apohgy ; and it is cer- 
tainly doubtful whothor tho frankly controversial character of 
both of them will holp to justify their publication to tho minds 
of those who think that a candid and impartial inquiry is far 
more noeded at the present moment than any special pleading 
or militant advocacy. Mr. Mr>ore, however, has some excuse 
for reverting to tho useful task he undertook in his " English- 
man's brief on behalf of his National Church." It was, of 
course, a partisan publication ; but tho jiolitician or the 
student, to whatever religious donomination he may Iwlong, 
who really desires that the eleotorate should understand tho 
questions it is calle<l upon to doiuilo, could not fail to welcome 
a popular exposure of certain fallacies current about the history 



November G, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



77 



•of the Church. Tho bolief that tho BUhopa «r* pftid out of tb« 

taxu8, ami tliat tlio Statti ftt Noinu imloiinito p«rind Mlact«<I on* 
irom A iiuiiibur of rtili^'ioun lucts and " tMUl)litha<l " it, ha* 
Huuh KZtruordiiiary vitility that it i* worth whilu from time t<> 
time to havu it cluarty ex]ilmliHl ; and it in bott«r that thi* 
ah<iul<l be done by an Anf^lican pnrtiian than not at 
all. Tho Auguatinu ctilobrntion of thin year airortU a con- 
venient i>])|M>rtanity for riH-iirring to tho aubjuct. Mr. Moore, 
who dodiuatu* IiIh book to thu niomorio* of v 
and Kthull>i>rt, doc.^ not dinplay much profound 
but ho stati'.t his cnso c-loiirly and modurattOy, and ailopta 
the UHoful plan of discusaing atiparatvly thu main factH 
und most rnu'ial points in the hintory rnthor than giring 
.thorn in a continuous narrative. Hu ia |wrftu'tly right in giving 
references to " works of acknoivledged authority " in his table 
of contuntH, but we should havo proferrod to auo his own 
various publications leas frc pioiitly meiitionud among theae 
authoritative sources of informntion. Mr. Dyaon Iluguo has in 
viHW a very difforont type of adver.aary from tliu Nonci>nfornii-it 
politician or tho lin<lical working man. The whole body of 
modern Church historians form tho vanguanl of tho army 
against whom ho levels his artillery. They aro all of thrm, ho 
thinks, carried away by a passion for tho " hiatoricol con- 
■tinuity " theory. His own position is that, oven from tho 
-earliest Kritiah period, tho Church in England was taint«<l with 
iinacriptural errors ; that the do:;trinal reformation Iwgun by 
Wyclitt'o was not completed untd long after tho rejection of 
Papal supremacy by Henry VIII., and that this iloctrinal and 
spiritual regeneration it ia which compels us to spt-ak of the 
creation of a now Church in tho IGth century. If tho contro- 
versy can l>o considered to liavo any practical value, there is 
Anidoubtodly room for this lucid and acute statement ef tho 
Kvangulical position, revealing clearly both itd strength and its 
'Weakness, iiut how largely this venerable disputv is <mo of 
words may bo gathered from tho following admissions in Mr. 
ilttguo's tirst chapter: — 

That the Church of Eng1an<l ia one, and ancient. That the 
•Church of England of to-ilav is tho same body corporate as tho 
Church in England, if not tlie (.'hurch of England, many cen- 
turies ago. 'lliat the vicissitudes of several stormy centuries 
have not altered in any great degree hor constitution, it changed 
her ancient nomo. 'f'hat the Church of England was in a real 
aenso an independent Churcti centuries before Rome's tigmont 
of univerital bishopric was heard of. All this must lie heartily 
admitted. These are facts, and facts cannot be withstood. 

it is interesting to note that Mr. Hague, who is un(|uoationably 
an able and sincere divine, is a Canadian Churchman, who has, 
4ie tolls us, " as a Cana«iian the pride of a citizen of the Empire, 
and aa a Churchman the loyalty of a member of the Church of 
England." 



Chinese Oharacteristics. Hy Arthur H. Smith, 
twenty-two yeai-s a .Missionary of the .Vnierican Iloanl in 
<'hina. Popidar Edition, revised, with Ilhi.strations. .Svojin.. 
':M2pp. Kdiiilnu'gh and I.<>ndon, 18U7. Ollphant. 6- 

The Gist of Japan : The Islands, the People, and Mi.s.sion.<). 
.By the Rev. R. B. Peery, A.M., Ph.D., of tho Lutheran .Mis- 
sion, Saga, Japan. AVitli Illustrations. Sx.'iiin., HI" pp. 
Edinburgh and Ixuulon, 1807. Ollphant. 6 - 

Both these books aro by miaaionaries who have lived and 
moved among tho |>cople of whom they write. .Mthough only 
prepan<<l originally, as Mr. Smith tells us in his introduction, 
for tho S'orth China /Mi/;/ iVrir,< of Shan;»hai, with no reference 
to any wider circulation, the aeries of miisterly easaya embodied 
in " Chinese Characteristics "' has deservedly achieTe<l for itaeU 
a position among tho stamlard works india|>enaable to every 
atudent of the Far East. They posaeas the unimpeachable accn- 
racy of photography, but they are something more tlian photo- 
graphs ; they are living picturea, into which the artist haa 
"thrown the vigour of his own shrewd ami active mind. There 
Are two Clicks upon one or other of which those who ahoald be in 
tBany ways beat fitto<l to reveal to us tho true inwardness of 



OhinM* lif* aro u; - . t. The W— tar n mind to dtlwr Atttm 

into aggrtMlvo intoUootual antagonism by Um p«rp*taal invsr- 

• ii.ii of all our own idaaa anil iiutincta aiMl OMthoda which 

life prea«nt«,or— aiHl, eurioiuly eoongh, thia ■••(at to Iw 



•nciunt an<' 
elaar both oi 
■aaa. and th. : 



-^imba t*) lh« ttr-. 
ontanratiam. 



draw hi« onn c 
which rouat lio 
•tt«impt to argue i 



■^rU 



' - -illation of ita 

• haa sta^ r a i l 

He aimj'iy i.-jxirta what bo 

< ' t <■• which can haw aaaap*)! 

• yaM«' 
•■ailvr to 
1 lu tbs qi w il i iiiw 
, > art, h« doaa net 

He dooa not oven " aaaum* that Urn 
Chinese need Lhristianity, but if it appears that th'T.. n 
defects in their character, it ia a fair qneation how - 
may l>e remo<lie<l." The pr*a«iit o<lition ia a rupubix.iii'n in a 
popidar and revised form. 

" Tho Gist of Japan" in written for a natrowar circU of 
reatlors. Mr. Poory gives a alight but lytnpathAttA akat^h of the 
history and I'oople of Japan. 'I' "Inctory 

to thi- nil I nrp>-<o of \:\^ Ix-l: . growth 

an ' >'  ; ' in Japan, sihI to 

set  > • I . -t Ml tti, 4^ of evangelization. 

Hu himself la a member of the Lutheran Mission, to which be 
naturally believes that " special work " haa been altott«^d hy 
Providence. There ia much in what he aays to which all who 
believe in the civilizing and elevating influence of Christianity 
will yield a ready assent. But hia point of view la apt to be 
nar: torian, an ' by riral 

de: :is more c: |ireciate 

thu tlevutud assistance that i'rutuatiint laiMioiuriuii rot^^oive from 
their wives, and thu valuable influence of tho Chriitian horn* 
which they set up in foreign lands aa an example of what 
Christian family life should be ; but in view of tho testimony 
which Mr. Peery is compelled to render to the oucoesa of the 
Koman Catliolic Missions, and eao- "-i^H^- "f their ministrationa to 
the helpless and inHrm. hia ci>i n of celibory a{>poars 

somewhat sweeping. Could man k.i iiii-^ionariea, lor instanoe, 
devote thomsolves to the earo of lepora aa do the prieeta 
of the Cathtdic leper hospital, which Japaiieee aulTerw*, 
we are told, much prefer to tho Ooverninont hospital for leper* T 
Mr. Peery lays it down that thu v • -.oat be 

aggressive, and that his [><>sitlon ah '-no of 

offence and not of defence. But hi" be 

ehiotly doctrinal. At any rate, we the 

equipment uf tho miaaionary's honae with \\ eetem tumilnre, 
hooka, mnaic, papers, &c., and the provision of tho misaiooarjr 
him.stdf with tho attractions of a liberal aalary, anmmer 
vacations in the hills, ami regular furloughs, would hare 
0ccupie«l quite so prominent a place in a handbook for mia- 
sionariea wri' . by Francis Xavier. Vet thi* Apoetle of 

Japen waa a > of an undeniably aggreaeive type ; bat, 

perhaps, he lookwl upon missionary aork as a rocation and not 
as a profession. 



Shakspeare Puritan and Recusant. T. 

Carter. With a Prefatory Note by tli- Hev. P .Id 

Dykes. D.D. 7jx5^in.,'2L<8 pp. London, 1>«7. OUpbant. &« 

The subject of this volume is not, of course, William 
Shakespeare, but hia father John, who owo» to the r"fl»>»-t«vl fame 
of hia aon a share of attention f n- 

ture quite as large oa that t>. > ho 

have won reputations by their own ter 

undertakee to np««>t two more •>!■ ' >n« 

about John Shakeapi>are. At th' the centurr a Mr. 

Charles Butler undert<x>k to sh...< i..u>. .m< ^^ eat dramatist wa» 
r«are<l in a Roman Catholic home, ami though this theory 
cannot be said to have received any general acceptance, it haa 
become very popular among some Shakeapearian echolara. A much 
more generally received belief about the elder Shakeapeare, and 
one foiuwled upon what, on the face of it, appear* to be grod 



rs 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



•viUotu-v, >• Uwt aboat Um yaar 1677 h» Ml into financial diffi- 
anlti— The aignanonts hers addt !i8t thu Utur l>vliof 

■n ecrtainlyingeniooa and mora coil ^ hnn tliosoeiiii>loye<l 

ftoMteblish the proposition that ho was, what Mr. Carter calls 
bim by a slight antici]iation in th« devvlo]nicnt of ecclesiastical 
tanninolo^y, a ivalous '• Turitan." It haa undoubtedly been 
too baaitiy aMuoMd that tho faot of a keen business man, 
fond of litigktion, being rtrliureduf atas, owning to" no oifects," 
ag allegad to be in fear of process for debt, jirores him to be 
a«taiallydaatituteof ineans. Put. biiefly. the theory here advanced 
ia that the explanation of Juli - are's parting with thu 

8nitt«rfield^ and Wilnic-Ue i is to be found in thu 

following pMMgw from the Lansduwau 31SS. " The Uecu8ant8 
«eiiTey all their lands and go<vls to friends of thoir's l>cforo thoir 
conrictions and are relieved by those that have the same lands," 
and that Whit|rift'a persecution of the I'uritans coincides in time 
with John Shakespeare's pecuniary troubles. There are certainly 
stnng reasons for thinking that either through himself or his 
, and either directly or indirectly, John Shakespeare was in 
sion of substantial resources during most of the perioil in 
wbiefa the documentary records present him to us as a poor man. 
But the anggestion that he was an "advanced Protestant,'' 
tboagh, as Dr. U»wald Dykes says, it would be " no less natural 
thanweleomo " to a certain class of readers, involves a good deal 
more hypothesis. His prosecution of Perrot and his inclusion 
in Sir 'I'homas Lucy's Recusancy return do not go very far to 
prove it ; and still less does his share in the Protestant renova- 
tion of the Guild Chapel, in which he was commercially inte- 
nsteiL Mr. Carter produces some reasons against John Shako- 
•peare's Romanism, but none to show that he was an earnestly 
religious " Puritin.'' Shakespeare, of course, shows great fami- 
liarity with the Bible— a fact which may have contributed to the 
■occws of his plays— and this the Puritan theory is intended to 
explain. Bat allowance must be made for other influences — for 
what he would team at school, for the saci-ed plays from which 
bo would glean knowledge of Biblo characters, and for tho 
aridity with which a youth of so intelligent a mind would 
devour the Genevan bible, if he got hold of it. And, after all, 
tbe discussion has not much bearing on the plays, for contro- 
vwsialista on both sides admit that the dramatist throws the 
amalleet possible light on the religious features of the time, and 
reveals no personal predilection for either Puritan or Papist. 



The Romance of the Irish Sta^e, with Pictures of the 
Irish CapiUil in the ISth Century. By J. Fitzgerald MoUoy. 
Two VoluMie^. with Portraits. Cniwii Svo., ."iiil pj). I^>nd(>n, 
ia97. Downey. 21,- 

Mr. .Molloy's volumes are fairly entortaininp if taken in 
amall <l(>«e<i, thoiicrh tho title is not ult-igether justified. What 
bo doe," in idea — a goo<l idea on the whole, though 

his bai> ns in sketching in details — of the superficial 

life of Lhibiin throughout the last century. He pays special 
attention to tho stage, it is true, and industriously chronicles 
much small beer of openings and closings and first appearances 
and benefit nights with some small history of all the note<l por- 
fonners who trod its boards; but tho romantic element is a little 
tOMok. The story of Sheridan ' '» with the young bloo<l8 

who made tbemsolvcs so or !o in his theatre and 

of tboir final discomfiture is an g<>u<l as anything in tho book. 
This was, of course, tho father of Hichard Hrinsloy, and 
though ho was less of an eccentric (and less of a genius too) 
than either his own father or bis famous son ho is an interesting 
figure. What with his ill. luck and his stubborn temper the 
follow was constantly at loggerheads with somebody, and no 
•oooer had he roate«l the hlocds than he succeodetl by ill- 
adviaed actions in incensing the theatre-going public to such an 
that they wrecke<l his playhouse. However, ho soon 
his peace with them, and - ] 

oooogb until ho found lecturing i : . 

ooenpotion. There are plenty of good hi<>ries in Uie volumes 
both about him and about many of his fellow-players. This ot 



Macklin illostrates happily the friendly relations which pre- 
vailed between actor and audience in the old days :— 

His acting was distinguished by three pauses, each longer 
than the other, according to tliu dignified irnproHKion he souglit 
to convoy, the last being styled his grand pause. One night 
when ho hotl arrived at this ])oint of his performance, thi- 
prompter imagined ho had forgotten his words, iind accordingly 
whiMt>ere<l them. As no notice was taken of this, he again 
and in a louder tone suggested tho words, when Macklin rushed 
across tho stage and kniK;ke<I him down ; then returning, he told 
the audience " thu fellow interrupted mo in my gruiid pause," 
and contioue<l his part. 

Another is a now ond amusing variant upon a well-known 
theme : — 

One evening when Mossop was playing Lear to a brilliant 
house, lighted by wax, as was the custom when Shakesjiearo was 
produced, Usher represented the Duke of K^-nt. All went well 
until tho scene where the stricken monarch is supjiorted by this 
faithful subject, when the latter took tho opportunity of whisper- 
ing to his Majesty, " If you don't give me your honour, sir, 
that you'll jmy me my ari-e'ars this night before I go homo, I'll 
lot yon drop about tho boards." Alarmed at tliis, tho king 
muttered, " Don't talk to me now." " I will," persisted Usher, 
" I will let you <lrop," on which King Lear .proniiseil to pay tho 
duke, and kept his word. 

Two charming autogravures after the portraits by Reynolds and 
Romney of Mrs. Aliington and Mrs. Jordan considerably enhancl^ 
the value of tho book. 



A Primer of Wordsworth with a Critical Essay. By 
Laurie Magnus, B.A.Oxon., formerly Dc^my of Mag- 



dalen. "jfxSiin., 227 pp. lyondon, 1S(>7 



Methuen. 2 6 



It is much to the credit of Mr. Magnus that, though a young 
writer, he is perfectly simple and unaffected alike in thought 
and style. There is in this book no tendency to represent 
Wordsworth as a poetic Allah and Magnus as his jirophet. 
Neither is there in expression any straining after long-druwn-out 
harmonies. Tho style is, on the contrary, somewhat bare. But^ 
rich as Mr. Magnus is in " saving common sense," he has not 
altogether avoided youthful faults of another kind. With a littlo- 
more experience he will learn to remove such marks of tho Uni- 
versity Extension chisel as the phrase, " I would refer you to" 8<v 
and so. He will probably avoid such a word as " unclear," 
applied to the characterization of a poem, and he will certainly shui» 
such a slang term as " scamped," which occurs on page 61*. 
Neither will his emotion Ix) one of pride when ho looks back 
upon a sentence like this : — 

" And Wordsworth, torn between his strength of principle 
on the side of Beaupuy and his strength of sorrow for tho 
Girondist victims, the women among whom were permitted 
that lost and only privilege of frewlom, held, too, by nativo 
loyalty to England, saw her join the coalition against Franco- 
with feelings of deepest onguish." 

But these are trifles ; and, in spito of some more serion* 
faults, this unpretending little l)o<ik will bo more helpful to the 
student of Wordsworth than many a more ambitious critical 
performance. To write a good primer of anything is far from 
being an easy task ; bnt Mr. Magnus has all the chief require- 
ments—full knowledge, patient industry, and sound method. 
It will not l>o ca.sy to find elsewhere, within equal compass, so 
much solid information alviut Wonlsworth. A great deal of it 
is meant, as tho title of tho book suggests, for the tyro in 
Wordsworthian lore : but thero is also much that the ripo 
student of the poet will welcome— many HUggostivo criticisms, 
many helpful collo<'ations, somo interesting comi)ariHonH. It is 
divido<l into six chapters. Tho firHt deals briefly, but not 
inadoquatoly, with the life of Wordsworth. Tho next four take 
up in succession the longer {joems, tho shorter (loems, the tourH 
and sonnets, and the prose works. Chapter VI., jrerhaps tho 
least satisfactory of all, is devoted to a critical essay. There is 
also, in an - ' a short but useful bibliography. 

Wo ha\< rizcd tho stylo as somewhat bare, and havo 

instance<l a few of its faults. But against occasional poverty 
of language there must be put such racy expressions as a " Blue- 



NoVw>mher 6, 18D7.] 



LITEHATLEE. 



79 



book on tlie ontiiaiico ■urvoy of PaniAuua," applied to % 
poiMago from Wordnworth'b profaco to tho " Exoumion. " Wo miuit 
also count for virtiiu tho Imhl jiulginont tliat " tho rou(;h eilcca of 
' Putor ISt'll ' aro iniich Iokh otTeiiMivo in art than tho ovor-retino- 
nient of ' Enooli Anion' or thu 'May Qiieon, ' " ThU niay or : 
not be critically Houni), but tho man who write* mi t« <in« 
thinks for hinisolf, and who han tl: : »!! 

othorH ino»t likuly to niako a nl\u ire. 

And lioro wo come upon thu most vita Mr. 

Mn;;nus'8 criticism. It in thnughtfulu' h. i the 

Iihilci.sophors with profit, and ho treats Wordsworth throughout 
ua a i>oot who is aUo a thinker. I'orhaiHi ho dn«ii ho even to 
«xces8, and trusts too much tn this criticism of tho intolloct aa 
.against tho criticism of fcolini;. Thus, his remarks on the 
gi-oat " Odo on Intimations of Immortality " have nuich that is 
sounil, and havo at least some support fmrn tho jud^mont of 
critics so proat as Matthew Arnold ond Walter i'ator. Hut may 
we not imogino Wonlsworth in Klysium turning all this with the 
-quiet remark that " ho know it, and it did not matter ?" Tho 
ohild i.i not the clorious creature Wordsworth dupicto<], but 
then " out of thu mouths of balms and sucklings " are we 
taught wisdom, not by reason of the wisdom that is in them, 
but of that which wo road into then\. Moreover, it is true, 
though strangu. that in ]>ootry a man may, tumttimts, " for 
ia trioksy word " almost " dofy tho matter." One groat tost of 
the pootic gift is to know whun and whore and how. 

Again, Mr. Magnus's conviction tliot tho ponius of Words- 
worth was given to " tho search for liberty, and its experiment 
in democracy," seems to lead him into eiTor. (juidod by it he 
tinds in 17i>0, when '' ho changed from the pioneer of revolution 
to tho prophet of freedom," tho groat division of Wordsworth's 
life. IJut what about the year 1808, when his " golden decade " 
ended ? Surely tho turning point, for bettor or for worse, in a 
poet's poetry is the true tuniing-point in his life. Tho same 
spirit loads Mr. Magims to nuike Tennyson as well as Words- 
worth a poot " of tho democratic ideal " — not, apparently, 
without an uneasy sonso of di>ubt, for ho refers to Tennyson 
jis disguising this spirit " by an innate aristocracy of heart." 
This is nearer the truth. Tennyson is not really a democratic 
poet, and .scores of Doras and Enoch Ardons would not make 
liim one. And in Wonlsworth, too, there is "'an innate aris- 
tocracy of heart, " though it shows itself in a difi'erent way. 
iMatthow Arnold wrote of him long ago that — 

" Wordsworth's eyes avert their ken 

" From half of Iniman fatd :" 
and this abstraction from so large a share of men's interests is 
haixlly consistent with such devotion to tho " democratic ideal " 
.as Mr. Magnus ascribes ti) Wordsworth, 
these wo differ from Mr. Magnus ; but wo 
little book as a valuable contribution 
Jitorature. 



In such points as 
gladly welcome his 
to Wortlsworthian 



LEGAL. 



The Law of Mines, Quarries, and Minerals. I)y 
Bobert Forster Mac Swinney, M.A., Hnrrisicr-iit-I-rtw. 
iJiid txlitiun. liy tho Author, nssistctl by L. S. Bristowe, .M.A., 
iJarrister-at-Liiw. London, 1S97. 

Sweet and Maxwell, Ltd. £2 

The first eilition of this work uppoanxl in 1S.H4. Since that 
tlato, its subject matter has been ulloi'li'd by quite a unique 
mass of statutes and by very numerous docisions. The Trustee 
Acts, 1S0:5 and IS'.U, havo replaced tho provisioiv outirma- 

tion of Sali'S Act ompoworing trustees and n\ to sell 

mines si'porately from tho rest of tho land. Tiio ( ' ' \ot, 

18W, ha.-) ropliicod similar provisions in tho old Enf: nt 

•Vets. Tho Settled Land .Vet, 1890, has oxtonded tlu' j...„,,»of 
limited owners as to tho reservation of rents. A special low 
with reference to brine-pumping has Imhju introduce<l by the 
Brino I'umping (Compensation for Subsideiiee) .\ot, IX'M. Tho 
jurisdiction of the Vico-Worden of tho Stannaries, after  woll- 
ineant effort on the part of the Legislature in 1887 to maintain 
it, has been transferred by the Stannaries Court (Abolition) Act, 



{H'l i<le ruM of 

of II tn utmrn 

lta((ul*- 

.which, 
l^tttii 



m>> 
ba 



1 tti< 



>>«• pot 



Hav, 



•y 



r. 

•• io« 

i^ " in- 

Ih th« 

reaalt 

lOixl in 

ley 

h 

'ho 
•a 
is 

. . etna 



to I 

for 

Tlio lull, 
bo not«<l. T: 
written, and . 
to all tho ret 



to do 



i.-r-.ir-l. 



mil 

lo«I^'- - 1 > -  - •■ 

Bristowe. 

Hunter's Roman Law. A S 

KxiMiNition of UoMi.'in I^iwinthoo 
Hunter, M. A., LL.D., Hnnist4T.flt-I. 
tiito.t of (iiiius and Institutrai of J 
KnKli.-4h by J- Ashton Cm 
Kcvi.si.Hl iiiid enlarged, lioi 

.bwri. I and Maxv. 
In spite of the larse n:" .« . " of f>oi>u: 
Hunter's "Iv 
publication o: 
the " pr:i'-t:i . 
striking « i: • 
merits • • • 
the leg.! 
the reci 
and in c> 
that has 
attempt to r<' 
the student t 

will require to have : ailii;irai 

such portions of tho tr liow how 

auUiority of t! -' 
the subject t\- 

and no W i w.n i m.-i.-ii i ■: 

gent ap; 'f Mr. I  

iierusal  ••••'Mrtioi. , 

iut, ni't these qur. 

Latr " 1 , tlian aii\ 

of to take the place now i   
— of Coke on Littleton in V 
law. It only remains to bo 
for the benefit of tlioso who 
plan and contents of the Wo 
much of Justinian as is 
modern law, that the te 
by 5Ir. .Vshton Cross- 
text of Gains, and that m 
concise sketch of thu ezt< 



away with a diaiiuctiou 



Id 

\.'t r»- 

^•« 

'U, 

t-d 

of 

ikI 
«•- 

1 HisforSral 
HyW. A. 

' -li- 

to 

.iiiion. 

' 32- 

Mr. 



■nt 

,,f 



lal 

oiukbia 
'■> : ha 

va 

of 



the ciiapter on po isesg ion haa b< 
indexes to the work are logical : 



■>e by a preliminary 

rr..>n t))u came pan. 

s '• Bonaa 

are awara 

..f 

t. 

:iu 

«o 

f 

' ueii ;ran.siated 

-eosary, hy tba 

!>y a clear and 

\n lav br Mr. 

..... iho mistake of 

ochuical phrases faj doubtfol 

. nearaiioe of Us* first edition, 

"n and enlarged ; tka 

I 1 i»tive. 



80 



LITERATURE, 



[November 6, 1897. 



Hnioncj msi 3Soo\\Q, 



UGLINESS IN FICTION. 

Novel rewlera liRve eM.'aped from the sex novel with a 
■mse of relief and were hepinninp to hoi)e that fiction wa.s 
rptumin^; to the ilecencies of life when the slum novel 
appears and fills us with despair. For the majority of ushard- 
wn'  n (and women), toilinj; considerahlj' more than 

fi^ > a day in various professions and businesses, 

fiction is an appreciable relief and reinforcement. An 
hoar with a well-written novel when the work of the day 
is done — say at 10 i).m., if we be fortunate — consoles one 
for a long sjx'll of care and drudgery. As a class, we are 
not unn>asonabIe nor exacting ; we do not complain that 
no " Henry Esmond" nor " Heart of Midlothian " is to be 
heard of anywhere, but are unaffectedly grateful for 
a tale which is interesting and well-written. If the 
author lx» able to move us to tears or laughter after an 
hone«t manly fashion or to set us a-thinking on the pro- 
blems of society, or to brace us to do our duty better, or 
to waken us up by a good adventure story, then our hearts 
grow warm to the man and we rouse ourselves from arm- 
chairs to acknowledge our debt and afterwards bum the 
letter as becomes self-res{)ecting Englishmen who are 
more ashamed of emotion than of anj'thing else under the 
can. Nor are we really squeamish and j»rudish, some of 
us having liad occasion to know almost as much of life as a 
woman novelist, but let us confess that we would prefer to 
keep (fairly) good comjwiny in our hours of rest. We are 
perfectly aware that jieojde swear and do other things 
which are worse, but without being Pliarisees we distinctly 
object to books wliich swear on every Jiage and do the other 
things on the Jiage between being our comj«nions for the 
hoar when the lamp is lit and the streets are quiet. It may 
be our narrowness and we are prepared to hear that we 
are Philistines and destitute of the very beginnings of 
culture if we are rather sick of a certain monotonous 
adjective and the other things. We condonp<l oaths in 
Thackeray because it was the custom of very agreeable 
people to sw»>ar then, but it is only the custom of very 
disagreeable j)eople now, and while some of us in various 
walks of life have to endun' such people at times we do 
not lianker after their unnecessary and voluntary com- 
]«ny. 

This deplorable disability to appreciate a highly- 
flavoured IxKjk does not blind one to its fretjuent force 
and jiartial veracity. It deals, let it be granted, with 
elemental facts of savage life at home and at first hand. 
The autlior has heard with his own ears and not 
another's, and lias seen with his omiti eyes, and whatsoever 
be lias iu>ard and seen he has written, or if there Ik? some 
thingit kejit hark they are only such as could not be legally 
pot into jirint One muj>t also, as a rule, acknowledge 
with admiration the dramatic s«'nse of the author who 
recogniz'-s a situation at a glance, and his artistic 
•kill who presents it with a firm touch. It is the sub- 
«Uoce not the workmanship which offends and reftels. 



Very likely the subject is a chapter in the life either of a 
coster girl or a street arul>, wliich is sometimes disgusting, 
sometimes immoral, and always unpleasant. Perhaps there 
is a minute description of a bunk holiday excursion, wliere 
lovers drink incrtnlible (juiintities of Immt, and eat like 
ravenous beasts. There will almost cert^iinly be a fight 
between twowomen.with full details, and if there be a death- 
scene the mother will discuss with a ncighlwur whether 
the coffin should be " helm " or " hoak " while her 
daughter lies a-dying. and relate with gusto how the coffin 
lid was at last fastened down on her huslwrnd's liody, whose' 
droj)8y had made him an inconvenient weight, by the 
simi)le expedient of the widow's weight Ix-ing added to- 
that of two undertakers. One breathes throughout an at- 
mosphere of filth, s(}ualor, profanity, and indecency, and is 
seized with moral nausea. Tliere are such things as drains, 
and sometimes they may have to l)e opened, but one would 
not for choice have one oi)ened in his library. 

When one asks why this kind of book should l)e written,, 
and, let us suppose, by an autlior of |)Ower — did not Kud- 
yard Kipling turn aside to write Badalia Hermlsfoot and' 
thereby incur a considerable paternal resiwnsibility ? — it 
will doubtless l)e replied, because it is true and it is- 
desirable that fteople should know the truth. If costers or 
any other i)eople are living; after a bestial fashion, then 
this ought to be known to all whom it may concern. 
Which means that such liooks are really semi-philan- 
thropic and are novels with a puqx)se, falling into the 
class of " Nicholas Nickleby " and " Never too Late to 
Mend." This leaves the question of their art untouchedr 
but it vindicates their intention, and so at the worst the 
slum novel is only a mistake. It is, however, a very- 
distinct mistake. For one thing the i)eoj)le who are 
to be addressed would be far more likely to be imjiressedwere- 
the life of this under-world stated in tenns of fact and not 
tricked out as fiction. Besides, it is inii)ossible that this 
can be the whole life of the East-end — this Inferno of vice 
and violence. Is there no ])urity. no lov'alty, no kindliness 
among these people ? It is incredible that they should all 
be ruffians and loose women ; and, therefore, it is certain 
that one side of life is ignore<l ; and, if this be so, the de- 
scription is disproiwrtionate and unreliable. The writM 
has seen only such things as he proposed to see ; they 
could not, of course, be the things he wished to see ; 
and, instead of being realistic, his book is an inverted 
idealism in which — manipulating facts according to 
his mind — the author presents what is morally ugly as 
another idealist would present what is morally beautiful. 
Possibly the author may repudiate any jmqwse and may 
content himself with pleading the compulsion of his art. 
This Hfe exists, as a matter of fact, and it has a))iK'aled 
to his literary sense ; it is a subject and he has rein-esented 
what he has seen. As a jMvinter takes a black sullen 
jKXjl so a novelist has chosen this sink of human life — 
this is his mitier, and nothing remains to Ixs said. It is 
his form of jul and has to be judged by the rules of art. 
If so, a question at once occurs to the simple reader, and 
he would be greatly obliged by an answer. Is the rej)re- 
sentation of moral ugliness really artistic ? As one under- 



November G, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



81 



stanfls it the chief end of, Hay, Hculpttire in to creat** in 
marble llmt idea of iihyHJcal beatity which Iiph in the hack- 
ground of the mind; and while HufTering may \m inclwled in 
thelH-aiitiful.BH for inHtance inthe Dyin^tJhuliator, or much 
of MichelangeloV work, no i*culi>t»>rof tlie tirxt order ha* net 
himself to emlxxly in marble hidoouii deformity. Paintem 
have not nhrunk from crucilixionH, but they have not chown 
leprosy, although the !<ilv»r sheen had lent itM'if well to 
tn-atnient, nor a surgical ojH>ration, although the blood 
— well ont^ need not press that jxiint. Why is a humj*- 
bnck or a h'lH'r inadmissible? IJecause they are the 
violation of the law of things ; they are imixrfection and 
disease. Why should the artist in life forsaki" the quest 
of the jx'rfect and the lH'autiful,wrought out often through 
jwverty and agony, and s[)end his skill on what ifl loath- 
some and disgusting ? Is he not also iKUind to theM'r%ice 
of the ideal, and is it not his function to Hing out U-fon" 
U8 that model of high character and living which we all 
have iina^ned, after which we all strive, but which we 
cannot express ; or is it that the canon of U'auty which 
gxiides the sculptor and the jMiinter ha« no authority over 
the novelist, and he alone of artists has the liberty of 

dt'forniit V ? 

IAN MAC" LAKEN. 



FICTION. 



Oaptalns Courageous. By Rudyard Kipling. TJx.'iin., 
S43 pp. London, 1H07. MacmlUan. 6 - 

Tho oxtomal apix<aranoo of " C'siptains Ctiunigcous," with it* 
bright bluo binding, tfdt odgea, iind inspiring wundcuts, suggust« 
the iilL'a that Mr. Kipling hiia written a Im\v8' book. And so ho 
has ; only, like '• llobinson Cruso*;," " Troasiiro Island," and 
one or two otlivr tirst-rato books of adventure, it will give almost 
as mucli pleasure to grown-iip people as to boys. Whether 
ladies will approve the educational process that Mr. Kipling 
sooms to roconunend may be doubt<.Hl ; but it is certain that 
Disko Troop's school, in which young Horvey Choyne was the 
only pupil, atTords an admirable training for the sons of 
millionnaires. The story is ipiito simple, and is agreeably 
frofi from shipwrecks, cannibals, and other horrors that 
one expects and exjicrienccs, in a literary way, with the 
ap^o-oach of Christmas. Harvey Cheyno, tho only son of an 
American multimillionnairo, is a weo«ly boy of 16, who is 
desuribcd in the smoking room of an American liner as " the 
biggest nuisance aboartl. " In tho agony of his first cigar ho 
goes on dock, removes himself as far oa possible from human 
observation, falls overboard, and is picked up by nno of tho cnittll 
boats, or dories, of a schooner of the co<l-fi8hing fleet. Tho boy 
is no fool, and, conscious of his father's unlimited wealth, olTers 
Disko Troop, the skipi>cr of the schooner, any amount of money 
to take him back to New York. Ho brugs of his father's great- 
ness, of hia ability to buy tho entire schooner every month and 
not feel it, and of his own '200 dollars a month i>ocket-money. Hut 
Disko Troop, a hard, just, seafaring man, who is seldom " mis- 
took in his jedgmeiits, " is persuade<l that the boy is mail or has 
lost his wits in falling overboard, and is not more<I by his 
representations. It is a thousand miles to New York, and, 
besides, it is only May, and the schooner will not return till the 
end of tho fishing, in September. To this Harvey objects : — 

" ' I can't stav here doin' nothing just because you want to 
fish, I f(»n'(, I tert you.' 

" ' Right an' jest; jest an' right. No one asks yon to do 
nothin'. "There's a heap as you can do ; for Ott<i, he went over- 
board at Le Havre. I mistrust be lost his grip in a gale we 



.ligri, 



iiBver con.. 
"Tidantia' 



<Uoy it. Toa'v* 

i>oan>««l. I mi*- 

>'u kin do. Ain't 



rnu crowd whMi w* fct 
.'>d. mitmaring vag«« 
' almoat — Dot quit»— 



•I can make it livcl^v for y" " 
ashore,' said Harvi-y, with a 
thrvata about 'piracy,' at whi . 
amilad. 

•• ' Exoep' talk. I'd forgot that. You ain't asked to talk 
more'n you're a mind to aboard tho We're Ilctti. Ke*p 
your eyes "pt-n, nti' help THn t'l d<> ei h«'» bid, an' m-. hiike, 
an' I'll ^' it.but rilgiv* - tvn and a ha'af 

a month ^d o' tho trip. A littU wurk 

will caw! up your kin toll ui all abaout your dad 

an' your nia an' y wanU." 

That ilelinM thu situAtiou. Harvey i- f<iara to 

make himself useful, acciiaos Disko o( t<< '1 find* 

himnvtf in tho wuppers with a bleeding noae, where ba la com- 
forted by Dan, a b<>y "f hia own ago, the son of Disko. Natu- 
rally, thu boys strike up a warm fiiendaliip, Harvey apologixaa 
to Disko, and soon settles down, with test, to Uie life of a fiahar- 
man. As for his shipmates, Manuel, Long Jack, Tom I'latt, 
I'ennsylvania, I'nclu Saltors, and the cook, they are all of them 
delightfully ditrurentiate<l, not with the ordinary comic cbarac- 
toristica of the sea novel, but with nioet u: ' ' ' ' xsi- 

ties. When at tho end of tho lishing n.. r.<, 

now chock-full of salt oxl, returns to hir 
Maine, tlio luir to thirty millions laiHl5 ir: 
boot* a " fii 

earned thirty - ' ' „ ■. 

mother, who hurry eastwani from California in their own jiriTmt* 
railroad car, and make it clear to the excellent but disbelieving 
Disko Troop that Harvey had in no way exaggerated their mag- 
nificence. It no«Hl not be said that Harvey's father, a shrewd, sall- 
made man, is more than satisfied witli the im|>roTeD<ent of his 
son, and finds the most agreeable means t'f T .ko. 

Such is Uie boro outline of the story, .^h 

for either l>oys or men, and as wholesome as st;a .ar itstiU. It is 
told, ss is only natural with Mr. Kipling, in the most graphie 
manner, aiul with tlie raciest dialect. And the interest of the 
book does not duiicnd by any moans entirely on the stirv, but 
almost e(|ually on tho vivid descriptions of tho co<' at 

and its industry. Mr. Kipling has sung of the ' ^ ,., fog 

bank " in one o( his finest poems, and elsewhere of that and 
other perils of tlie sea. Here we have them as part •>( the every 
day life of the fisherman of the " Grand Ilanks," and can under- 
stand what it is to grojio from one fishing station to SDOther, with 
tells ringing an<l horn.i sounding— oonch-ahells, sometimee, like 
old Triton's— partly to warn tlie liners passing through the fishing 
fleet, and partly to keep the " doriM " in totwh with their 
schooners. The boy Harvey asked not be 

" great " to run down a fishing boat i he waa 

on board the steamer. Afterwards, his point of view wsa 
changed. 

" Aoooo— whoooo- whupp, went tlie sirvn, wingle— tingle— 
tink, went the bell. Graoa ouch went the ron.li. wliiK' xea and 
sky were all mille<l up in milky fog. Then II he 

was nearing a moving IkkIv, and f. n; rt hi- uw 

at the wot edge of a elifl^-lilio bow. clir«c(ly 

over tho schooner. A isunty little i irled in 

front of it, and as it lifted it showed a . Roman 

numerals- XV., XVI.. XVII., XVIII .-on a 

salmou-coloure<t, gleaming side. It t ' 'itnward 

with a heart-stilling' Ss»o»io ' ; ;«ared : 

a line of brass-rimmed port hole rasri'-i j .i«i ; a jet of 
steam puflfed in Harvey s helplessly uplifte<1 hsnds ; a 
spout of hot water roared along the rail of the IVt're 
Itert, and the little schooner staggered and shook in a 
rush of screw-torn wnt<'r, &> a liner'* St. Ill \.i!nsh..<I in a fog. 
Harvey cot rea<ly to f.-. e heard 

a crack like a trunk li ^mall in 

his ear, a far swav telephone voice drawling, ' Heave to f 
You've sunk us ! ' 

That was the fate of a neighbouring schooner, seat to the 
bottom while " there were folks asleep in dry, upholstered 
cabins who would never learn that they had massacred s boat 
before breakfast." Good as this is, it is no more than a fairly 



82 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



npraMnUtiw quotation from the book. Mr. Kipling hM not 
DMde the mistake of orowtling all tl>o imagiiiablo iiicidonts of 
tfa« Korth Atlantic into a three months' trip, but he has pro- 
vided, within tlie bounds uf reason and probability, sufficient 
«uit«ment. Wo cannot (|uoto indofinituly, but eon safely com- 
mand ti>« book both to men and boys. Thoy will lulniire it for 
tUfforvnt reasons, but that will ^ 'v. It should bo a<ldod 

that Mr. Taber's drawings dist: us to understand our 

young friend Harrey'a adrentxirtM*. 



Lochia var. 
London, 1W7. 



Bv S. R. Crockett. 



8ix.">jin.. 447 pp. 
Methuen. 6- 



The «fxperimont of building up a <ji((i»i-liistorical romnneo on 
CIm tiiero* of Sir \Vslt<>r Scott's pioturosijue Iwllad is rather 
audacious : r more than one reason. It is prutty well 

known, to b< . that Scott borrowed the motive of his 

ballad from an ciu-lier one, " Katherino Johnstone," in which 
Lord Liyjhinrar was the bridegroom fnvoure<l by the girl's 
parents and was a " lord of fair England " ; while tlio bold lover 
who carried off the bride was Lord Lauderdale " frae the 
Lowlantl border." Scott's daring inversion of the hero and 
protagonist of the old legend was justified even more by the 
grace and spirit of his verses than by the circumstance thW 
eharacters atnl incidents alike are. as far as is known, entirely 
fictitious, and are, therefore, material which may, in a manner, 
be lawfully appropriated by any writer who is strong enough to 
monid it effectively into a new shape. But Mr. Crockett is not 
qoiie a Sir Walter — a fact which becomes painfully apparent 
when we find that ho has here done what Sir Walter Scott would 
have been too prudent to attempt. He has brought down the 
pariod of the ballad story a couple of centuries or so, in order to 
weave its incidents into a tale uf tha Kovolutionary troubles of 
1988-88. He has transformed the heroine into a fair Covenanter, 
Kate M'Ghie, the daughter of a Galloway laird ; and young 
Loehinvar becomes in his hands a neighbouring laird or lord — 
Mr. Crockett, oddly enough, appears to think that in this 
particular case the one is much the same as the other — who 
albeit of Jacobite proclivities is obliged to go into exile in 
Holland, and takes service in one of the Prince of Orange's 
Scotch regiments. At the old city of Amersfoort ho renews an 
acquaintance with Mistress Kate, with whom he has had some 
flirtation in their native Galloway. This time ho falls 
instantaneously and madly in love with the girl, who in reality 
ratoma his paasion, but who treats him with much outward 
coldneas abd scorn. The circumstance that Kate is also loved 
hf the Earl of Barra, one of the Lord.s of the Isles, Vand-s 
to a whole scries of adventures, in the coiu-so of which 
Loehinvar does some Homeric feats of swordsmanship, 
«nooantcrs sundry misfortunes through his own folly and the 
plots of his rival — who is, however, by no means a dexterous 
intrignar — and is throughout a very melodramatic personage 
indead. After rescuing his lady-love from the clutches of Loni 
Barra, who has carrie<l her off to his stronghold in an isle of the 
Habridas, he permits her in the tamest fashion to fall again 
nmktr the influenoo of that unscrupulous nobleman, exercised 
throogh h«r father and mother, who approve of Lord Barra's 
aait. But I^ochinvar and Kate have sworn to be true to one 
anoth>fr till death, and when the young lo<ly, in a fashion that i.s 
left unexplained, consents to marry the Earl, she sends her lover 
a token that be is wanted, and he api>oars un the wo<lding morn- 
ing, and catriaa off the bride in the way that .Scott descriltcs in a 
aiagla thrilling stanza— dilated by Mr. Crockett into some dozen 
ftgm uf vary proay prose. 

The appropriation of a subject already glorifie<I by the genius 
of a great wriU»r could only liavo Ix-en juatifie<l by adequate 
traatuont. Crockett could scarcely have given us at 

his best ; ai: book he is very far from being at his best. 

It baara thronglioat traoea of merely mechanical production, as 
thongh the writer had eontractad to fiu^ish so many atlventures, 
and BO many page* of Lowland Hcottish dialogue, at a specified 
rate par docan. Aia parsonagea maet or swagger in Seventeenth 



Century contunion, and occasionally, though very seldom, stray 
into Seventeenth Century motles of speech ; but except in so far 
as tliey are wholly unreal -mere nuirionettes of which Mr. 
Crockett pulls the strings us his rather jaded fancy dictates— 
they all belong to the tyiM>8 which were nvado familiar in his 
earlier stories. At the outset of his career he acquired a trick 
of soiiii-humorous, semi-)>athotio analysis, and exposition of 
moods and emotions which was very olfective at first ; but it 
was oidy a trick, after all, and with frequent repetitions it grew 
tedious. Mr. Crockett, however, m'oiiis (juito unable to get rid 
of it : he uses it in this story, in season and out of season. 
The fiction-reading public is long-sulfering, and often amazingly 
faitliful to a writer who has once oc(iuire<l its favour ; but 
Mr. Crockett has severely tested its patience in the production 
of " Loehinvar," and ho will not bo well advised to rejwat the 
experiment. 



One of the Broken Brigrade. Hy Cllve Phillipps- 
Wolley. 7Jx5jin., 27«pp. Ix)ndon, 18U7. 

Smith, BIder. 6- 

Adventuros are to the a<lvcnturouB, and when a high-spirited 
youth leaves England for the colonies with a fair supply of cash, 
the assurance of regidar remittances from home, and no very 
definite object in view save that of " making his pile," he is 
pretty sure to have many curious and interesting experiences. 
Noel Johns, to whom the reader is introduced in " One of the 
Broken Brigade,"i8 just such a young fellow as we have described. 
The book is the story of his life in British Columbia and on the 
rolling prairies of the North-West Territory. It is well written 
and contains manycxciting incidents, but these are strung together 
with so little regard for probability that they fail to carry convic- 
tion with them, and leave the reader almost unniovetl. It would 
require considerably more ingenuity than the author displays in 
this story to render credible the chance meeiingsof his characters 
in the vast and lonely regions of the Far West. Mr. I'hillips- 
Wolley is at his best in the descriptive }>ss8age8 of his book. 
There are skilful touches in the opening chapter, in which Noel 
Johns takes leave of hia friends in the old country on the eve of 
his departure to seek his fortune iu tho Now World. The scene 
is a village on the Berkshire side of the Thames, and the persons 
are Squire Verulam, his little daughter. Pussy, and Trevor 
Johns, Noel's cousin. 

" ' But why couldn't you farm here, just as well as there, 
Noel ? ' asked tho old man." 

" ' Because a younger son's place is not on tho family acres, ' 
replied Noel." 

" ' And why not ?' asked tho Squire." 

" ' Why not ? Whv,' replied Noel, ' because ynu say so ; 
yes, you ond thousands like you. I might stay and work at the 
Bar, if I ha<l patience enough. I might go into tho Army if I 
had money enough. I might stay and live ujMin my people if 
I was moan enough, and 1 might go into business ; or farm for 
profit, if I was not a Johns of Kingdon. You would think it 
rather plucky of me to " run a store " in tho North-Wost, but 
how would you like it if I sold groceries in tho villago ?' 
. . . . ' Now, Pussy, give us just one more song before 
you go to bed. You don't mind her singing " Auld Lang Syne," 
Sir, do you ?' " 

" ' Of course not, of course not, boy,' cried the Squire : 
' good heavens, is it so late already '(' And rising, the four 
jomod hands, and sang together that old song which is a sacra- 
ment to some of us, pre<lging thoiuselves for all years to come to 
tho friend who stood on the lirink, waiting to step out from tho 
light and warmth of homo into the battle of life in ttic Far West. 
" For a moment all stood, hands joine<l, listening as the last 
notes floated down the dark river ; then the old man wTung the 
young one's hands in Ijoth ]iis, and, turning, said somewhat 
hoarsely to his daughter — 
" ' Now, Pussy, bed ! It's time for chicks to be at roost.' . 

The sketches of British Columbia are sufficiently faithful. 
They i>rovo that the author possesses cimsiuorablo powers of 
obser^-ation. Mr. Snape and Colonel Gilchrist are two good 
examples of the financial shark of America, and they are outlined 
with a skilful hand, while in Mils Gilchrist, the colonel's beautiful 



November C>, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



(latightar, »n amiisinK ■peoiinen of a certain type of AnMrican 

girl in clovfirly ilmu-rilxxl. Tim piotunm <>t lidi among Iho nii'n 
of tho North-WuHt I'lilico uro c<|iially (;<><><l, but tho " holding; 
up " of thii atagu coach l>y Truvor JkIiiih, tho orrcat of that 
(IoB]H)rato roiul ngont l>y his couiiin Ni>cl, anil tho nilventures 
which guhm«|iiontly liofoll tlio two mon aro inciilonta of «o forco<l 
and improliahlu a kind thnt thoy oxcito incredulity. Tho book 
wouhl \w much bettor than it ia if tho author'* imagination were 
e<iual to his tulont for desoriptivo writing. 



Derelicts. My WUllam J. Locke, Author of •■ .Vt tho 
Onto of Snnmriii." 8x5Jin., 414 pp. London and New York, 

imn. Lane. 6,- 

Mr, Liooke apptiars to liavo a prixliloction for placing bis 
personages in exceptional, and what, from tho nit-roly 
mundane jmint of view, nii^'ht \hi pronounced hazardous, situa- 
tions, and then working out their dustiny for them. It Im iii:ii 
metluxl, and, of unursu, u strictly Ixgitiniatu one, of coi 
a story ; but it ia o|>en to tho objection that it ex, 
author to tho tomiitation of playing too obTionxlv the | m 
of an over-ruling I'rovidonco. In this story Sir. L. m ki- 
makes lii.s " doroliots " mutually helpful in getting off tlie 
reefs where thoy havo 8tniudo<l, and enables them to pass 
aofoly through a perilous voyage and reach a harbour of 
socurity and quiet happiness at last. That is a climax 
with which no reader of tho lM)ok will be disaatiatiod ; 
but it is hard not to doubt wliethcr matters wouUI, or 
co\dd, havo arranged thuniselves so agreeably in real life. If 
this doubt bo hold at orm's length, however, " Dereliota " 
may claim recognition as a pleasant, pathetic, and gracefully- 
written story. Stephen Chisely, the hero, is a young man 
who, starting in life with every advantage of education, 
social position, and opportunity to prosper, has contrived in a 
very short time to come to ruin and to perpetrate embezzlements 
that entail on him a sentence of two years' imprisonment. 
Emerging from gaol, discarded by his family and former friends, 
ho is engaged in a hopeless endeavo\ir to find work, and is sink- 
ing into uttor despair, when he chances to moot a certain Mndamo 
Yvonne Latoiir, a little music mistress of French origin but 
apparently of F'nglish birth, who has knowni and liked him \n his 
day of prosperity. That meeting is the saving of him. She refuses 
to recognize any reason why tho old friendship should not be 
resumed : she makes Chisely hope again in spite of himself ; she 
piits l\im ni tlie way of earning his own living, and her inter- 
vention enables him, though after many haixlships and disapjxiint- 
ments, to begin a now career. Then it i.s Yvonne who in her turn, 
by a series of undeserved misfortunes, is brought to the verge of 
despair, ond Chisely who becomes the instrument of her rescue. 
Thoy aro threatened with a sejiaration that would have been 
disastrous to both, and all because Yvonne, in her exceeding 
guilelossness, has not realized that she loves Chisely, while he 
on his part feels unworthy, in tho light of his past, to osk for 
her lovo. Hut tho inevitable oxjilanotion, of coniso, comes at 
last, and all ends well. 



By a Hair's Breadth. By Headon Hill. 1 vol. 
sni. iSvo., :i07 pp. lx)ndun, 181(7. Cassells. 6,- 

This is an extremely ingenious book and not ill written. 
It purports to give a full, true, and particular account of all the 
attempts on tho life of tho Tsar and Tsarina during thoir 
visits to tho other crowned heads of Europe. It will lie 
remoniborod that about tho time of tho visit to Balmoral 
last year certain Fenian purveyors of explosives were arrested 
both here and in Franco, and a wild theory was started at tho 
time that their conspiracy was directed, not against tho jwaco of 
England, but against tho lifo of the Tsjir. This universally- 
scouted hypothesis tlio author seeks to rehabilitate by intro- 
ducing us to an lrish-.A.merioan, Colonel Dolaval, who, to oblige 
his Russian frionds, puts a portmant<\iu of ih-namito up a cliim- 
ne\- at tho back of tho Tsar's apartments at Hrcslaii. Fortu- 
nately, tho fxanrfr of an English attnehi hears the ticking of tho 
detonator clock, and it is accordingly removed in tho nick of 
time. l)f course wo have the usual ilramaiix /Kr.wmr — the be- 
witching rovolutionary princess ; tho aged conspirator. who.«e 
fierce eyes betray him ; the captain, a perfectly idiotic oftiocr in 
tho Imperial service : the Russian police spy. moving in the most 
fashionable societv of St. Petersburg ; and a rank and file of 
moi(c/i(i )■</.< and Nihilists. Those characters are well enough, 
particularly Volborth, tho Russian Sherlock Holmes, the exqui- 



tito, profmind bmtality of whn<w> nat 
W" nay as much f' r ' 

uii: i>a««inn (or ai. 

M« pains, 111 
He ii lie 
' is i|iiit<- 'h 

I of. II.' 

. ,.,^ , : • n u 111 .rn 

SO as to :lraw on t 

•low to do. On I 

under hi* coat, t>ut with an 

dynamite this is a procautinn 

an ostrich. When we snv 

mentionod. we have tho «!■ 



83 
t«d. 

an 

>1S(1 



of 
ni' 
diiiea.t 


', liiii 
ull ki 

1 1 


Ilia 


 us 

l,o 
the 

of 1) 


lady 
ban< 

1  

.' 


will 
iff fwl 


a 

lO, 


I 
It 


thus), 

an' •' 










r<i 







. ■\. iiitck 
hat tho 



Claude Duval of Nlnety-flve : A noninnre of the Road. 
By FergfUB Hume. Sxo^in., 236 pp. London. 1hh7. 

Dlgby, Long:. 3.6 



. If all Air. Fergus Hume's "mysteries " had been as onaily 
trated astliat wlm h f' rms the tlninc nf '• ciai!i!<. Duv.il "f N i 
five " ho would v 
an author of cum 
tion. There are not : 
fail to find out his ac 

half dozen chapters ; liii> i .pplius (» 

one cnn only wonder at th .i of the u 

an' onal, engaged in trying to hunt (!• w ii \i. 

" t the road." But it by no means n^ 

foil, ws mat tho interest and nt* *■ •' 

diiiiinished on this account. If thn' 

would bo read a second t' '■■■• 

performance. Whatever 1. 

Mr. Hume undoubtedly ;.. „ 

tivo faculty, and his method of ^• 
tangle ho has himself create<l is in t 
ingenious, and atforda opportunities for the int 
an abundance of stirring incidents. The centi 
tlie story, the n i by a woman of the n'lle of 

highwayman, is . al with Mr. Hume : it jp s' 

ol(l as that (|Uaint nioiingraph of sevcnt. 
" The English Rogue." But if not :. 
novel, and is worko<l into n ' 

dexterity. This wos the 

ovorc<iT - •  

Ijoon . 

most o: .... ...^ , 

the |)cr rury I.aip 

cerns li. : :. about li . 

in any of his pri'ceding books. 'I'ho story ia e; 
incident rather than of character or n)annor;<, 
a large ptiblic who prefer to take tlieir fiction in this siuipo 
is no need to protest on that score. 



jjcne- 

uety- 



:er. 



Ot 

of 



:t ia 



eof 
ru is 

there 



Ladv Rosalind, or Family Feuds. Hy Emma 
MarshalL K^x.'>);iii., 307 pp. Uuulon, IiM/7. 

James Nisbet. 6;- 

The " family feuds " out of which Mrs. >far»hall baa 
contrived to work up this story are of a somewhat compli- 
cated nature. Lady Rosalind Penfold is tl ' ' 
supposed to bo tho only child, of a late Earl  
tl' ''I : of the story, has just d' ' 

11! ;• himself, since he has left 

ei 1. and literally no jt'"  

d:- IB what was secured to t 

set, Lady Rosnlo ■! " 

principle, but as yet w 

suffers intensely from thet 

to redeem the family name by .  her fatlier's i 

But tho full measure of tho in has yet to be : 

Not only dooa a man who liad professed to lo\e her 

desert her in her hour of need, but it turns out that her father's 

diflicultiea hare been largely due to the blackmail to which 

he has had to submit in order to preserve the secret of an early 



■a\ ia 
'.at 



her marriage 



64 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



prirmt« mArriage, two deaoeadMiU of nhich, in the tliini genera- 
tion— two bel|ileu little girli — are thrust ii|M>n lastly Koeuliutl's 
<«re. In her pride ahe will aci-ept as little as |toiMil>le of tlio 
aaaiatance of her cousin, who ia Riipixisett t<> have aucoeeiUMl to 
the title and t<> what in left of the entatta ; aiidia* this ooiisin is 
a tine, Ftrai::(itfi rward, inanlv yiiiinj» fellow, the readur will l>o 
>\ : oat against the cruelty of fatu when yet another 

< iliivloood and it turns out that the son of aiie'er- 

4lo-uull uuclu Kit Uie young eftrl is the rishtfid heir of the family 
honour*. How all thaaa {wrpIkxitiM and rivalries are ultuiiatoly 
n ' ' ' OH made plain, und how, amid her 

t . ' find consolation and happiness, ia 

<i , > H W(>nt<-d narrative skill and simple 

rp . - I : -fouml or subtle in tho tale, but it 

i- • ,, i.iid two at lu4kat of the characters — 

I Jul Hussie Sclworthy — are freshly con- 

tt ... ..^...._..^ wrought out. 



Liza of Lambeth. Ry W. S. Maugham. 7 l>in., 
212 pp. l>>ndi«n. IstT. Fisher Unwin. 

Only one circumstance indnces us to notice this most un- 
pleaaant book, and that is its authnr's evident ability to do 
Mtter. He does not as yet w-rite with much skill, because he 
doe* not thnroufrhly understand the poor people whom he do- 
auribea, and. what is worse, does not seem to sympathize with 
them. He has sharp eyes, but they do not alwiiys jH-'netrnte the 
supcrticial dirt of toil and [loverty, and ho so greatly exaggerates 
the vices of the poor that we cannot accept his characters as 
typical work-iieople. But one thing ho has done Iteyond all 
doabt. Roughly and inartistically, with violent cofour and 
the blackest of black shailows, he has succeeded in drawing a 
figure that sticks with painful reality in the memory. Liza is a 
tmetorj ^irl of 18, who lived in a Xjamlxith slum. .She went 
wrong — it was not far to go — antl died in the expected manner 
at the end of the book. That is literally all, but Liza's jmr- 
trait ia so complete and so strong that even now her ghost 
refuses U> be laia : and that we take to be a considerable achieve- 
ment for a writer of fiction. Wo may say with Catullus :— 
Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requiris. 
Neecio : se<1 fieri sentio et excrucior. 

And now that we have freely praised the one merit of the 
t>ook, we must claim an equal freedom of censure, and must 
s»y plainly that the work is not merely disfigured, but is ren- 
der<d absolutely unendurable by its sustained grossnuss, both of 
lanjuaL'o ami il.t:ul. How unnecessary this is, and how dis- 
y m does not seem to know. He must loam 

' ■•. Slang we can tolerate, for reviewers are 

lioni I., sufienne and get used to it, but in the midst of it all 
there are a numlnr of needless and unpardonable things which 
we cannot by any means stomach. It is no excuse lor Mr. 
Maugham that some of his rivals in this particular line of 
business have done much the sam9 thing and, if he does not take 
care, will out-do him. Somehow, all writers of this sort remind 
ti ' *' competition in the Diinciad, " who best can plunge 
t 'k anil thin " — only the Diinciad is an elegant and 

•«..■..,, (..etf of wit compared to these modem performances. 



Brolcen Arcs : A West Counti-v Clironicle. By 
Clirl«topher Hare. Cr. 8vo., 317 j.p. ' Ixndon .ind New 
York. 1*7. Harpers. 8- 

This if a readable love story, following along the beaten 
track of many anotluT similar tale of rustic life. The tyran- 
nical *-' his son to clear off Ms mortgages by 
o'*'"'' iidmirablo young ]>erson at the vicarage 
^ *'" * j"!'^ " ' ^'i'"'- " p'»n ; her father, the Vicar, im- 
maraMl in theological coiii|K>sition ; and the young villager 
w^,. <..n, „. ,) ,. <....:,,.-. „,,„ ,j, ^^^^ Crimea -they have all done 
'■ and doubtless will again. Wo have 
" - -.'in if tlie chrori"' - f -'ifir doings isas 
"■ '■« t<if> often chai this type of I 

'' well suiti-d for the i ;.:iient of an idle 

hour, as " i r.»." Tlie title, by the bye, issuggested by 

* »«>« "* "' "On the earth the broken arcs, in the heaven ' 

ftpsfffect round, ' a motto which applies rather to the "young 
Squire's " romance than to that of his comrade in arms, which 
fornu the main pivot of the story. The account of the trouble 
whisb coroes t« Harry Tinharn's wife, who promiscwl to conceal 

•"•'^•""'"^ ■^band wa» fighting in the Crimea, is 

Uw beat p« though it is a pity that the author, 

wbm h* has sent tnc hualiand away to the wars, should so far 
totfi hiw M to girt him on two ocoaaions a wrong surname. 



The Temple of 

viii. -- 271 pp. ixindoii. 



Polly. 
l^«7. 



Itv 



Paul Creswiclc. Sm)., 
Fisher Unwin. 6- 



fleorge Bubb l>odington, who began life as plain George 
Biibb and ended it by insinuating himself into the Peerage as 
Lord MeU-omlie, was a piotiiresiitio chariirtor enough to iiioline 
one to ex]>oct much from a novel which adopts him as a leading 
character. Ifrowning filly enough comi'aios him to the bowor- 
bifil, as descnlxjil by Darwin : — 

•• liirds Inini to strut prepare a platform-stage 
With sfiarkling stones and speckled shells, all sorts 
fU slimy rubbish, odds and ends and orts, 
Whereon to pose and pasture and engage 
The priceless female simper." 
With his odd wig, which Hogarth has immortalized, his pea- 
cock's feathers and ItijiU lazuli columns, his betlside carpet " n 
splendid pati'hwork of his old-embroidered {>ockct-tlu)>N and 
culfs," he makes a striking figure among the courtiers of the 
Georgian era, even if we take a grain of salt with Thomson's 
fulsome dedication of " Summer " to him as one 

" In whom the human graces all unite." 
Mr. Creswick lias not made as much as he might of this rcn'ark- 
able personage, in whom, with Browning, ho seems to " see but 
one fool more, as well as knave." The Temple from which the 
title of the story is taken is, of course, Medmeiiham Abbey, that 
very Eighteenth-Ceiitiiry Abbev of Thelema where Jack Wilkes 
and the Hell Fire Club tried to revive the ceremonies cf the 
Bona Dea. Satanism is rather in fashion among novelists nowa- 
days, but Mr. Creswick handles the Black Mass with a much 
lighter and more gingerly touch thon M. Huysmans nnil his 
followers. The best thing in his book is the character of Marget, 
a delightfully boyish girl whoso antics are very amusing. The 
story itself trips on rather a shadowy foot, but it is cleverly 
written and quit" "- -■■idable as the averoge historical novel of 
to-day. 



George Malcolm. By Gabriel Setoun. Svo., HiH pp. 
London, l>i)l. Bliss, Sands, o/- 

Like a recent work of the Kailyard School, IkJr. Setoun's 
story is the history of a boy brought ii{i in a Scottish village to 
which ho was nut native. The uccoiiiit of the inhabitants and 
manners of Cuttril and Invoicolm, the two places in which the 
action goes forwanl, is evidently based on careful observation, 
and shows that Mr. Setoun has a distinct, if somewhat conven- 
tional, sense of humour. His religious village grocer, " Pharisee 
and Publican," on whom the author seems to have lavished 
many pains, is scarcely convincing, for ho reminds one more 
of the typical jokes against the Scottish inclination to 
make the l>est of both worlds than of anything likely to l>e found 
in a real village. Nor does it seem a very brilliant jest to 
say that John Murdoch, " being a man who understood 
that tho earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof, aided and 
abetted Providence in the matter of ])otatoe8 and cabbages." 
Much better is the jortrait of Mrs. Sibbuld, a Scottish Mrs. 
Malaproj), whoso nice derangement of cpita]>hs is really amusing. 
She was troubled by " a ]>etulous and aiiduciant girl," who was 
in fact " a Thomas-boy," and one of her griefs was that her 
husband had played tho fiddle, " a light and frivulic instrument 
that you hide in a common green bag." Marv- Moultrie Itamage 
Ross, the " Thomas-boy " aforesaid, is prettily drawn, and the 
incidental villagers, though dull, ap)>ear to have verisimilitude. 
Unfortunately, Mr. Setoun, who lias already shown himself to bo 
po8sesse<l of a pretty, if slight, talent for describing .Scottish 
manners, has felt it necessary to introduce a thrilling plot, and 
has given his boy-hero a most unnatural and melodramatic part 
to play in clearing his convict father's rojmtation. The whole of 
tho Andrew Uemmell business is what Mr. Wellor uso<l to call 
'• rayther too thin." It is a pity that Mr. Setoun has thus 8i>oilt 
a book which is distinctly above tlte average in i>arts. 



A Creel of Irish Stories. By Jane Barlow. 8y.5Jin., 
'i2t) pp. l»iid<)n, lUfJ. Methuen tc Oo. 6/- 

Miss Jane Barlow is alroiuly favourably known by her volume 
of " Irish Iilvlls." Her new book of Irish stories will jirobably bo 
received with similar favour. She has a firm grasp of Irish. 
peasant character, with its kindliness and thrittlessness, its 
strange siiiierstitions, and its affectionate devotion ; and all her 
stories are written with knowleilge and, what is better, with 
8^ra[iathy. They can none of them, wo imagine, l>e callml ex- 
citing. Tliey have little incident and, in the dramatic Honse, 
little action. But they arc written in a pleasant, easy style, and 



November C, 1897.] 



LITKHATl'RE. 



85 



contain iHiHunp's I if <leKcrintiun which Mre always U' 

i>oriu(ionally ')i'niilifiil. The olmractoni nrn ilrnwii with ({ruat 
)i(lelity uiiii iiini^'lit, thnii^li thoy uro for tliu ni<>nt |i«rt hot rumnrk- 
nblo in tlieiriHvlvi'ii. Tlio ntorieH urn nil di^^lit ami at tiiiir ' 
luck niuttcr. lint in » voliiinu of tlii.i kiml ■■nv (Ih;.h not 
incidnnt or mlvi^ntiire no much UHfor pliiim'K ri>' ' i: • -  ,„, 

liumoroufi or |>atlii>tio lUilinoiition of ita i •'■, 

Lovora of Msli pt>asaitt tolun will rtiui M;^. U^ 

IileiiHiiru. 



tb 



The Fall of the Sparrow. 
 Yi'2 y\>. Ivoiidon, lSl/7. 



lly M. C. Balfour. «<51n., 
Methuen. 



Mi»» M. C. Itiilfonr takes a ({root doiil cf pnina, ond 
■undoubtedly lior liook shows a certain p )wiir of conceiving 
and working out tliu kind of story which hingus on tliu 
changiti); rolntionsliipg und afToctioim of ordinary poopio 
ill ordinary life. It i.i built up round two men anj two 
women Walter and Nathaniol, Philippa and OtTtrudo. Ger- 
trudu is ongngod to Nntlmniul and loves Walter. IMiilippa 
lovoH Nuthanu'l and inurriea a certain Dr. Dulo, wIioho 
4io<iuaintunco wo luo not porniittod to make. Philippa, Gertrude, 
Aun rt'altor, who is a popular but shallow niiitiion preacher, b< conio 
substantial and (^vcii interesting personalities in the latter half of 
the book ; Nathaniel, though we spend much time m exploring 
!iis mental operations, romains shadowy to the last. Miss Hal- 
four reminds us of tho.se actors of whom the dramatic critic says 
" They work very hard." If she would Ixi content to tell us 
what nnpiwned in fewer wonis she would wiitj a much more 
silccos-tful book. The long pagei of description of interiors, 
mental or domestic, do very little to help on the story, and 
require, if they are to bo written at all, more knowledgoi.f men, 
women, and thinj^s than is possessed by the aiithorof this novel. 
If she had taken more trouble over incident and dialogue, of 
which there is very little in the book, her labour would have been 
apeut to very much bettor purpose. 



The Rev. Alfred Church, whose tales of the Ancient time 
Iiavo long been so deservedly popular, writes in LoKns of thk 
"WoRLO (Blaukio) of the fall of Carthago and of Corinth, those 
stout enemies of mighty Home who )>erislied in the same year 
juid were visite<l by the same fate. The canvas is vast, but the 
artist is skilful ; he groujis— or, as ho modestly says, he 
attempts to group picture.sijue incidents round the person of 
a young Oroek wlio struggles in vain to resist the destiny of the 
connuering race. As wo lead we feel with C'leanor the power and 
the fascination of the '• Lords of the World," who, great as thoy 
were, could not escatio the doom of their enemies. For " the 
day when Rome rid herself of her rivals seemed to some of her 
more thoughtful sons t*) be the first of her corruption and 
<!ccline. " 



CoiTCsponbcncc. 



" THE NOVEL." 

TO THE EDITOK. 
Sir,— May I be allowed to give expression to the feeling of 
i'Utenso relief with which I have looked through the first two 
numbers of Litcratnr'-. From its title, I had fo aretl that it would 
ooudoscend to notice nothing but fiction ; for it is my 
oxperience, gathered from the conversation of many dinnertables 
and most clubs, that most of those who discuss what they are 
pleased to coll "literoturo" are apparently under the impression 
thot literature isonlyanother word for the last batch of nownovols, 
and that the expression ''literary people" moans exclusively the 
men and women by whom this and former batches of novels have 
boen protlucod. That there are such things as history, 
biography, poetry, philosophy, travel, criticism, the essay, 
and that these also, at least, may be literature, is a belief 
which I suppose I picked up somewhere in my yjuth, 
which I cling to in my old age, but which I should certainly never 
have deduced from most of the talk that I hoar to-<lay, nor. I will 
add, from much of the writing that I read. I am glad, however, 
to perceive that you, Sir, are also apparently an .idhcrent to the 
same old-fashioned opinion. While giving, perhaps, too much 



•poee to notices of fif<t!<m, ynti n-it nnly roo<>((tiiz4> tb* «xist«ae« 

of history, )> . . soienoe, and tnn 

minor v.r-e, i _ reviews of sobm of 

with the moat dist: place aiul the moat 

, : i^i'u in your ooliiraiM. 1^ ich pleAso otioopt th* 

grateful thanks of Your obedieot aenrant, 

A FOOEY. 



HISTORICAL ACCURACY IN FICTION. 

TO THE EDITOR. 

[HJ for your permission to comment on certain 
poll i •! by yr)ur notice of my story, " The Hon of 

th'i (.liar ■' / Vour reviewer reganls as questionable history the 
description of Peter's wife Kudoxie in her retirement at the 
Convent of Soiuilal. My authority ia a summary by M. Eugitno 
Melchior de Vogue of the Russian historian Ustrieloff's account 
of the trial of Alexis. Thero became engrafted on this trial ~- 

" Li ••nqui'to do .'fonrxlal \ ' do 

rinterro. la princesso .Marie AlexoTema, un re 

partit j)oii. • -...^..Lil. . Ci'tait la que I'imptfratr ' r xie 

avait pris le voile, apri>s le divorce de li^>U8, soua le U' r.i <l ^ i tir 

Hi^leno. On le croyait ^bi >"oin«. ... J^ i, -< are 

frappa ik la porte dii n. ans so fairo coin:, • • <t ^ int 

droit Ji lacellulede s<ii;: ii Au lieu de \:\ ; I'il 

s'attenduit ik trouver, il surprit la line femrno I'l e. 

Autour d'elle, des ooffros tftaiont ouvorts, on ■>■* 

et de rijhes costumes. . . . I/os religieiuM!.-^ a 

parler . . . ; un oflicier de recrutemcnt, un if, 

^toit depuis longtompsen liaison Ave<: I'ex-tsarino , uu le Vkiyait 
passer le soir, so rendant h, la cellule d'Eudoxio. Une occur 
profes-so, qui vivait elle-meme avec I'avou^ da convent, ^rirait 
et portait tes messages de I'ex-tsarine ii rofhcicr," 

With regard to the rise of Catherine I offer another quota- 
tion, in which the historian Solovioff is fidlownd : — 

" Kn 17Ii, durant la dosastrcuso ' <- 

rine donna la mosure do I'unergie de - us 

bijoux (loar solder les troupes, releva Iciir : re 

a sortir de rutto t'preuve ; dans IVlan de il 

c^le'bia publii|Uoment son mariogo avec la capuvc ne jiarien- 
bourg, la n: reconnoitre imiM-ratrice, etc." 

With reference to the person and character of Peter, I may, 
without defending my own portraiture, jMjint to the marvellous 
divergence of views respecting him, from his own times until 
now. Even as to his stature, I have read close upon a hundrml 
studies, essays, and biographies, in whi' ' ranges 

from five feet ton to seven feet in height. 'J iracter, 

Steele, writing in the KRtth S/tfrlntor, aa an admirer, in 1711, 
compares " this God-like Prince " with Louis XIV. of FVunco, 
and much to the disadvantage of the 7ronch King. Daniel 
Defoe, though referring to the Tsar in a less friendly tone, gives 
him credit for his gracious manner, &c. The opinion of foreign 
contemporaries has nat, in Peter's case, been the verdict of 
history. Hut the unsavoury anec<lotos current altout him after 
his death are traceable, I think, mainly to Germany, where they 
wore much improve«l upon by Frctlerick H. of Prussia and the 
Margravine of Iteyreuth. In conclusion, I may say, in res[)ect 
of other and undoubte<l departures from history, that my humble 
book must only defend itself behind the shelter of its title-pogo, 
where it is descrilx>d, though with a qualification, as a 
" romance." 

Your obedient servant. 

JAUES M. GRAHAM. 

•»* We admit that there is much obscurity as to the treat- 
ment of Etidoxie ; but she was deprive<l of resources by the 
Tsar, and against the quotation given bv Mr. Graham from 
Ostriolotf may be place<l the letter from " Sister Helen " to her 
brother, reoorde<l by the same historian, describing her condi- 
tion. Thero is, of course, authority for the view taken of the 
rise of Catherine. bathereagain <>*-■ ' •''■— > •> : " >- nsnlted 
with advantage, as also the work trans- 
lated into Knglish. As to Peter ! >,,,. ...,,,, ....;,.,., .ug Mr. 

Graham's diliiience as a student and the courtesy of his proteat, 
we cannot alter our opinion that even the greatest admirers of 
the Tsar have never dared to draw so ideal a picture as is 
presented in this novel. 



83 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



Jotcion letters. 



FRANCE. 

M. Geffroy i« interesting for itTeral minor ream n* quite 
ap«rt from the sp»ci«l one waich makes hiin one of the most 
happilj-endowed writer* on all that in-rtains to art in the 
Pan* of to^ar, and he is intereating fur special reasons 

lie of those who, like M. Arsi-ne 

 r date than that loarne<l critic, 

of the English landscape 

litists, not to speak of the 

- lent of French painting 

i':i»»«i le Detroit," aud M. 

, lie articles whicli he con- 

/>s, have since contiinied 

with the results of the 

Hut M. tiustare Gt-ffroy has the 

(liat he was one of the very first 

ice to his countrymen. From the 

on another minor claim njwn our 

roy has lieun indo{Hindent and 

. n the ManetH, the Monots, and the 

.11 Uio I'lil days M. Zola and M. Huysniaiis 

|vt'rod lances. With them and with the Gon- 

Ituso him to bo one of their Academy ; he is 

heirs — he defended the cause of sincerity 

Tinst the academic spirit crystallize<l 

'y sorry protlucts prinluced by French 

,■ .L.i- ...,,.■.....•...- . i .^. I. nine the Prix do Kome. The five volumes 

of his '• 1a Vie Artistitpio ' are com]>act with the strong tissue 

, f r ,.. 5Mitli.,i "k iM.l. niioal WTiting in this struggle of two ilecades, 

hantly last year with the introtluction into 

.ilery of the much-maligned Caillebotte colk'c- 

aiwhile M. Geffroy had found time to apply his prin- 

nrt to an admirable little biography of Blanqui, 

■a6 " (Charpcntier), a study which would 

ine and which revealed in its author one of 

of the time. The book is untranslatable and 

in the original. 

->i, imysmans, who is kno%m to English readers chiefly as 

the author of " En Route," h.is gone to Holland to visit his 

family, after having completed his new book " La Catbedrale." 

The volume cannot appear until the beginning of next year, 

)„,» otr-.-.i,- n... ,,.,.  of \if speedy puI)Iication has aroused 

-. This is a fact which is worth rccortl- 

:. . - _, cars ago a new book by Uuysmans would 

nto not more than two editions at the most. To-doy. 

'' and " En Route " are in their eighteenth and 

:d editions rcspoctivelv, and collectors pay from 16 to 

■or the firrt editions, which it is now almoet impos- 

Bihla to iiiid of the earlier works — " ilaithe," " A Van TEau," 

" Im Drngeoir aux Knices," " Croiiuis Parisiens," " La 

1' re," " Les Steurs Vatards," and even "A Kebours." 

'. "t all of M. Huysmans's first books were printed in 

lirasfels. 

The anthor's full name is Joris-Karl Hnysmans, a fact 

whirh roav help to explain a number of un-Frcnch characteristics 

Ki his style. \et his fame has become so coiii)ilctely Fiench that 

 ■■: Kriissels ho is as little known as 10 years ago he was in Eng- 

1. It was t4> a great exti-nt the Goncourts whose spprecia- 

•"r-t .iffra. t. <I iti. iiti..,, to the work of a man who, as nn 

. has discreetly avoided the self- 

any of his French contemporaries 

l<iil It was the kindred artistic impulse of the 

t that firrt cave him publicity. 

il- Jii '■  whom at Taine's death his matitlo fell, 

i« rontirn: ' i« " Literarj' History of the English 

' ' ntH dealing with the early Tudor 

!• very long. They will appear in 
" their final publication in a 
KlerH are to have the K)>ecial 

" ' •- ' •  '■.' rharm 

•d and 



.uiieful itsadii . •• fimt fniit« of this 

. OS it may l>e r the studies wore 

.1:0 wa^, vtdtn pat$ai-l wliith appearc<l in recent 

■inopolu, are to receive additions ; the articles are 



to be remodelled, civen book shape, and published very soon at 
Armand Colin's. In all probability Mr. Unwiii will give an 
English e<litioii of them. Lot mo mention, furthermore, while 
speaking of M. Juswornnd, that ho has just I'ten reading tho 
proof.s, as the editor of the brilliant and famous little cerios of 
monographs on French writers known aa Lc (iranih Einvaint 
t'lanraU, i>f M. LajToumet'.s Itncinr. I know, moreover, that this 
new study by the authiT of Mani-aur is a very fine piece of 
appreciation, clear and clever in criticism. 

A Sunday afternoon, that of the 24th October— the date and 
the place and the naine.s of the friends who contributed to the 
distinction of this/id should bo mentioned with that precision 
of realism ujwn which tlie great artist in question so rigorously 
insisted — wos chosen for the inauguration of the monument 
erected in the Tare Moiueau, in Paris, to the memory of Guy de 
Maupassant. M. Henry Housnayo, the Academician, nnd M. Henri 
Roiijon, the director of line arts, and M. Einilo Zola were there, 
each with u sjiecial right and each with characteristic ability, 
honouring the work of the author of Furt romnif hi Mort. Hut 
of these tlireo SI. Zola wa.s best fitted to state the nature of this 
work. He saw MaupoHsant intimately at the beginning of tho 
latter's career. Ho watched his talent, which had 1 eeii at Fchool 
to Flaubert, l)ecome impular, while remaining distinguished and 
refined. Flaubert (lead, indeed, it was at first about M. Zola 
that tho little company of writers, whoso preliminary renderiups 
of life when they appeared together in the famous .*»'oiifM dc 
Meudau announced the victory of the author oi MaiUimc Horarxj, 
rallied for tho campaign which was to bring honour to the namo 
of Hnysmans, as well as to that of the chief, but iiro-eminently 
to tliat of Guy de Maupassant. Maupassant was tno finer artist 
of tho throe, as M. Huysmans was tho most siiecial genius and 
M. Zola the mo.st consistent and most logical defender of tho 
principle inscribed on tho banner of these enemies of the romantic 
tale. It has luudly heou noted, moreover, how Tmrtioularly sonio 
of tho happiest artistic characteristics of tho form assumed by 
Maupassant's talent were determined by tho fact of his being 
driven to express himself within the conditions imposed by tho 
sitace at his disposal in the I'aris newspapers. This constraint 
helped him to invent tho modern French form of tho short-storv, 
the short-story witli a hyphen. It was his princii)le to deal only 
with life, but, occupiixl throughout tho daj' in a Government 
office, ho had not the time to attempt so long a iran.scrii)t of life 
as it was within tho j)ower of his master Flaubert, whoso time 
was his own, to attempt and, in fact, to carry to coiiii>lotion. 
The first two columns of the Paris newspaper oftcred him a frame 
of just tho dimensions suitable to tno few images on which 
Maupassant found it possible at tho start to transcribe his incon- 
clusive imjiressions. He recortled what came under his vision 
with a fearlessness and an accuracy, and an exact felicity in tho 
choice of the word, which made bis masterly littlo sketches as 
delightful in their pitiless precision as are any one of those 
sketches by Grandville. which hang on the walls of tho museum 
at Nancj' ; and tho public to which ho appealed was abundantly 
composed of readers with a faculty of clear sight almost as special 
as that of Maupassant himself. Henco his intelligibility, and 
hence his rapid and immense success. Ho gained speedily a 
voguo which lie kept to the end. Tho need for a statue in his 
honour was bonn<l, therefore, to bo quickly felt in the Paris 
which so constantly counted on him. That statue has now been 
place<l at one of tho most exquisitolv Parisian [loints of tho 
capital. It is tho work of tho sculptor Itaoul Verlet, and consists 
of a bust of tho writer, high placed on a i>edestal, at the foot of 
which sits a young woman in an attitude of reverie after tho 
perusal of a story of Maujias.sant which sho holds in her hand. 
It is only the voguo of the artist— tho later voguo among, perhaps, 
just those readers who wcro tho least indifferent to the great 
qualities that justified that vogue — which is hero represented. 
Tho statue is not quite the one that literary artists would have 
c<mceived. Its accont is too Parisian, and tho tone, after all, of 
Maupassant's work was more general than that. It is not 
unlikely, however, that it is jtist such a memorial of his achieve- 
ment OS would have charmed the imagination of Maujiassant 
himself. 

A cass interesting to men of letters is to come before tho 
Paris Courts. Tho author of Frrdrnnndr, a drama played for the 
first time at the I'lrmidir Franfai.v last May, was fo hurt by the 
.1... f„l irony of which he was tho object, and tho advico 

nistored to him in M. Jules Lemaitre's criticism of bin 
ill tlio tUrne df» Dchj- ^^u7ldc.^, that ho has decided to seek 
from tho Law Courts, and has sued M. Ferdinand 
I ' , the editor of tho Review, It should be stated, how- 

over, that M. Alfnxl Dubout, the author, had written to M. 
Brnn(<liere a long reply to M. Jules Ijomaitre, of which ho 
reaiiested the insertion, but which M. Brundliiire refused to 
puulisli. It remains to Lo seen whether tho I'oria magistrates 



November G, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



87 



AiiUnl, 



Mrill oonsidor theniHolvos mithorizod to dociilo ai to tho 
the privilogoH of oviticiiiin, and arrogate t< 
80 iiiuonKi»l4mt witli till) iiatiirf <if tliut jiiil 
(lid not liOHitato t<> court 
apprc-ciatioiiH of lay uiul |>i 

M. DulKdit'a concoptii'ii ol lliu luii ol tiiu Cuiu in woulil .-euin 
to l)0 vory like tho notion held tindur tho '• olii riifimr " by 
bolittvers in l' I" il iirivilojics of litornry •■■ 
that of tho > I'ln of thu Imlix, wImlIi I. 

onu of till) fi 1 iMioks Rioit diHuiioit throt: ri.ii.u 

/i/iVM, tho " History of Frani^o," written bv i 

of tho Horbonno, and by M. Oobidour, a )i 

Ministry of Education. Ah a niattor of aoniu < 

intcruat, it in worth whili) (|Uotinf; fn 111 this |io|'i 

manual tho sort of |iasKa);o wliiuh boa, no doubt, xt'ouiod to tho 

Uoniaii Connors to warrant thia rigour. With rofuionco to tho 

crusades tho joint authors euy : — 

" Those wars, which cost tho lives of many thouaanda of 
men, woro not just, for they had us tlioir main object to force 
)>eu|ilua to cliani;u their religion. Ultimately, moreover, they 
altogether failed, and had as a result to render more violent tliat 
hatred of the Mussulman again.st the Christian which still to-<lay 

is so deplorable. Tho Cojics, furthermore, after hnv- Iioil 

crusadoa against tho Mussulman, finally ordoiod th' the 

Christiuiii<. Thus it was that tho Albigeois, a j>opi.i... the 

south of Franco which did not understand tho Cliri.stian religion 
ill tho same way aa Uiu Catholics, and who had a ]>erfoct right 
not to do so, wore exterminated at tho beginning of the 13th 
century by tho will of Innocent III., oi a con.soiiuenco of an 
nboininablo war in which tho crusadera conducted theniaelvcs as 
.savages or wild beasta." 

After this citation it is not dillicidt to imagine the tone of tho 
ostimato of that great act and groat blunder of tho reign of Louia 
XIV., tho Revocation of tho Kdict of Nantes. But tliis auflieos 
to indicate the spirit of laic instruction in Franco and tho con- 
stantly alert attitude of the Homan cenaora. 



liniitfi of I ftnallT finds a homo as dirf-rtn'im of a rr-fuso for poor ctitMr«n 



RUSSIA. 



The present year has not been productive in liuaaia of any 
very remarkable work, cither in liction or in any other depart- 
ment of literature ; and, although there is no paucity of talent 
amongst modern Kiissian authors, man}- of their writings fail to 
appeal to tho iesthotic souse, and leave the reader unsatistied on 
account of tho absence of tho ideal and the excessive roaliain 
to Im) mot with in their work. Tho reason of this is not far to 
seek. Economical dovelo]inicnt, or, in other words, the pursuit 
of money-making, is what almost exclusively occujiics all classes 
of society in Russia as elsewhere in tho present day: agriculture, 
trade, indiKstrj-, stock exchange business, tho promoting of 
various companies, iVc, aro its objects and interests; and, as 
literature niu.st necessarily rellect the conditions of the life of 
tho country, it no longer portrays ideal heroes and heroines and 
romantic situations, but tho everyday working life of the men and 
women, cliielly from the merchant and peasant classes, to be met 
with in tho various fields of labour, and therefore assumes a realistic 
cliaractur. It is to bo regretted that the usual amount of dirt 
and disgusting detail apparently regarded as a necessary part of 
such writings is not absent from them ; yet there is also a great 
deal of purity to bo met with in the work of modern Russian 
authors, even in tales of illicit love, and it is not exclusively 
sonsual, as is tho case with too many oxamiilcs of contemporary 
French literature, which api<eal to the lower senses even in 
descriptions of nature. Indeed, tho possion of love is frequently 
entirely absent from Russian works of liction, and wo very often 
find so-called novels which are in reality rather chronicles of 
peasant life or of life under various social conditions, and 
contain no lovo story whatever. 

Such a one is Nemirovitch-Dantchenko's great novel 
" Wolf's Greed," which first appeared in tho mag:-/.ino Noroyc 
Storo, and was published as a whole in 1807. Tho action takes 
place between the years 1885 and 181*3, and therefore includes 
the terrible year of tho famine. Tho scene is laid iu a lonely 
part of Southern Russia, and the novel is the history of 
iv usurer, who, having risen from the peasant class himself, has 
by dint of extortion ond robbery accumulated vast wealth, and 
has gradually drawn into his toils and ruined nearly all the 
inhabitants of tho little town, l)eginning with a retired general, 
whom ho gets named as director of tho bank, which he contrives 
to defraud under cover of tho signature obtained bv false pre- 
tences from the simple-hearted old man. Another of his victims 
is tho widow of a landowner, an energetic young woman who has 
come to live among tho jvasants with the idea of helping them 
and improving her own estate liesides, and who, having ruined 
herself during tho famine striving to feed tho starving (teoplo, 



of i! 
in I 



of him. 
viou.ily 
lovi 
the 



:i this chi 

f is ,1 ni 



.1 hlL 



ui U»u isiuvr 



Wolf's Greed 



"T 

t>« 
l« 

ir 

ur 

ut 

,1 



I* 

i;t 

I..- 



wo 



will ro- 



i 



!•.■: 



intii. 

IIv fn 



stern, gluoiay picture i 
Conditions of life, 
rem ' ' ' 

is t : 

novci. ' 
one of t! 
sorv.' fi 

talci.: _ ^ ........  

and in comparison with utln 

abort. They aro mostly j 

cliaractor, the clevornesa of which con, 

and never fails to awaken interest . 

even provoking passionate di.ipiitea and \\i 

Such wbs the caao with one of tho most fam< 

tales, " Ward No. 0, " i ' ' " 

lunatic wanl of a hospit 

neglect, and cruelty thai i"uia 

some 2«X) versta from a niilway. i 

rc&liatic, esp<'^' ■"•• •''■■ ■!■ -^'i' ''■ 

very ward of t 

Tolstoy's " L) .. .1. 1 ... 

power of tho author are undenial 

found impression on the mind. 1 

how the waiter in a great hotel in Moacow, having fallen 

and been unable to save anything, is coniioHed to 

turn with his wife and chihl t"> Tiia nat 'e. 

his remembrmnccs of childhood he has 

his birthplace as something bright and 

when he enters tho izba ho is oven fnc 

close, so unclean d ' ' ' ' 

only in the izba ; • 

all sides. Of rest uii.i i 

bility. .Ymongst his <■ 

gue.**t .■inoilii-r TiKioili : 

but 

and 

his wife and child :: 

aspirations after fl.i 

been found in prayer. tSlie iHiheves that, iikb 

somehow she will be frovidcd for. To c<*t i 

anxiety, and she goes oway from tho 

the windoWB of tho wealthier (H^asants 

Bttke. Such is the story. Hut, if 

not Ho there ; it lies in the ten i 

ranco and help'  - •■■ '• - • 

folded before ; 

affronts tho us.; . i 

the light less darkness in which the village is wi 

such things have been ilescribed many tin\i 

fail to arouse interest in Russia on account of the i;' 

tho life depicted to that of the cultured classes tl 

them. They have their 1180 also in directing attent. 

tiona and conditions of life that might otherwise imsa .. I, 

and doubtless on this account they form • favourite theuio u itli 

the more aerious Russian writers of the pre-wnt day 

In referring to tali s of {>oasant lif. 
regret the silence of Count Tolstoy. 
*' Master and Man " we have bad no witk .i 
pen. .\11 his leisure time is said to have been 
txiok on Art, shortly to be t-i i.-i.-i i.* -■ i 
add as little to his lit<irarj- r- o 

Moscow jMipers, however, onu. .-..,.. ..._: _ .. ;.,.. ;i- 

iiig a novel of peasant life, and we can only trtut they are cor- 
rectly infornuHl. 

After Tchekhov's somewhat depressing writings it is re- 
freshing to turn to one of Potapenko's last tales, " Fate." Like 



nis 

liWl. 

,d 

t, 

>'» 

Ml. 

'. '• 

!>0 
t, 

ly 

i.i vho 
passe* 
: V uniX 

■>• 

ill 

rc- 

e. In 

ok to 

; now 

rk, so 

i- not 

.1 . on 

"i- 

d 

1, 



Fo get 

viif;, 

to 1 



not to 

•n of 

m his 

ov his 



8b 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 189^ 



hu oeUbnted '* RuaaUn Priest," kno«m to Eiigliih roaden 
thrtMigh Xht Ute Mr. OauMon't trwulution it i« a story of the 
clarical life which ha« furnithod Potaf>onko with all his )M>it 
•ubjcota. An ambitious mutlier forms the j roject of marrj-ing 
her son, who is about to bo ordaincKl <l<«i«onn anil must therefore 
fint be marriwi. to the daughter of " v jwasant and miller, 
inaUad of to one of the undowered "( tbi- neighbouring 
clargy, m is generally the custom in sun ims^b. Hvt huil»and, 
an eMj-coing elderly priest, allows her to do as she likes, 
although It is »--■■-• '  ■— v -' - r,d the mother thinks she 
will have but Ir. i Vnssia, a dreamy, in- 
dolent youth, ui.u ..-.-.le will of his own. How 

the dreamer awak"!". lie nullur's buxom daughter A-ery 

different from the nl - . „  «■, bmwn-eyoil niaideu of Ids fancy, 
Mtd unknown to his mother persuades her to refuse him, is 
ihaniiin;;K tn!,1 Thanks to ttio help of a friendly widowed 
I ;s anite<( in three days' time, with 

u . to those unaoquuintod with tlic 

WKv* of UuAUitn > . 'les, to the orphaned daughter 

of a docossod cleric, of Father Martiri's, who exactly 

realixes the ideal m^iikii <>l the young man's dreams. The 
miller's daughter is happily married to a prosj>erous young 
pcniint, and all ends well. It is a slight ston,-, but full of 
charm and freshness ; the country life, the simple people, the 
genial figure of Father Martiri, the young people's friend, who is 
■0 stout that he has to have a kibitka mada on purpose to hold 
him, are all delightfully described, and it would be hanl to find 
a talo that would leave a more pleasing impression on the mind. 

A strange plav has just been acted in St. Petersburg; it is 
entitled"TheEvi[rit,orDitoh,"and is byayoung author named 
FolomJcff. When it came under my notice some months ago, I 
was struck by the apparent impossibility of such a piece ever 
being rtipresente<l on the stage ; of plot there is hardly any, of 
•oanery still less, for the whole action takes pluce in one room, 
and amongst the few charactcrsthat comprise the'/rn»ia<i'ji7Jfr.ioncc 
there is absolutely no hero. It isasorditi story of a poor girl who, 
having vainly trie<l. after the death of her paralyzed father, to 
support her brother and herself by her work, is at last driven to 
lea«i a life of shame in order to keep the boy at school. After a 
time, tauntvd by his schoolfellows as to the way his sister gets 
her living, he suspects the truth, and when he calls upon her to 
deny it, and she only turns away weeping, saying it is for 
his sake, ho strikes her a blow in the face, and an opportunity 
being given him of rejoining his elder brother exiled to a remote 
towii for a political offence, he catches at the chatice and leaves 
his sister without a look. She is utterly crushed, and with the 
words, " Then I am left alone ; it is terrible, terrible," the play 
ends. The young girl's sacrifice of herself .somewhat reminds us 
of Doetuieff sky's "Sonia," but Dostoieffsky's genius is unfortu- 
nately lacking, and the work does not possess sufficient literary 
merit • 'its tediousness and duliiess. 

^ ' nt in character is the work of the brilliant 

feuillei"in»te ISaron On-Dit, one of the Princes Hariatinsky. 
who writes under that name and whose speciality is the cynical 
,1,.';,.. . . ; ,. .,r i.; .1, ijfg j^d smart society in St. Petersburg. 
! mostly in the form of dialogue, are a 

► :. ;. the empty, vicious, pleasure-socking society 

! The last of them, entitled " Lolo and l<ala." which 

a, _ ut a few weeks ago, shows how society will receive and 

nuike much of a woman, oven though she is known to have a 
lover, as long as she remains under the nominal protection of 
her husband, even though that husi and makes a shameful use of 
ber beauty to indulge his oxtiavagancc ; yet as soon as she 
olHains a divorce from him and marries the man of her choice, 
the world turns the cold shoulder on her and treats her as a 
diclattie. 

Recent numbers of the magazines and newspapers have Wen 

f'" '■■■' <:...:.- — 1 - - onal reminiscences of Katkotf, 

t I 7(1 I' iritoinosti And the liiitxi.i 

I.--. ;,... lice his death, and the occa- 

•ion waa decnx :o a reprint <>f all the articles 

ba erer wrote. , a remarkable pemonality no 

one will dmiy, nor is there any iloubt as to the enormous in- 
floacoe be ezerte<l in Russia, yet the adulation, almost amount- 
ing to worship, now lavished on him appears ezcessi<re and over- 
don*. e«p«'M«!ly as many persons regard the classicism he was 
r' ental in introducing into Russian schools as a 

'  • • foaturo in the current magazines is the 

d> T' An article recently api>eared in the 

J' ' ■7v rn,i;:ii.i:iiing that Pushkin was not nearly such 

a , r. it ; •<t as is cen»rnlly BiipiK)se<l, and, in fact, that poets 
•!•< li iut tho PoliahMickieiricz and others were infinitely siijierior 
tu him. Now another article, this time by Soluviotf, a well- 
known critic, baa been published in the same magazine asserting 



that Pushkin's early and tragic death waa by no means a matter 
of regret, for ho was no longer cajiablo of further enrich- 
ing Russian literature. Of course, other writers are found 
taking up the defence of the great Russiun poet ; but in 
Russia, as abroad, the taste for romantic pinery is on the decline, 
and as Hyruii is now but little read in Kngland, so I^ishkin's 
works, with tlie exception of his " Kvghenii Unegnin," find but 
few readers in Russia. 



THE UNITED STATES. 

As one thinks of one's impre.ssion that .\meri:a to-day lacks 
such men of letters and most of all such )><>ets as wo used to have, 
a quatrain of Father Tabb's comes to mind :- - 
" Their noonday never knows 
What names immortal are : 
'Tis night alone that shows 
How star surjiasscth star." 
This litt!e verso, entitle<l " Fame," is from the volume of Lyrics 
which he published la.tt sjiring. .Just how much recognition that 
book has had, or the volume of poems which preceded it, ono 
hardly knows ; but as one grows familiar with them one feela 
more and more sure that no poems written in this country have 
been better able to stand the test of familiarity. They are not, 
so far as one could tee, typically American : they might have 
been made wherever the poet who made them chanced to have 
been born or to live : but they could never have Ictnmode 



by any but a true poet, nor yet by any other poet than the 
gentle priest, a professor in Maryland College, who has made 
them what they are. 



Two little volumes of reprints which have appeared within a 
week or two rather confirm the suggestion of Father Tabb's 
quatrain. Professor Bliss I'erry, of Princeton, who is en- 
uiusiastically editing a series of " Little Masterpieces," ha» 

i'ust brought out his tirst volume, containing seven of the best- 
;nown tales of Poe ; ond the Harpers, under the apt title " Ars 
Recto Vivendi, ' ' have collected some of the pleasant essays on how 
one ought to live, which Mr. (ieorge William Curtis coiitribute<l 
to the well-known Easy Chair of llat]>i-i'.i MiKjnzinr. Roth of 
these books are attractive in aspect—the kind that one likes to 
slip into one's pocket when in doubt as to what one wants 
there ; and the contents of both, it is needless to aay, deserve 
the care which has been given them. All the same, sa 
one turns the pages, one has reassuring thoughts. Poe's name is 
one of the chief in our American past ; and though Poe's star 
surpasses that of Curtis there is little tlanger yet awhile 
that Curtis will be forgotten. The two, different as they 
are, fairly typify our older time, for which now and 
again one is apt to sigh ; one is glatl to have both re- 
membered and revived, yet one can hardly feel, as one reads 
either tales or essays, that such work as this is unapproachable. 
A book promised us before wint«>r may fairly bo hoped to contain 
things as well worth preserving as the best in those. Mark 
Twain is to give us a new vohiiiie of travels. Ho is a puzzling 
figure, largely because the oddity of his humour combines witf» 
the obvious crudity of his early work to make one think him 
merely clownish ; but whoever has read " Huckleberry Finn," to 
take a single example, must feel that a man who can write like 
Mark Twain at his best is one to reckon with in any serious esti- 
mate of national literature. Whotever el.se, he has a power rare 
in mcKlcm times — to use a big word for want of a little one, 
he can write in the Odysseian stylo. Assuming this character or 
that, he can take you through episode after episode, whether of a 
trip to Palestine or of a drift on a raft down tlie Mississipj)!, and 
somehow can combine these disjointeil things into a coherent 
panorama of a human epoch which, like any < ther, is boun<l to 
t>ass. In a century or two, one inclines to think, people may 
begin to discover that these queer things, which their groat 
grandfathers thought more nonsense for a spare hour, nave 
in them, for all their crude whimsicality, something of the 
quality which makes the Odyssey or Don (Quixote so ilastingly 
human. Mark Twain is not a Cer>*autes, of course, and lai 
less a Homer ; yet at times ho can make one think of both. 
And the beauty of it is that you cannot imagine him suspecting 
the fact for a moment. All of which, significance and un- 
consciousness alike, one likes to believe characteristically 
American. 

Characteristically American in a very different way is tlio 
biography privately printe<l in Hoston a few weeks ago and now 
nnoiitrusively put bef()re the public. This is the "Memoir of the hit f> 
Mr. Robert < .Winthron," prepared for the Masenchusetts Histori- 
cal Society byhisson, who bears thesamoname. The Massachusetts 
H istorical Society is one of the few Icameil boclies in America 
which, by strictfy limiting their mcmbciship, liavu preserved 



November 6, lfi97.j 



LITERATURE. 



89 



their cnriH>riito (li(;iiity. It may (1i>iibtlei)ii bo o»ll«(l i>r<>viiici»l, 
looal, old fng'^y : ^"^ nobody oiiii <)oiibt tlmt it ntally nwiiitatns 
tho tratlitioriN of Now KiigUiid, or that itn piiblioationii, though 
RotnutimDH of ohictly anti<|uariiin iiitoroat, iiru •txculloiit iii thuir 
kind. Afr. Winthroi) was pronidi'iit of tliu aooioty for thirty 
yoant ; an<I thin M«moir in tfio iiiDst connidorablo which han uver 
Deuii fi)rniiilly i)n>noiit«<l thom. For two reas<iiiii ita value if 
morti than local or toniporory ; in tho llrnt i>Ucii, aftor an interval 
which ban allnwoil tho |ianRiiiiiii of our Civil Wnr to cool, it aeta 
forth with ultor nimiiliiity and fidolity tho careor of a man, who, 
in 1W7, lioforo ho was forty yuam old, was Sp<<akor of thu 
national IIouho of it«[irogontAtivus ; who found himsnif nnablo, 
in tho timo whon tho xtorm wim i^athorini;, to ally hini8olf with 
any movement which onilnngoroii tho Union ; who retired a/"conl- 
incly from puhlio lifo, pmhubly tho least uni1orstoo<l of Amurioan 
piibfic mon ; who livo<l to bo cullo<l in bin old aj'o tho firatcitixen 
of tho I'nitod Statos ; and whom thoso who know him l)Oit 
foeliovo to merit tho epitaph under which ho lion :— " Rminont 
as a Scholar, an Orutor, a Statesman, and a Philanthropist ; 
above all, a Christian." In tho Hocon<l placo, evon if this 
Memoir concornud a man and a time of small historic interest it 
would remain iiotublo for tho rare ipiality of its stylo. Tho 
youncor .Mr. Wintlinip is not widoly known us a man of letters : 
it is doubtfid, indeed, whether ho bus over published anything 
except in the prooediugs of the Matwucliusotts Hi.storicul 
Hociuty ; but nolxHiy who has written in America has written 
bettor, and few writers of English anywbore have written 
so well. 

Nothing liko so diatinguishod in stylo, but forall that a book to 
consider with ros|M'ct, is ilio " Lifo of (Jonoral llolwrt E. Leo," 
just writtJin by Professor H. A. White, of Washington and Lot) 
College, the institution of which (Jonoral Leo Iwcanie Pitisidont 
«ft«ir tho close of tho Civil War. Of course. Professor White's 
sympathies are stroni;ly Southern ; if they were not ho ooid<l not 
adequately deal with IjOo. One of the most welcome phases of 
American f(>oling nowadays, however, is that strong aymoathy 
with tho Sonth no longer roi)ols tho temper of Nortboi'n readers — 
at least among those to whom tho War is n matter of history 
and not of passionate memiry. This book will help to confirm the 
growing sentiniont that Loo is one of our national heroes, as 
«uroly as HamiMlon is one of England's. Two other books of 
rather pijndar history, which anpcarod at about the same timo 
Professor White's, perhaps deserve at least |>assing notice as 



as 

chariM;tori»tically American. Tho first is a " History of American 
Christianity," by tho Hov. Ijoonard Woolsoy ilocon, one of the 
well-known Kacon family, of New Haven ; it ap[H)ai's on cursory 
examination to set forth with more clearness than one woulil 
expect the bewildering story of tho dissidunco of dt!i.sent, tho 
Protestantism of the Protestant religion. The second is a work, 
uniform with tho other, in which the Rev. Paid Van Dyke, a 
graduate of Princeton, now Minister of the Church at North- 
jimpton, Afassachusetts, where Jonathan Edwards preached, 
sets forth the history of tho Papacy during the Henaissance, or, 
as he prefers to call it, tlio Kenascence. The American cha- 
racter of this work does not transpire from tho title ; but if Mr. 
Van Dyke is responsible for the headlines of his pages he has 
enriched tho English language. One of the Popes — Sixtus V., 
we will say at a venture— is described in capital letters as a 
■" nepot." 

Two volumes of essays which have just appeared seem 
«qually worth attention from whoever is intemsted in the con- 
temporary trend of .\merican thought. One, entitIo<l " The 
Personal Equation," is by Professor H. T. Peck, of Columbia 
College, or, as the grandiloquent fashion of the moment ardently 
prefers to call .American seminaries of learning nowadays, 
Columbia V'nivorsity. Of this College, it will l)o remembered. Mr. 
><eth Ijow, the Reform candidate for the Mayoralty of (iroater 
New York, has for some years been president, aiul Professor Pock is 
editor of tho llookiuan. His essays are mostly on American 
subjects. One, for example, is about Mr. Howella, another 
about President Cleveland. A glance at them suggests that if not 
permanent contributions to the higher thought, tney are at least 
individual and sincere, and that the individual sincerity 
which pervades them is of a kind which would never 
have developed in any other environment than that of Now York 
City. The other is a thoughtful Imok by Mr. Delos F. Wilcox 
on the " Problems of City Government." These, which are 
among tho most disturbing in this country, he sots forth with 
courage if not with clieorfulness. The closing wortls of his 
book, to which ho leads his readers with obvious care, are 
■" Democrocy is at stake." No four wonls coubl bo more typical 
of what Mr. Wilcox, probably with justice, believes tho tennier 
of this country to be. To enlightened thought, one may assume, 
■democracy, like autiicracy, is only a moans to tho end of law, 
order, and siK-ial happiness, to bo judged by its reaults. To Mr. 



Wilroi, or at least to th« [Mibliohea'i 
itoelf as a fetinh, to \m worabippwl :> 
over wa« bjr cavalier. 



praaents 
ns right 



THE DUCHE8S OF TECK. 
In connexion with the lamented death of tho Ducheaa 
of Te«k we nay bo allowed to exprMS tho regret which the 
literary public, in common with tho entire nation, will frel at 
tho loaa of so sympathetic a personality and the oloae of a life 
in which the duties attaching to high station wete so thoroughljr 
and conscientiously recognised. 



Tho circumstances under which the dramatic death of 
Mr. Hbxhv (JsoRiiE took place made it, at the moment, chiefly 
of political importance. He was tho Socialist and Labour can- 
didate for the Mayoralty of Oraater New York, and die<l on 
October 20 of a]M>pIoxy, brought on by the work and excitement 
of the electoral contest. If ho never attained a poeition of 
political im[>ortance, he will have a distinct place in tha 
history of pamphleteering literature. Few IrofkuitM, if on* 
may so describe It, attracted so widespread an interest 
both in England and America as " Progress and Poverty," 
published in 1870. (ieorge was bom in 1839, and after spending 
some timo at sea he settled in California in IS.'itf, where he was 
struck by the monojiolies in land granted to powerful corpora- 
tions. He was led to believe that private property in land was, 
both on abstract and jiractical grounds, nulically wrong ; and ho 
devised a scheme for ousting proprietors by appropriating rent in 
tho form of taxes. His theory was explaine<l at length in 
"Progress and Poverty," and, unsound as tho work vas in much 
of its argument, it was read with keen interest not only on 
account of tho audacity of its proposals, but of its easy flow of 
language and tho real power with which some parts of tho case 
were presentetl. The book did much to stimulate thought. It 
ex|>osed abuses, but it also revealed the weakness of the remedies 
propose<l by tho school of reformers for which the author spoke. 
A more valuable work was bis " Protection an<l Free Trade," a 
very instructive contribution in the interests of Free Trodo to the 
taritr controversy, and one which exercised a wide influence in 
the Presidential campaign of 1892. In 1H80 Mr. Uoot;^ had 
aettletl in New York as a journalist. He was the editor of a 
weekly periodical called tho Stawtai-'i, and was recognized as 
one of the leaders of the Socialist party in tho city. He was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the mayoralty in 1886. With his 
social and political opinions we are not hero concerned. Though 
ho had a considerable following in tho United States ho was 
more impressive as a writer than as a speaker, and bis failure 
to influence permanently any large section of his Englisli 
readers was due not to any distrust of tho man — for his honesty 
was acknowledge<l by both friends and foes— but to the fact 
that the things ho bad advocate<l with his pen ho did not prove 
himself able to support in controversy on the platform. 



Tho Vkky Rkv. James RvRNK.Doan of Clonfert, whodio<l on 
tho 'J:titl lilt., at Ergenagh iiectory, Omagh, aged 77, was a dis- 
tinguished scholar of Trinity College, Dultlin. In the midst of 
his clerical duties he found time for a profound study of 
philology, and pnblishod •' (Jonoral Principles of the Structure 
of Language " in 1885, and in 1887 •• Origin of tl;e Greek, Latin, 
and (lothic Roots." i: ' ' ' lies into the bases of 

literature, ho contribut iralism and Spiritual- 

ism," published in 1850. 



Dr. Stougutox, who died, at tho ago of 80, on Oclobe- 24, 
was well known in London as tho minister of Kensington Congre- 
gational ist Church, from which ho r..*;.-.,,) i,, 1874. He was one of 
tho most cminentofNonc'onformi^' nd one of the founders 

of the Congregational I'liion. 11 • and oj<inions naturally 

led him to choose the 17th century as a field of study. In 1867 ho 
published " The Ecclesiastical History of England from the 
Opening of the Long Parliament to the Death of Oliver Crom- 



90 



LITERATURK 



[November 6, 1897. 



w»ll." and ihfe ywkrt l»t«r " The Churth of the Re»tor«tion." 

Hi» fill*! contribntion, however, " Religion in KapUud from 

1800tol8bl," 1 ' •' UM (iiieiitionB of to- 

d*T. and ahowx ' i'i> Kouixlhoad mid 

CkTklier h.' .i|.i. .i. of »o<-ts. One prcat 

object of ! - to show tlmt difrureiiocB in 

•ccleei--*' • "' with social and literary 

friemi Mfonl. Dean Hook, Dean 

Stanle.. - . "^ ; ; ' ^iiojvs Tait and Mageo are 

«inpl« eridenoo of thia. 



The Rkt. T. E. Bkowx, the poet and exponent of Manx 
li? ' ' - "^ — Viy lost. Ho was boni and, until ho went to 
i' i" Manx land. Tho son of the Vicar of 

1;. . • '.■' K " _• William's College, Islo <if Man, 

\»1.. :. r stiidptitship at Christ Church, 

and >,; . .. careiT by winning almost the 

high— t distinction (>xford had then to offer, a Fellowship 
ftt Oriel. Aiter a ncriixl, spent partly in his native country' 
•• ft maator at King William's Collcco and partly at the 
Crypt School. <tlo«ce8t»>r, he went in 1863 to Clifton College, 
where ho r until 1892 as second master. Ho was a 

gnooeaaful, : teacher, who could, undoubtedly, had he 

wished it, have a<jliiovc<i a wide reputation, either in the world 
of letters or in pnblic affairs ; but out«ido the walls of Clifton 
Gollege he is known only as the author of " Betsy Leo " 
(1873), " Fo'c's'le Yarns " (1881), " The Manx "Witch " 
(1889), "The Doctor" (1887), and "Old John and Other 
Poems " (1893). They appealed to a somewhat limited circle of 
readers and were chiefly in the Manx diale<'t ; but they won 
the warm admiration of discriminating cntios and of dis- 
tinriiii<lio<I « ritcrs. such as George Kliot and Browning. Mr. 
I y in his old home in the Isle of Man, and 

c :  iially to the Xational Obaenxr under Mr. 

Henley and to the Sew Revitic. 



Hlotcs. 



A considerable nnniber of rolumes which will not be notice<l 
in LiUraturt arc at the diRposal of publishers, and will be handed 
to eny one they may authorize to receive them. They will be 
othMwise disposed of if not calle<l for by the 20th inst. 



The publication of Mr. Meredith's Poems gives 5Ir. Artliur 
Pymona the opportunity for an interesting study, in tho FoH- 
nii)hil\i Reriew for N'ovomlier, of tho qualities which repel and 
fascinate in Mr. Merwlith's novels. They are the work ho thinks 
of a " poet straggling against the bondage of prose." He ranks 
Mr. Meredith as a Deca<U'nt — taking lit<'rary Decadence in the 
•eiMe of " a learned ' ' ^^ge, by which stylo coa-ses 

to be organic " : air : rs of the novels will have 

felt the truth of the < I iiM i-iji, - mi' impressiveness with which 
nothing happens, when nothing is hap|i«ning, in itself a strain 
npon the energy." It is tho poetry in the disguise of prose 
wnich attracts and holds the reader— " affecting uh, in spite of 
ouiH»!v<-H. a- if :i -ir.iii •!■ and beautiful woman suddenly took her 
^ a Court of law." As an at+empt to 

)'': his lc><<s discriminating admirers, no less 

than to Uiomi wiio coat u e uc diy fail to understand him, the article 
is well worth rva<ling. 

• • »  

V— » -.-:.... \f,-„n, OoupilandCo. will publish " Charles I." 
I . LL.D. The work was completely wiitt*!n 

!■ ..t .■h:.,.i,r )..(..,.. .1,. .,)...>.>, of tho author. 

'I the Royal col- 

I' .■ , and a number 

of them have ii' ■•d. A reproiluction 

will n\nn \x- ii, 1 Charles I." from a 

I  . . H  , ,1 !;,, c:.,||vcti<m of the Earl of Roac- 

!• ■'. •* i ■■• •» !;■ ;. al quarto of the same size as 

" (^(UKJU Victuria," "Mary iituui," and " Cjuccn Elizabeth." 

• • • • 

Mr. Palsrave, whose <Ieath was notice<1 in onr iaaoe of last 
week, was of Jewish extra<tioii, nrul <hn nnmc I'algmve was first 
•MiilDed by his father, the ei ' 1, tho first 

wofk of dir Francis i'slgrave . h of " Tho 

Battle of the Frogs Mid Mice L>ears the lulluwing curious 



des<<ription of its author on its title-page :— " Par M. Francois 
Cohen do Kentish Town, ago do huit ans, London, 18f)7." A 
remarkable instance of precocity. 

« • « « 

Sir Francis Palgrave's " Uiso and Progress of the English 
Commonwealth," which was described by tho Kiiinhurijh Urricio 
on its appearance as " the most luminous work that has ieen pro- 
duce<l on tho early institutions of England," had, when first 
issued, a very slow sale. Though first issue<I at £3 °.>s., it was at 
one time to be had for IRs. Its real merit, however, asserted 

itself, and its value rose to more than its original price. 

« « « « 

Messrs. Longmans have a good deal of interesting biogrophical 
matter on their list for jiublicatioii — lives of Sir t). Savile, first 
Marquis of Halifax : of Stonewall Jackson : of Sir Henry Kaw- 
linson, by his brother Canon Uawlinson, with contiibutions by 
Lord Kulierts ; of Cardinal Wisonian by Mr. Wilfrid Ward ; and 
Professor Max Muller's Keminiscences. 

« « « « 

" Reviews and Essays " is to be tho title of a volume of 
essays in literary criticism which the Rev. D. C. Tovey, tho 
Clark Ijccturer at Cambridge, will shortly publish through 
Messrs. Bell and Sons. Most of the essj^s are rejirinted from 
the Ouartlinii, ond include criticisms on " More's I'topia," 
" Fuller's Sermons,' " Chesterfield's Letters," " Arnold's 
Last Essays," •' Edmund Waller," " John Gay," and "Eng- 
land's Helicon." 

 » •» « 

" The Glasgow School of Painting," by Mr. David Miller, 
is to be the first of a series of monogruphs on " Mo<lern British 
Sehools of Painting." The series is intended to do for tho 
history of English art what the iiistorians of the Schools of Art 
of Italy, tho i.uw Countries, (Jeriiiany, and France have done fir 
Continental art. To Mr. Miller's volume, Mr. Francis New- 
bery, the Hoadraastor of the Glasgow ScIuhiI, has contributed an 
introduction, in which he carefully ditrereiitiates his particular 
school from those of Edinburgh, London, and Birmingham. Tho 
hook will be fully illustrate<l by reproductions from paintings 
by Messrs. MacGrogor, Lavery, Guthrie, Stevenson, Koche, 
Walton, and others. It will bo published early in December. 
» * « « 

Messrs. Constable announce for publication this autumn, 
among other books, a collection of Tales of the West Highlands, 
by Lortl Lorne, entitled " Adventures in Legend." 

« •   

A correspondent writes to point out tliat in onr obituary 
notice of the late Doan of Llaiidatf we inadvertently spoke of his 
protest "against the dismissal oi Temple from tho headmastership 
of Rugby.' Wo should, of course, have said, " the suggested 
dismissal. ' ' 

 ■»•»■« 

Early next year the first volume of Mr. Murray's edition of 
Byron's works will be published. The chief features in tho 
volume, which contains his early poetry, will be — first, an 
authoritative text, carefiilly collated from tho existing manu- 
scripts, proofs, and successive eilitions, and giving all the 
important changes ma<lo by Hyroii from time to time ; secondly, 
the addition of 11 new poems belonging to tho perio<l of the 
" Hours of Idleness " ; thiidly, tho noti-s to tiie " Englisli 
Bards and Scotch Reviewers," the " Hints from Horace," tho 
" W'altz," and the " Curse of Minerva." The (dUimi dt Uu-r, 
strictly limited in number, will contain several pictures and 
portraits connected witli this |>erio<l of Byron's life, some of 
which have never before been reproduced. 

Mr. D. Nutt w^ritesas toourreview of Lady Magnus' "Jewish 
Portraits " publishe<l last week : — " Will you allow me to say 
that tho reference to a fronti8|)ieco (upon the absence of which you 
naturally comment) was suffered to remain in the preface by an 
oversight, an<l was only noticed after the review copies ha»l 
already Imjcu sent out. It has since been cancelle<l." 
» *  • 

\i '. Oliphant, Anderson, and Feirior aro issuing th«» 

)m I sketch of '• Laily ISlaiiche Balfour," the mother ol 

tli< .^.^.•■.. ilon. A. J. Balfour, in a new " booklet " style. 

 •   

A work of much interest to liymnologists announced by Mr. 
Murray is the Life and Ijetteis of the Itev. John Bacchus Dykes, 
late vicar of 8t. Oswald's, Durliam. Dr. Dykes's hymns have done 



November 6, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



Mr. H. S. Merriman in his " In Kodar's Tents," which we 
roviewiHl roceiitly, lias been eonimendoil fur tho local colour of 
his Sj>iini8h sconcB. Mr. M. Yglosias, however, writes ns to 
(loint out that this is hardly compatible with what ho tlunks 
shows an ij^noranco of tho Spanish language. " Concopcion," 
he says, " IS a girl's name, like Concha and ConcliiUi, 8hi>rt 
for Muria do la Concc{)cion, and it is (|uito wrong to append the 
cedilla to tho second soft C in it. It is common for a man to 
lie christened Maria, but only as an addition to amaiicalino prefix. 
Vincente is probably a slip for Vicente. EstoUa is a town in 
Navarre, famous in the Carlist wars. It is not a girl's name. 
Im's (Spanish for Agnos) is so sixjlt, and has not tiie dash or 
*' tilde " over the n. Those are a few of the errors I remember 
to have noticed when reading the book. Also ' buen ' instead 
of ' bion ' or ' bueno.' I do not suppose Konda can ever have 
been a Capitania General. It is probably a dependency of that 
of Seville or .Malaga, and 1 think I may safely assort 
that there was not a revolver in tlio place at tho timo written 
of." 

•» « * • 

The first wlition of Lord Tennyson's Life, consistine of five 
thousand conies, has been entirely exhausted, and o reprint is 
announced by Messrs. Macmillan. The same publishers are 
issuing a volume of sermons selocto<l from those l^nivorsity 
and other Sermons by tho late Dean Vauglian which had been 
allowed to go out of print. 



The NiUional Ririeir for Novoml)er has an excellent article 
on Tennyson by Mr. Leslie Stephen, and a readable naiier on the 
Volunteer by Colonel Eustace lialfonr ; but more than half of 
" Episodes of the Month " and about one-thini of the entire 
Iteview is duvoied to bimetallism, solely from the bimetallic point 
of view. Heaven forbid that we should express any opinion 
on a subject which, more than lovo or religion, appears to 
dissolve family ties and life-long fricndshiin, but (loes Mr. 
Maxse really think that this or any other single subject is worth 
this amount of space m what professes to bo a National Review ? 
If ho d<K<s, it would be fairer at least to give both sitles, and if 
he thinks there is but one side let liim call his organ the 
" Bin\etallic Review " and have done with it. 



Mr. William Watson, who has been spending part of tho 
summer and autumn at Windermere, is said to be preparing a 
oonsidorable amoinit cf new work for his volume which is to be 
published towards the end of the year. This book will contain 
tho alreiuly printed " Ode in May " and the noem entitled 
" Tho Unknown God," which appeared in tho Foi-tni,ihtly. 



Last year Mr. Tom R. Way, the well-known lithographer, 
issued a series of drawings illustrative of " Roliqucs of Old 
London." In that volume ho purposed to reconl only buildings 
which had e.<!cai>od tho (Jrcat Fire of London. He has, however, 
found one volume insuflicioiit : and he has prepared a now series, to 
include the great foiuulation schools, sncli as Christ's Hospital 
and tho Westminster Bluecoat School. As for the previous 
volume, ilr. Wheatley has supplied the explanatory letterpress. 



much for tho religious life of tho couiil.rr : and fifty-live of them 
are included in " Uymiia Ancient and Moduni. " Tho Editor 
is tho Rev. J. T. Kowlor, Vice Principal of Hatfield Hall 

Duiliuni. 



Three other Imoks of much interest from tho same publishing 
house are Sir Mount Stuart (jrant Dulf's " Notes from a liiary, 
Sir \VilliaM\ Anson's Autobiograjihy and political corrosiMindenco 
of Augustus Henry, third Duke of (irafton, from ducumontM 
hitherto unpublished in tho | o.viossion of his family, and the 
.toholarly collection of original vi-rse by the I'resident of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, entitlo<l " lly Severn Sea." A null 
edition of these Poems wan printed privately in Oxford. 



Messrs. A. and C Black are publishing tlie " Liturgy in 
Rome," the second part of tho IlandlxHik to Christian and 
Ecclesiastical Itomo, giving an historical account of tho Mass, < 
Church functions, vestments, festivals, and Saints' days. Tho | 
volume will bo useful fur tlie v '<-<'ii-'r :it the great Itoman Catholic | 
ceremonies. 



Mrs. Crawsliay, wboau |irii!«* for " Uio Ixnt •■•ayn m Kn^'I'th 
written by a w.. II. ..I, ..f miv i. ..»;,, n " l,..w. I,., : ; hu (or 

some years, >ws : — 

Byron  " 51a ; pr)M, 

I'o. Byron's '• Hints Irom Horace.' —l'l(» and i;*. iiyron'a 

" I*ritvrr nf Nafurr." Four prixos, i'.^ m.-h. Shcllrv'i 

" P: ! "-110 and £fi. -n 

the , £'.'>, and Jt3. K. ,<« 

..v^iuy's address ia, caru u( 12, Waiwick-toad, 

:,, \\\ 

1 « • # 

Ldnt winter thr Uritish Museum obtained a fmpyrwt contain- 
H of the Greek lyric poet BccchylidMi. 
was much mutilat«Hl, haa been nieeed 

■ml tho j)<>eiiis will !»• published 
An "Xiv-t transcript of tli" insnn- 
with an tt 

and a j' ;c 

r <i. 
rl,:«10 
' - :th 







in iiiicia 






and a 


la.-iMUii 


« 1 1 1 


1 I 1 


Kenyon. 


In > 





ity. Si.\ 



exce|>t in sma: ts. The 

great atliletic !■ four of ti. 

which were also celebrated by Pindar. 

« * • • 

.\moiig tho collected works of Charles I>ever, " Horace 
Tomi'b'ti.n " IiihIh n iLnlitfiil T.U... Ti.iIi.ihI it has been quea- 
tioi]> 'irat appeared in 

two \ ' ^ 111 and Hall, and, 

like " Arthur U'Leary," it relates tiie expenernoea of a trareller 
on tho Continent, who picks up odd bits of goaaip, anerdntos, and 
tales. Tho book owoil its existence to a aenea of ! tches, 

which I.«vor wrote to apiMsar originally tn nppai;. .s, but 

around which he subsei|iiont1 -^tury of Horace 

Templeton himself. When i -, in 1K72, Lever 

(loos not ap|>oar to have i ' :.i vonmu', nr is mention made 

of it in Fitzpatrick's " I er," but that it is by him ia 

concl'Jsive from internal . > im. uv.-. 

« « » * 

In tho F11' of I/OVP1 which 

Measrs. Down. • The Din Um of 

Horace T is t" ' ' " ' ' r 

siibscribi': the end ' >< 

there wein n" mu'iLratittn.S, btit me m'^ckh. win ihi nrovuiu<l with 

a series by Mr. Gordon Browne. 

« • • « 

Miss Agnes Repplior.the authoress nf "Ksoay* in Idlen^w," 
and e ' ins and essays, has  ; .•, 

whi.'  " Varia," and wh; .1 

by Messr.s. t,:iy and Bird. 

« * • • 

Now that Mr. W. T. SteatVs " B..rderland " lias ceased to 
exist, the " Letters from Julia " may receive a more careful 
attention. " Julia " is the lady who guiiled Mr. Stead in 
writing these letters. What their real imjxirt niny bo. or what 
wo are to understand from this unique rclati 's 

may lie in a better position to find out win ..j 

" Letters " in the volume form, in which Mr. Urant lUchards 
will, next year, publish them. 

  • • 

A b»>ok important to Colonial readers will be " Deeds that 
Won tho Emniro." Tli- r these " Dee<ls " « • '1 

by tho Rev. W. T. Fit<! i ill Iw issued as an . .1 

volume by Messrs. Suiitli. i,liler. and Co., some tune in Uie 
Christmas season. Mr. Fitchett is the Australian e<litor of 
Hmric of Rcrifwf and has, we iintlerstaiid, given much study 
to tho subject of which his book deals. 

■••»»■• 

Mr. Gilbert Parker has almost completed a new norel, " A 
Hundred Years Ago," which is to appear next year in 
<7oorl WoTflx. In its serial course it will be illustrated by 
Mr. I^ancclot Speed. Messrs. Mctliuen will probably issue it in 
its volume form after it has run its " course " in tho magazine. 

*    

In Boll's " Cathedral Series " will bo shortly published 
" Exeter," by Percy Addleshaw, B.A. ; " Peterborough," by 



92 



LITERATURE. 



[November G, 1897. 



R*r. W. D. ((wMting : and " T^inchesUnr," by P. W. Sergeant, 
fi.A. The rvltimM will be fully illiistrateil. 

« « ' •  

L«at Man's Lane," has been com- 
 II, autlior of " Tlu) I>«aveii worth 
isla-d by (i. 1'. Putnam'* Sons. 
• •• 



A new atory, entitlfvl 
pleUnl by Anna Katli 
Caae. " The story at. 



Mr. Stuart Fr^l.;! .• v. i,,1< usi a protest, which we fear will 
hardly com raan<! y,*j;ain»t i>ubli»hers' "readers." 

He has li«>l im M  him by a publishtT with u note 

to the 'l " our reader cannot atlviso the publication," 

&c. ii t is " a monstrous thini; tliat a gentlvman's 

MS. •!. -fHltotlie inilipiity of beins sat on . . . by 

aooM c< ." Hti is of opinion tliat wo oujfht to know 

aomethiii^ aU>iii tin.su rcailera. »inof "our critics in tlie Pressure 
all known to uk." am) that the subject is much too serious and 
important for a Koyal Commission. Wofearthat publishers cannot 
lM«sp«cte<ltorvad for themselves all the MSS. submitted to them. 

• #   

In Mr. Hataford's publishing list appears " Examples of Old 
Fumit'ire, Enclish anil Foreipn," tlrawn l>y .\lfred Krne.xt C'hnn- 
cellor. The Hates, which will be 40 in number, promise to be 
historically interesting as examples of each period in tlie art of 
fun>iturv»-making lK)th in this country and ahroa<l. The work will 
include drawings of a cabinet once belonging to Charles I., pur- 
chased by the late Sir John E. Millais, and now at Hatfieid- 
bouae, and of Dean Swift's escritoire. 

• « « •» 

The Gospel of Dr. Samuel Smiles has fallen sonienhat into 
discredit with the present generation. The virtues of the com- 
mercial spirit do not strike the popular imagination bo much as 
tber did in the days of the Alanchester rctormcrs. tint bmiles's 
books contain abundance of sound advice, ar.d are a }.erfect 
treasnrehoiise 1 if personal nnocdoto. The cheap edition of them 
now being issiie<l by Mr. Murray will help to make known to the 
rising generation b<>oks which at one time had an enormous cir- 
culation and have been translated into many languages. 

• * • * 

Harper's Eound Tiihh, of which the first nuiul er 
appciroa on Noveml>er 1, adds yet another to the numerous 
periodical publications of that well-known firm. In the frontis- 
piece we have the world as a ric'n plum-pudding Iwing presented 
to a number of expectant children seated at a round table. The 
fare provided lor the young jwople, to whom this new niontlily 
roa(;azine is dcvote<l, is, judging from the first numler, well 
selected and well served up. it contains five completed stories 
and two " to l)e continued in our next," four articles contain- 
ing information in a readable form, a poem, prize competitions, 
notes alxiut stam(>B, coins, pliotogra|)hy, and many other subjects 
of interest to intelligent Ixiys un<l girls, a " humorous page," 
and abundance of capital illustrations. The price is Gd. 

•  • « 

Tn IKTO were nubli8he<! two j)ortly tomes entitled " Gossip 
«'f  iry," by the author of '• Flemish Interiors,'' " De 

»'. i.'bus ; an old man's WanderiuL'S," &c. The " old 

Buui " proves to bo the widow of Mr. \\ . Pitt Byrne, a former 
proprietor of the ituniitig Punt. She was a remarkably able 
lady, and was on terms of friendship with many of the note- 
worthy literary and er/lesiastical iKsrsonages of her time, both 
ii.  ' ••-■■. After her demise a large numhcr of 

II' IT {a|iers, amounting practically to a 

seri"» • I' (>s(^ have now been carefully di|;cste<l 

and e<l M < K. H. Itusk, who will issue them 

in tbe i.^im ■■, i..-, ,in-^,- volumes, through Messrs. Wanl and 
Downey, with the title, " Social Hours with Celebrities." The 
celebrities incluile Squire Watertoii, Cardinal >T.T!iiniii'. Cardinal 
Wiseman, Bishop Willier force, Charles Hr.i nd many 

notable literary aii'l clerical Frenchmen. Iiitei' „ iildbcaii 
account of researches among the archives of the Thrdlrc Fnuiriii.i, 
and tlie story of th» " iiuiking of Brighton," to which .Miss 
Bokk devr>tcs B| ' ter«. From the French archives Mm. 

Pitt byme has . . s<iiue interesting infoioiation re.tpuct- 

iog Boltespierre, Cluilutte Corday, Cartouche, and others. 

• • • • 

Mr. John Adams, the Hector of the Free Church of S>-otknd 
Training ('ulU-zo, has i'l-t C'.ire. t<-<l for Press the proofs of his 
work on " ' 'dogy, as applied to Educa- 

tion." It « . ' -"irs. Isbister and Co. 

• •  • 

In many of the notices of Mrs. Olinhant's book about the 
Uackwoods si<rpris« has been expressed tliat George Eliot should 



have discovered hers<-lf to W a sharp woman of tiusiness in her 
correspondenc-o with the publishers of her earliest works, and that 
she should even have interfered with " the profnund mystery of 
advertiseiiieiits. " The letters written by George Kliot to Mr. 
Blackwoo<I wvre really dictated by George Henry Lewes, who 
watched her business alTairs w ith the iitiiiost scrutiny and with 
unceasing vigilance. Lewes was himstdf u lirst-rate man of 
business in all literary concerns, and he took tlie management of 
George Kliot's matters entirely into his own Iwinds from the first, 
nor hod she any desire to bu consulted on such questions, muclr 
less to interfere in them. That J^ewes was a most eftlciont 
literary manafrer is proved by the largo fortune which (r«'orgi» 
Eliot left behind her, every shilling she ]>os.ses.-ie(l having beuu 
made by her pen during a (lerioil of about '21 years. 

« « * •» 

An evening journal has publisluHl an article entitled " Tlio 
Earnings of Authors," in which it gives the amount " left " by 
many cicceascd writers. It should, liowever, be romembere<l that 
the sum possessed by an author when he dies atfonls no sort of indi-- 
cation as to the gross amount of his "earnings. " I'niess a writer 
possesses a fortune of his own (which is rarely the case) ho has 
been living on his earnings, and the private expenditureof liteniry 
celebrities is usually on a generous scale. For exami)le, this article 
states that Dickens " left £100,000." As a luattor of fact Dickens 
die<l worth i.''j:i,000, which include<l the price of his Gadshill 
property and the sum obtained for his furniture, jiiotures, &c., 
all of wliich realized extravagant prices. Moreover, Dickens hml 
ma<lo about £3o,000 by his readings. Let it be remembered that 
while Dickens was writing " Pickwick " ho had absolutely 
nothing except his lit*-rary earnings. For some :i3 years Dickons, 
lived mvishly and brought up a latge and expensive family, 
and all his annual expenditure was derived from his literary 
gains, so that the sum left by him really affords no informatioit 
whatever as to his "earnings" from his books. He had no 
private means of his own, nor did his wife bring him a shilling. 
« « « * 

The Tauhtiinti, the organ of Merchant Taylor's School, con- 
tains a Latin rendering of Mr. Hudyard Kipling's "Ucccssional," 
from which we quote the last two stanzas : — 

Ebria »i tanto rerom mens vans parstu 

Inipulxrit lingiiam verba soluta ln<|ui, 
Esrbarifa' quo more soIent jactare catervte, 

Ctentilius aut Veri fti quihus u.sii.s nbust, 
Da viniam, T»'<iu<' a«j i'<-tu nr Ruliirahc iiustro, 

Ublitimiue Tiii iioiniiiis adilc metum ! 

Cum Aki bumanis opiljun nova fulmina belli, 
Aut ferro armataa coiHlimuM arte rati'S ; 

Pulver<' cum jnilvis atatU't xua tecta au|>erluf<, 
Kt sine Te tutaa rt'n jubft esae puas ; 

Cu n sine lege furit vrnlosn" inannia !in(jii:p. 
Da Tcniam nobia I Da, Pater, eaae 'l\ioa. 

Tlie rendering is signed " W. B. ," and wo shall probably 
not be far wrong in assigning it to Dr. Baker, the Head Master. 

« • •  

Mr. Shadworth H. HcMlgson, formerly President of th» 
Aristotelian Society, has in tlio Press a new philosophical work, 
entitled " The Metaphy sic of Experience." It consists of four 
books, distributed over as many volumes. The titles will be a» 
follows : — liook I., General Analysis of Exiierienco ; Itook 11., 
Positive Science ; Book HI., Analysis of Conscious Action ; 
Book IV., The Heal Universe. 

« « « « 

The next meeting of the Aristotelian Society will be held 
on November 16. Mr. G. E. Moore will read a paper on Fiee- 
dom. 



The " Victorian Era Series " (Biackio and Son) will liogin 
on Novemlicr 15 with Mr. Rose's volumo " The Uihu of 
Der.iocracy," which will be followed on December 15 by Canon 
Overton's volume " The Anglican Revival." 

• « « « 

Messrs. Fisher t'nwin announce that they are arranging to 
t8<>ue Madame White Mario's Reminisccnvos, which promise to 
be of iuteretit as treating of the revolutionary movement in Italy. 
« « « « 

The Zoological Society have just issued a very imiiortant 
j.ublication, by Messrs. H. J. Elwcs, F.H.S., anil .T. Kdwards, 
entitled " A lU'vinon of the Oixler Hr.i/iniiihi ." The IhniirriiiUr 
constitute the lifth and last family of tho Butterflies. Very few 
«f ecies are found in Eiiro|)0. The monograph, which should be 
of great service to entomologists, consists of some !200 i ages of 
letterpress and U i>lates. 



November 6, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



99 



Mr. II. A. M. Stovonaoii haa written a iii»ii(i(;raiih on Ru)>on«, 
which will ho piililiilioil by MuSbfi. Kuuloy and ('<i. a.i thi< JiiniLurv 
Utue of the J'lutfolw. 

* * * , 

The moral to lio drawn hy EnL'lithniun from the Klevonth 
Tntornationiii CongrosB of OriontaTi.itJi, lioUl lunt Suptonihor in 
Taris, is forcibly drawn in tht October ishub of the Jimrtnil of thr 
Royal Aniatic Siicirty. "Tlioro was an \iniiHually lurijii attvndant-o 
from Kn)<;land ut this Congresj. Hut, nutwitlmtundin); that fact, 
tlie |>re|>ondcranco, l)otii in iicliohirMhi|i and inlhicnce, wu 
nnniiNtakably on the side of forei^'n Hcholars. This is not owinc 
to the want of ability in Kn^'liHiimen to iindortako this kind of 
work. . . . Hut whoroas tho foroi),'n (■ovurnmonts have 
established and e<|ui|i|ied large and iniiortant Oriental schools in 
I'aris, Herlin, Viunna, and St. rotorsburL', tho Knglish Oovom- 
nient, which has larger interests at stake, is content to dtift 
along, under tho new condition of niodurn days, witli tho name 
Bcant ])roviBion of all such incitements to study it has considtnd 
sufliiMi'iit in tho past." 

*  • « 

.\ very largo niindior of trnnshitions from the Fremh, (Jerman, 
and Italian figures among new .-Vmorican announcon\cntH, and 
there can Ihj no <juo8ti(in that in America tho interest in contem- 
porary fiiroicn literature is largely on the increase. Messrs. 
Oeorgo H. Richmond and Co. are to issue thi.s season transla- 
tions of at least two of tiabriele D'.Annunzio's novels. It will 
bo ronicmbored that their edition of the Italian author's " Tho 
Triumph of Death," was attacked by the American censor, and 
in consequence liad a veiy largo sale. 

* * « « 

Dr. Weir Mitchell, tho author of " Hugh Wynne," is a man 
of seventy years of ago, and is in medical practico'in I'hiladelphia. 
Ho is tho author of several important works on nerve dieoases, 
and as a novelist is already wel! known to the reading public of 
America. His books, " Hephzibah Guinness," " Holand IJlake," 
" Far in the Forest," and '• In War Time," have all met with 
considerable success, and he is the author of numerous poems an.l 
several dramas. 

« « • * 

Tho indefatigable Major Tond, who is responsible for Mr. 
Anthony Hope's leclurinp tour in tho States, has arrango<l for Mr. 
Louis I<'agan, of the Hritish Museum, to give a series of lucturen 
in America on tho contentH of tho literary and mannsciiiit 
dopartinents of tho Hriti.sh Museum and of the National 
Oalleries of Xjondon, .Madrid, The Hugne, Haarlem, and 
Amsterdam. He has also made arrangements for Mr. Zangwill 
and tho Bishop of Uipon to visit America next year. 

*  « # 

The American booksellers arc suffering even n-ore thon their 
English brethren from the " department store," where more than 
half of the btK)k trade of tho country is now carried on. It is 
the open boast of the proprietor of one of tho largest " stores" 
in New York that ho can supply an ordinary customer with ii 
book at a choaj)er price than a bookseller can "obtain it from the 
publisher direct. The.so "stores" now buy books in such 
enormous quantities that they can practically demand any 
discount from the publishers. 

*  « « 

" Tho Clu-istian " is having a largo sale in tho States, but 
the book most in demand is ••still " Quo Vadis. " Nothing seems 
to have any effect on the sale of Sienkiewicz's novel, which is 
published at the comoaratively high price of two dollars. Messrs. 
Koberts Brothers, of IJoston, the publishers of " Quo Vadis," 
are bringing out a complete edition of Sienkiewicz's works. 

* « •  

The craze for small and artistically printed magazines — 
" fadazines " or " fadlets " they are called in the States is 
evKleiitly on tho wane. Tho HuoknelUr gives a bibliography 
of those •' ephemeral bil>elots," showing that the majority have 
had but a very chequered existence. The best known of these 
magazines is tho Chap Bool;, which has enjoyed something more 
than a local reputation, but probably the most clever, coiUinly 
tho most amusing, was tho Lark, which has been descrilwd as 
tho " reihictio ad ahnunhim of decadence." Mr. Celett Burgess, 
the editor, was a personal friend of iiobert Louis Stevenson. His 
burlesques and nonsense verses made excellent reading, and 
deserve republication in l»«ik form. Some of the titles given in 
the ]iuok.t(ttci's bibliography are sugge.>.tive of a nightmare. It 
is strange that any one has had the a'udacitv to issue a periodical 
bearing such a name as the diaii dowie,' Hxnz 6nir, the Clwp 
Jllork, Phi/ttida, ui- the MitkiiMUl, the Wet Ih'i, and tbo Y.How 
Kit. 



I 



A g(xH\ many years »gi> the Tetrran bookseller Carl Borendt 



uf I., 



<-ived tho 
t the ». 
1 build nr 
liome to all the cluo* and u 
was a monumental Hall of 

:tture of a haiidsoiiiti I 
i the (iernian Ix^ok-truib 
'.•■ annual L<Kik tni' 
>ns. I'art of this 



.r ti 



U ,1 



•nt 



Hii tdeal 
I b« tb« 

< h w«* 
to he 

'.« 
 1 
• 
f 



;.. 




I c live 


l;. 


M, 


.M 


useum, 


and 


IS 


a 


ii 


1 11 s t r V 


"lo r:. rin. 


1.1 



symbol of the importance <if .t 

Hcrr Lorck was l>oni in 1814, ....... .i... ,i.^' 

. lias found time to write much on the 
y. 



The struggle for the i In ad- 

way in (Jermany, ami e\ n.s to 

thelitcrature of thecaiiij ...^... i •; l, ,„,,..;- l .». i..  • ;t» 

of what Ufc*! to be known as women's rights is i . i 

Laura Marholm, who has i.iil,li-.li, ,1 m.i 1,. ..IkiIi ^ 

novel and the other a pi n 

seeks to prove that worn . '^t 

her true spher3 is that of wife and mother." In *• Krau Lilly als 
Jungfrau, (iattin, nnd Mutter," she adopts the novrl as her 
instrument for enforcing this doctrine ; in " Zur I h 

der Frau " she ruliis on scientific arguments. Sho i 
agitation for women's rights as a species of 1 ,. 

same need for excitement in women which : ' 1 

them to denounce one another as witches, iimi i.. :i. kiiiwlclijo 
themselves to l>e wilche.s, comjtels them now to enter into the 
agitation for women's rights. Both are misdire< Uil emotionai 
impuLies diverted from their central {joint." Both these books 
iire published by Karl Duucker, Berlin. 

 « «  

Hardly less severe is Dr. Otto Dornbluth in •' D; • > 

Fidiigkeiten dor Frau " (IJostock : W. Werthers Vi 
Herr Arthur Kirchhoff, on t!    . ^ 

auth( rity in favour of the en '^ 

"Die Akadcmischo Fran" ^i.,.,.., i, 

adduces the opinions of many dihtr 

authors in favour of thn tapocity and ^.... ;. ^cn for 

scientific studios and professions. 

« «  • 

The Italian Minister of Public Instniction has appointed a 



■■•I' 
and 



commission to examine tho iinpubl 
to decide whether it is desirable ' 
Tho commission numbers C'arducci 



sl-,.,l \ts>; .,f I , 



il.K.lw 



"pardi, am) 
I ublislied. 
■i. 



Becanse some enterrrisini' Fr..!u' 
issue of Mons. Alphonse Dai. 

numbers, the cry has l>oen rn: ^ ^ v 

I'aris that tho knell of the novel in volume form h;. 
and that hencofortli all I'Vench novelist* will publish i s 

jHir litiaiMms d deux Miu'i. Mons. Edouard Rod, the i 

writer of " decadent " fiction, will have none of the . ,1 

"revolution." In an article in the /y«'fcn(.< ho dtcliiiis to be- 
lieve that this revival of an old j rarti. o will extend. Of course, 
it has been applied in the past to such romances as those of 
Vict<ir Hugo and Dumaji ;>< rr, just as in England the works of 
Dickens and many other authors of the same t ' i cared 

first of all in this form. But, while hitherto it h- sorvetl 

in Prance for " popular" works, •• o»i tdche m.i ...,'say8 

Mons. Ro<I, " Jc I'api'ioyiitr a d(t (Hirrci littfraircn." " I do not 
belioTe," ho concludts, summing up his views, " that the format 
C'/mi^x-nricr will last for ever, any more than the tall hat or any- 
other fashion of t<>-<lay. 1 believe, too. that conditions o'f 
reading, and consequently those which govern booksellers, change 
with changes of manners, of ideas, and of customs. But I do 
not believe in tho revolution of which we hear. As long as 
romancers take the trouble to polish their works and to »e«»k 
after unity in thiir composition, so long will the volume form be 
necessary. To-day, and for some time to come, their reputation 
will be made and kept up by this form ; the /iiMii.x,n, whether 
with or without illustrations, will only 1 e a n.oie or less in- 
genious means of increasing Uieir • authors lights ' and 
widening their popularity." 

* « • « 

Mile. Zina de Wassilief. daughter of tho Arch-priest of tho 
Greek Church, has just tinishetl the translation into French of 
an important histoiical novel by a young Kuesian writer who Las 



94 



LITERATURE. 



[November 6, 1897. 



to th« front rank in Ritsaian literaturo, M. Dmitry de 
lUirfjkovrakv'. The titio in French ia *■ La Mort ties Dioux," 
and toe aubjeet is tho (tniggle of Christianity againat Paganiam 
in tba time of Julian the Apoatatu. 



Plon 
Ohoutien. ' 

Mid of till 

Tolami 
teabs. 



N- 



C\« are about to publish the Memoirs of 

turn a iiiouiIht of tho lA>jjisIative Assembly 

n botWLH.>ti the years 1761 and 1838. The 

': 'oen cdit«(1 by M. Barrucaad, and claims to 



The same firm have just publishwl a specially ititorosting 
book, entitled " Une Sofur de Grand FWd^ric," being tho life <n 
Looiae Ulrica, QuMn of Swe<lon. The work has been written in 
Agreat meunra from nnpablishcd sources by C.G. dc Hoidonstan. 
Tnare is an introdnction by M. Kcm^ Millet, one time Minister 
of Ttmtte* to Stockholm. I'rico ~f. 60o. 



Moi»r». C. F. Hflller, of Leiprig, have sent us some copies 
of • • inaU Litt hte, a fortnijijhtly i>eri<xlical 

II' : year of i h works on similar lines with 

LiUraiuii. While most of its sjiaco is devoted to reviews and 
notioM of German books, occasional articles arc published on tho 
proereas of literature abroad, and tho fortnightly lista of new 
pablicatinns contain, so far as we have been able to test them, a 
lairly full and accurate account of the output of the London 
market. A notable feature in this dejuirtmcnt is the attention 
which is paid to foreign editions and translations of German 
books. 

« « « « 

Can you analyze the poetic afflatiu ? This is the question, 
^y ..,.,.. .1... ........,^,.j. q( u series of questions, which Herr 

Kr _'er, outhor of •' Music as Expression " and 

" v.. ...^ .!...,. ..,., of tho Artist," recently addressed to various 

authors and artists in Germany. The answers are published in 
the September and October numbers of the Xeue DeutM-he 
RuniUehau, and make an interesting chapter in the history of the 
mi>doni intcrvipw. Whether Herr von Hausegger's pretension to 
a Bcietit 'io in his investigations is supported by tho result, 

we n. jis be allowe<l to doubt. Huuiperdinck, for 

itistanco, whoso delightful Ifiin-vl und Gretel has been performed 
on every operatic stage in Kuropo, is commonly inspire<l in tho 
time " just before sunset until tho advent of night.' While we 
cannot holp wondering wliat light ho wTit«.>8 bv in this l>ewitching 
hour, »  ' ' incur in iiis next roinarlt, that " tho morn- 

ing is a txl for composition, provided one has had 

a good iiiuMi. i^i. iiard -Strauss, tho Cimrt conductor, recalls 
that he was six years old when he compose<l his first piece — a 
polka in quick time. For the production of his realistic novels 
and his s-.-raps of true lyric poetry, Otto Julius Biorbauin requires 
" a residence in still nature, with tlie occasional ix^ssibility of 
contrast. For tlie rest, frequent movement, beautiful surround- 
ings, ami no worries, exce])t for an occasional strong spiritual 
«xcit«Dieut." 

• « « « 

Fulda, the dramatist, was also a six-year-old prodigy, and 
began to make vt- 
confusion of his < 

ai: 

til. 

fo. 
Illr 

wl. 



'1 wTite. He remarks, to the 

-, tliat " in times of gonoral 

....... ■..1,,. .vokcs humorous pictures," 

Liel>cnnaiiii, tho impressionist, welcomes 
' up a system of insthetics on a subjective 
"ars that " the depths of art must remain 
iiU4." Tlio last wortl, by tho way, was tho 
uf the late Professor l)u Bois Reymond, of 
B< • .'pt for some very general inferences— it serves 

to sum up tlio result of Uerr von Hausegger's inquiry. 



•Ip' 

wi 

of ! 
tb 
d.- 
ht 

ah 

ax ' 

V" 
er- 

e. 

eiil. 



The third of the fire largo volumes on '* Princo Bismarck 

•'• ' I- Oismiaaal " (Funt Humar'-k lu-it urinrr EtitlasAunij), 

Johanna* Pbnclor is editing for Messrs. Fiedler, 



I lipon 



iitl 



recjiitlv i'<»i}i< 



1 fr 



fl,.. V 



Tt follows 

lity and 

<tait<ir'H 

iiiid it) the point. At tho same time, it 

v'-rr ■,:ravi> d'Mibt« wore at one time raised 

in the orit^inal I*rufaco to 

• value. We Iwliore, how- 

iiis in the Prctss have now 

which case the merit of 

: »...i!d bo very considerably 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

« . 

NIGERIA. 

The following Ixwiks giro information ns to tho regions in 
West Africa to which uttontion has recently been called in con- 
nexion with tho colonial ontorpriso of England and Franco : — 
English :— 

Havsalaxp. Fifteen hundre<l miles through the Central 
Soudan. By C. H. Robinson. 1890. 

Tub Havsa Association. Sir G. T. Goldio. 1895. 

Hi.sTOBV OF TiiK Gold Coast of West Afbita. 
Ellis. 1893. 

Travels in West Africa. By J. Duncan. 2 vols. 
1847. 

Travels nt West Africa. By Mary H. Kingsley. 

The Downfall of Pkempeii. R. S. Badon Powell. 

Up THE NicKK. By Captain A. P, Mochler Ferryman. 

Waxokkinos IX West Africa. By F.R.G.8. (Sir 
Burton). 1804. 

A Mission to Gelelb, Kino of Dauomey. 2 vols. Sir R. F. 
Burton. 1804. 

AsHANTi anp THE Gold Coast. By Sir?. D. Hay. 1874. 
Climate and .Meteorolout of the Wbst Coast of Africa. 
By J. A. B. Hortoii. 1807. 
Ann'l-al Reports of the Niger Coufany. 



By A. B. 

London, 

1897. 
181K3. 

1892. 
R. F. 



The Partition of Africa. By J. 8. Keltic. 1893. 
The Development of Africa. By .4.. Silva White. 1890. 
Actual Africa, or, the Coming Continent. By Frank Vin- 
cent. 1896. 

Historical Geography of tub British Colonies. By C. P. 
Lucas. Vol. III. 18i>4. 
The Map ok Akiuca bv Treaty. Sir E. Ilortslot. 1894. 
STANFORn'.H C0.MPK.VDIUM OF Geourapuy and Travel. Africa. 
Vol. I. By A. H. Keano. 

The Annual Colonial Office List, and Annual Statistical 
Abstract for tub Colonies. 
See also — 

Blackwood's Magazine, June, 1895 " Tho British West 
African Possessions "; and the Nineteenth Century of 
tho same date, " England and France on the Niger," by 
Captain Lugard. 
The United Heuvicb Maoazine. July, 1895. 
Hansard'.s Parliamentary Dehates. August, 1894, and 
April, 1897. 



French :■ 
GuiNfiE. 



Por G. Binger. 2 vols. 



Follie. 
Galieni. 



Du Nicer au Golfe de 
Paris, 1892. 

La Route vc Tchad. J. Dybowski. Paris, 1893. 

Voyage dans les Deserts dv Sahara. Par L. O. 
Tours, 1892. 

Deux Campac.nes au Soudan Fran<jai8. Par Col. 
Paris, 1891. 

CdTK OcciiiKXTALE d'.\fbi<jue. Par Col. Frey. Paris, 1890. 

Teiike i>b Mort. Soudan et Dahomey. Par Vigno d'Octon. 
Paris, 18<.»2. 

Bas Niokr, Bknou^, Dauomey. Par Le Commandant Mattel. 
Grenoble, 1890. 

TouAT, Sahara, bt Soudan. Par Camille Sabatier, 1891. 



Les Colonies Franqaiskh (piil 
" Exposition Colonialo do 1889 '"). 



RCcLfs NovvEiLE OiioaRAPHiE Univerhelle. Vols. 
11, 12, 13. I'aris. 1886-88. 

L'ExPANsioN DE LA FRANCE. L. Vignon. 1891. 

HisToiHE DE LA QuE.sTio.N C0LONIA1.E EN Fkance. Par L. 
De8cham]>s. 1891. 

Nos Akuicainh. Par Harry Alls. Paris, 1894. 

ilished in connexion with tho 
V. Colonics d'Afriquo. Paris, 
1889. 

La Feaxcb Colonialf. Edited by Mr. Alfred Rambaud. Gth 
ed. 1888. 

>See also— 

Revue Coloxulb, Nov., 1896, Afriqno Ucci(ieiit:ilc. I'.y F. 
Dubois. 

German : — 

TaNOALAND USD DIE KoLONIHATION DeVTSCH OsTAFBIKAS. 

Von Karl Kacrgcr. 1892. 
Dubch Kambuun. Von Sltdnach Nor<l. 1893. 



November 6, 1897.] 



T.TTERATURE. 



95 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

An Artlst'a Letters fpom 

Japan, lly John Im h'ttri/r. 

»  lllln., xlv. t 'Jia pp. Ix>iiili>n, IKtr;. 

I'liwln. Wk. 

Deoopatlve Hapaldry. Hr 
a. »r. Ktf. A IViu-ll.iir irnnd- 
IxMik of Km Arllxiir Trmliiionl. 
7i  Alln., xvl. I IKI pii. Ix>n(loti uiid 
New York, IWJ7. 

Holl. 10m. M. not. 

S3citri.jr >ur Qntici(tdiin<t6t)i'((t;id)tc 
b«r 9)fclt»<l)nif. GucUfn unb 
3fd)nif bfc Jirf«co=, Ccl< unb 
Scmpcra = tDialerci be< <Kitt(l> 
altft* con ber bi)janiinif*on '^e\t 
bit finf(J)li(Slidi b(r ;, (Srfinbunfl 
bet Cflmalctoi" burdi bic Iflribcv 
can C'rrf. Hy A'lnnf llerijir. 
With 16 illu8truU(iiiH. Lox. Nvo., 
xii. -t- 281 pp. Muiiioh, 1H!>7. 

CallwcT. 7 Marks. 

BIOGRAPHY. 
Twelve Indian Stntosmen. 

Hy (;. Smith. C.I.K.. hi ll.nv i)f lli<^ 
Itoyul (iroKTiLphifiil iiikI thi' Unvul 
StntiKticttl S<wiutieH. Ki\6Jin., 
vili. f3L>4 pp. I.oniloii, \mi. 

Murniy. lOn. Brl. 

Solomon Caesap Malan, D.D. 
.Mniiiiriiilx of liin l.ifr nml 
WrilitiK". by hi« cldrst survlvinic 
Hon, J{rv. A. .V. Malan, M.A.. with 
Portrait and IlluslratioiiM from his 
HkelchuH. OxSiii., xiv. 1 445 pp 
l,<>l>il»n, 1»!»7. .Miirniy. ISs' 

Memoplals and Botanical 
Coppespondenco of Chaplea 
Capdall Bablnsrton, M.A., 
F.R.S.. hVllow of ?:t. .lolins fol- 
li<Kc, (lUHbridKc !l  liiii.. xelv. I- 
tUi pp. I'lunbriilifo. 1S!I7. 
Mnoinillaii and Howcm. IOh. M. not. 

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1)6 



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[November 6, 1897. 



HISTORY. 

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t<<sioU Kdltrico Dante AllKhlorl, 


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No. 4.-Vi)L. I. SATURDAY. NOVKMUKK 13, IXfT. 



CONTENTS. 



I>A0B 

Leading Article -Tlio Hooksclliiig Question 117 

*' Among my Books," tiy Professor Mahiiffy .. 112 

Reviews 

Mrs. Bi-owninff's Letters '*' 

The Hiiiiii)ton lA>ctiires 1"" 

RetiaisNtiiice Arrhitectiire in KnKland 101 

France under I^ouis XV 102 

Parwin and After Darwin 103 

(ireere in the XIX. Century 101 

Storie.s of Faniouti Songs 1'^ 

The Connoisseur 1*'0 

litnnen • 100 

Social Switzerland 107 

History of Dogma 10" 

Tivatiseon Sanctification 10** 

Story of Our Knglish Towns 108 

MlUtary-Ulohnnl H»inl Smith- Coldntroam GuaitU In Iho 

Crltnca -f'libn In Wiir Time 100 

Medical -Orlnln of Dlscnsc— Prnctltloncr'sHandlMok— Mcdiral 

Hints for Hot tlliiiutcs 110 & 1 11 

Legul ItcviKcd HciKirts— Goodovo on Rcul Property— 
I'riiicipU's of I'londlnB— Sale of Goods— Mamdon'a CoUlHioiiH ut 

S«i Ill 

Fiction— 
Tlie King with Two Faces— Ijiwrence Clavering— Tlio 
• Making of a Prig— Amy Vivian's Ring- The Gadfly — 

l-Veedom of Henry Meredith 113, 114, & 113 

TheTwo l'ai)tJiin.s~The Rip's Redemption— A Spanish 
Maid -An Atlie in Bohemia— The Vicar of Lang- 
thwaite— The Beetle -Bladys of the Stewponey — 
The Sinner of Marly— A March on London — With 

Moore at Cornnna 110 & 117 

Children's Books IcrlniMiic Fiilry Tales, &c 118 

Sir Philip Francis's Letters 118 

At the Bookstall 110 

Correspondence- Rudyard Kipling— Lord Tennyson ... 120 
Foreign Letters Germany -The United States'... 121 & 122 
Obituary -Sir Rutherfortl Alcock— Signor G. B. 

Cavalcaselle 120 

Notes 123, 124, 125. & 120 

List of New Books and Reprints r27 & 12S 



THE BOOKSELLINQ QUESTION. 



In the current number of Chapman's Magazine, Mr. 
Andrew I.ang discourses on a problem whicli, with 
iiis ])hiyful fnuey, he considers to include " the whole 
iiietapliysics of commerce." It is a problem on the solu- 
tion of which defends the very existence of a class of 
tradesmen around which every reading man and woman 
ha.«, some time or other, cast a halo of sentiment. In all 
probability, if the truth were told, it is the sentiment 
■which touches us ; but, if its preservation carries with 
it the continued existence of so worthy a body of men 
as the booksellers, it may be that it is worth the fight- 
ing for. But, in truth, there is very little of metaphysics 
in the matter. What metaphysics there is we must lay 



to tiie iilaine of the authors, who, of late, brouj^ht n lew 
factor into the discu.-'sion. 

For many years now, booksellers have found it prac- 
tically impossible to make a profit out of the Rale of new 
l)ooks. The discount of 3d. in the shilling which they 
give leaves a margin luirely su6Bcient to pay the working 
exjienses of their business. That they have Ix-en able to 
'•keep going" is due to the fact that, in addition to 
selling books, they have also sold what Mr. Laxo calln 
" women's fal-lals, photographs, futilities at large." 
" What," they now ask, " is the use of selling Ixwks ? 
We gain nothing by it. If we are to remain booksellers ; 
if pulilishers are to have their legitimate * ; if we 

are to cease to do their distributing work t iig, wo 

must appeal to them to consider with us, What are the 
best means by which we may be enabled to live ?" 
Thus it happened that, two years ago, the Associated 
Booksellers sent out a circular letter to all publishers, 
suggesting a meeting for the pnqiose of '' ng the 

" question." To consider this circular the j - met ; 

but they only agreed to disagree, until a Publishers' 
Association was nn established fact. Tlie Association 
became a fact, and. so far from settling the problem, its 
attempts at a solution showed that an important factor — 
the author — had lieen lost sight of entirely. It is in ex- 
plaining how he comes in that the '• metajdiysics " of the 
question begins to manifest itself. 

And, first, let us begin with a definition. An 
author is not now the writer of a " Decline and Fall," or 
a " Sartor Re,«artus," or an " Origin of Species," or a 
Waterton's " Wanderings "; but he is generally a novelist, 
who is paid "royalties" on the number of copies sold. 
The larger the number of copies sold the greater are his 
earnings ; it is at once evident that a system where under- 
selling is rife is a system which makes for the authors 
advantage. Therefore, any suggestion which took for 
granted the al)olition of the " discount system " brought 
down the author's adverse criticism, since if no discounts 
were allowed fewer books would be sold. Tliis Mu. IIall 
Caine clearly demonstrated in that very remarkable 
address he gave last year to a body of newsagents whom 
he mistook for booksellers. He showed, however, his keen 
sympathy with " the trade " by suggesting that an 
author should stipulate with his publisher that 
the bookseller " shall have his book at a living wage." 
What this meant he did not clearly demonstrate. 
Why he did not chime in with the book.sellers' wish 
for a net price for a book may be gathered from the 
following ex])lanation : — At present, on a six-shilling 
novel an author would get, say, a 25 i>er cent, royalty 
on the jmblished price — that is, eighteenpence per 
copy. Under the net ."ystem, the selling price and the 
published price were to be the same — that is, in the case of 
a si.x-shilling book, four shillings and sixpence. Now the 



98 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 189< 



author stepB in, and sajs, " Am I to get only 25 per cent, 
on 4*. 6<1. instead of Cs., becausp the bookseller has raised a 
'question,' and calls it his 'griex-am-e " ? ^'ou ti-ll me more 
(xi]ti(>8 vili he <:old ! I answer, a bird in the hand is worth 
two in the bush." 

The situntion may be jiut Tt .•.iiivM..n.ii"i> in f1ii« 
form : — 

A. is an author who writes books for a royalty ou every 
copy sold. 

B. is a publisher who; asks the bookseller to sell the 
books for him, for a consideration. 

C. and D. are booksellers who, in their eagerness to do 
all the business, " undersell " each other, and give 
to the public the consideration the publisher 
allowed them. 

What here is food for A. and 6. is thus not food for C. 
and D. How may C. and D. obtain their sustenance with- 
out diminishing the 8upj)ly of A. and B. ? 

As we have seen, the original remedy of net prices 
injured the author (A.). Also, it happened that 
this method, when it was tried, did not prevent some 
booksellers from selling below these iiet prices. In 
other words, C. and D. could not agree among 
themselves, and were compelled to call in the pub- 
lisher to make them. The proposal now finally agreed 
to by both publishers and booksellers is to go back to 
the old system of twopence in the shilling discount, and 
the publishers to undertake to stop supplies to any 
bookseller who sells books at a greater discount. This, 
it is argued, will prevent " underselling," and give the 
bookseller a fair " living wage." But how will this affect 
the author ? To determine the point, the publishers, 
before giving their final adhesion to the scheme, have sub- 
mitted it to the Authors' Society for approval or criticism. 
As yet, the Authors' Society has not sjxiken ; nor, so far 
as we can gather, is it likely to speak. But it is evident 
that the author holds the key to the situntion. In the 
first place, the Publishers' Association does not include 
errry publisher; and if any scheme from the Association 
proves to work for his detriment, the author will go 
outside it. and will find not a few publishers ready to ])ay 
him handsomely. In the second place, the Booksellers' 
Aitsociation does not include every Ixwkseller, and how the 
ont«ider is to be coerced is a question indeed. It looks as 
if there is likely to grow up a class of outside publishers 
ntjpplving outside booksellers with books which will lie sold 
t He at a discount of threejK'ncf in the shilling ; 

m:.. two .Associations are working to little or no pur- 

pose in asking the same public to buy books at a discount 
of tw .. shilling. Such a condition of things 

will .: _, send the author to the outside 

publisher; and the "question" will then require to be 
pat again. 

As it stands at present, tlie scheme of the Publishers' 
and Booksellers' Associations amounts to a penny in the 
shilli' "n all book-buyers. It may l)e that the 

publi' , sake of the sentiment, will jiay this tax; 

but it also may be that it will not. Even supjrasing that 
•11 pablishers and booksellers agree to the scheme, what 



would the author say if the sales of his books " fell 
off"? "A plague on Iwth your houses I" Xatnrnliy ? 
He is not going to subsidize a si)ecial small class of mm at 
the expense of his own existence. Once (ijKjn a time an 
author wrote for pleasure — now he writes for a living. 
" Literature " is become a " profession," and professional 
men, human as they are, resen-e a large share of the 
milk of human kindness for tlieir own sustenance. Mr. 
Hall Caine threw out a hint that if authors turned pub- 
lishers, the bookseller would be certain of a " living 
wage." Tlic hint may become a fact, although the present 
difiiculty would, in that event, require to be met again. 
The " question " is still waiting for a solution. What the' 
publisher and bookseller should do it is not our pur- 
pose to consider at present, though it may occupy 
our attention on another occasion. Mr. Lang hopes 
much from a public who shall be educated on non- 
oopjTight books. He knows " no better cure for the 
love of bad books than the knowledge of good books » 
no better check on the advertising methods of some 
l^opular novelists than the spirit of humour which 
laughs at them, and passes by on the other side ; 
no remedy for devotion to discount but increased 
generositj'." Good ! But what becomes of the " ques- 
tion " in the meantime ? We must deal with what is, not 
with what should be. At present the {wpular novelist is 
in vogue ; he it is who, jiractically, makes the bookseller a 
trade — and he is not gifted with a sense of the dignity of 
his profession. If " ignorant fustian " did not " go 
down " with the public, the popular novelist would 
never affect current reading in the slightest degree. That 
he will never affect literature is, of course, undoubted ; 
but " the pity of it " is that he should retanl its culture 
in the mind and heait of a living community. 



1Revic\V8. 



The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. E<UteiU 
with Biographiinl Additions, by Frederic Q. Kenyon. 2 vols. 
7ix5iin., xiv. = 47S i Jftt pp. London. 181)7. 

Smith, Elder, & Co. 15- n. 

When we have expressed a regret that these voliimer 
should have appeared at the very moment that is filled by 
the splendour of the " Life of Tennyson," and when we 
have gently censured Mr. Kenyon for not having the 
courage to till out the lines of his jwrtrait a little more in 
its bare jilaces, we have exhausted all possible blame, and 
left ourselves free to welcome without reserve a very 
weighty and a very charming contribution to the history 
of literature. Mr. Kenyon (our curiosity as to tlie 
biographer's relationship to his subject's life-long friend, 
John Kenyon, is never satisfied) seems to possess the 
confidence of Mrs. Iiro»ning's family and old friends. We- 
miss any contribution from Mrs. .lago, one of KIizal>eth 
Barn'tt's earliest intellectiml companions, who preserved 
until her death, as a treasure, a jwculiarly important 
budget of K. B. B.'s letters ; but here is the invaluiihlo 
corresjiondence addressed in the jioet's youth to .Airs. 
Martin and .Mr. H. S. Boyd, to Miss Commeline and Mr. 



November 13, 1897. J 



LITERATURE. 



99 



Kenyon, to MisB Mitford and Mr. WoHtwood. Later on, 
•of course, stilection wjw trammelled by the excetis of iibuud- 
ance, but ,Mr. Kenyon seems to have chd.sen wisely. IIIm 
prefaee is very afjreenhly written, nnd bin sliijFit bi'i- 
graphieal thread, tlioujjh, as we liave - 
80 stretclied aa to Xnf ahnost inviM 
taste. 

Tlie life of Klizalx'tli Karrett Brownili^ ■- ii..>i lold 
for the first (ime, and mainly by the best of all authorities 
— heifself. ]{ut it must, of course, be reniem' ' ' it a 
great jwrt of it has already been inevitably c-l. ; l)y 

Mrs. Orr and others in their lives of KolxTt lirowniii";. 
From 1845 onw'ards, the two fjreat poets were scarcely ever 
^separated for a week, until the sad expiration of Elizabeth 
— for she rather breathed her life away from feebleness than 
died of any set disease — divorced ttiem for ever. The 
public, therefore, is already familiar with the external, and 
even many of the internal, incidents of tlie career of Mrs. 
Browninjj. What it has hitherto knowni little or nothing 
about i.s what hapiiened to Miss IJarrett. For this n'a.son 
curiosity is concentrated on the first 300 pages of ^'ol. I. of 
this biography, conducting the poet from her birth to her 
marriage. What follows is delightful reading, but it 
• lacks the peculiar novelty of the early chapters. T^«'t us 
take this occa-sion, however, of saying that it emphasizes, 
if possible, and gives a deejwr sanctity and pathos to the 
Absorbing and imbroken affection which reigned in these 
two noble and distinguished i)ersons. We may search in 
vain for any of the littlenesses, the jealousies, the irritabili- 
ties which are suj)posed to be the inevitable accomi«ini- 
ments of genius. Mr. Kenyon is {K-rfectly justified in 
■calling the wedlock of liobert and Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning " the most perfect example of wedded happiness 
in the liistory of literature." 

It is at last finally decided that Elizabeth was bom 
on March G, ISOO, at Coxhoe Hall, Durham. So that 
l{obert Browning was perfectly convct in the statement 
on the subject which he made in Decemlwr, 1887 — a state- 
ment which was immediately questioned and even contra- 
dicted. We have never been able to understand why there 
should ever have arisen so much controversy al)out the 
birth of a huly who was a raeml)er of a large and 
reputable family, living in the present century. But 
*ome one or other— certainly not herself — was dt^ 
tennined to make her apjiear much younger than she 
was. It is a disapjwintment, at first sight, to find 
that Mr. Kenj'on has no material to set before us 
earlier than 1828, when the jwet was advanced in her 
twenty-third year, and had long been a published author. 
He has nothing to tell us of the original training and 
development of that admimble mind, nor of its early 
" adventures among masterpieces." But her own letters, 
later on, tell us one or tw o curious facts. Of these none 
is more amusing than that when she was a girl she came 
so deeply under the charm of Byron that she seriously 
made up her mind to dress in boy's clothes and run away 
to be his lortlship's page. In the life of Byron all is 
romantic, but imagination hugs itself to think of the slim 
and jMile Elizabeth, with her ringlets well tied back, 
skipping up the steps of the Villa Kossa and paralyzed to 
discover the Guiccioli installed there. There are also, 
scattered alxiut among the letters, many reminiscences 
of early life which are valuable, but of the development of 
her mind no direct record seems to be preserved. 

The correspondence, however, gives interesting and 
valuable internal evidence of this. The first letters, written 
from Hope End in 1828, are stiff and colourless ; they are 
just the sort of letters that Jane Austen's heroines would 



tbev would not have been 

of Oranford, but there in not 

- ' idthof 

/<• the 



write to their (•■•"ruliiiiti-v 

disapprovetl of ii 

at. 

m>- 

TI.eu li. - -' ; 

t li has !• . 'lO 

change is instantly ai)|iarent ; she i.H tttill sir ie, 

but she has found her voice. Hen- in i.. ..iut 

jK-culJar sjK'cies of aflV-ctionate |)or.>'itlage, an affectation of 

l)eiii '  ' ' ' ' ' :th 

to -r 

intense conceiitnition ul will, nliKoim^' ii al ! lO 

tried to thwart her, as the sepia shoots it* ink. ue 

letters still deal but little at first with literature ; that 
really does not become prominent until 1835, when Kliza- 
l)eth is actually in her thirtieth year. In this we seem to 
face a curious i ' .^ 

cocious and of n- 

valid, very small in stature, she seems to have found a 
great difficulty in impressing her years on new actjuaint- 
ances. People took this learned and ex|>erienced "authoress" 
for a child. The careful reader will * un instance 

of this. Miss Mitfortl s|)eaks of di ;li liarrett 

to see some friends, who could not it- 

was "out." We do not know the i ir 

excursion, but we do know that the poet was in lier 
thirtieth year when Miss Mitfonl saw her for the fint 
time. 

A fact which ordin ' ' ' ' i* 

that g^reat poets are nd\ .m 

been finely exemplifii'd in the n-c<-ni l^il'e of 'lenuyf^m, 
where his recorded utterances on literature could hardly 
be amended. It is seen to be true also of F'lizabeth 
Browning, and a very valuable anthology of critical utter- 
ances might be gathered from these letters. In her youth 
she was shy and easily overbonie ; but ■•<! 

at mental maturity she was of an ex ••. 

An instance of }H?culiar importance is her treatment of 
Ossian. Hugh Stuart Boyd was old enough to be as 
thoroughgoing an admirer of the Macpherson-verbiage as 
either Goethe or Xaj>oleon. Miss Barrett was ^ " • : h 
influenced by his judgments, for he was a good si ul 

(ireek with her and s r well. But v lloyd 

insists that " Os.sian i- , ; as a ixx't to even 

the worm turns. It is amusing to see how she wTajis her 
objections up in sugar at first, and then how she hurls 
them in desix>ration openly at the enemy. Her phnisen 
are absolutely true. "There is a sound of « ' ' u* 

music in a monotone — nothing is articulate, > is 

individual, nothing various. . . . < tiiem 

with the old, burning ballads, with a wild lu ing in 

each. How cold they grow in com{)ari8on." All this is 
" obliquity " to the outraged Mr. Boyd, who tries to pre- 
serve his dignity, but is thoroughly worsted in successive 
letters. " Ossian has wxapped you in a cloud, a fog. a true 
Scotch mist," cries the ix)et, three months Liter, stung out 
of all her timidity, and Boyd at last retires, with Ossijin 
under his arm, followed by a shower of jeers and cat calls. 
It is all intensely amusing and it is excellent sound 
criticism as well. 

When her eye is concentrated on a personage. Elizabeth 
Browning is able to exercise the very rare gift of jwrtrai- 
ture. Usually she is a little languid about people, in her 
pursuit of ideas and fancies, or else, as when she took a 
long drive with Wordsworth, too frightened to observe. 
But, quite early, she has a splendid phrase about Ijindor 
who talked to her " brilliantly and prominently." imtil 
" the ashes of antiquity burne<.l again " in his hands, lu 



100 



LITERATURE. 



[Novcinbor 13, 1897. 



her nuuTJed dnvK hrr nji^pttes and silhouHtcs are often of 
^re*t j>iotinvf»i]U«'npss. The uliole ejiisi^le of her Ktranjje 
rtinging «>f henself ujion tlie indifJerent and preoccupied 
G«orj»e Sand i« magnifii-ently told ; we see it, step by 
8tej> — the frail, injp«.<sioneil Enfjlishwomnii, wrnjijH'd in 
her furs, half expiring;. nisliin;» forwani to kiss the hnnds 
nod be lift<ti to the li|>s of the solid inannon-ul French- 
woman, evidently much ]>erj>lexetl at nil this rnptun* and 
not a little liored by it. The introduction of Hans 
Oirifitian Andersen. " not really pretty," hut " very earnest, 
\-ery simple, very childlike, in a general i'erve for em- 
hn . - . . _ ^^^ j^^ ^^1^^^ writes these lines has 

he. of Andersen /*»'« version of the story, 

and how he kissed '* the wonderful little English Imly, so 
jmle, like a water-spirit I " 

Mrs. Browning divined " Currer Bell " as a woman 
from the tirst, and stuck to her conviction. Her references 
to Charlotte are fr«>«|uent and symi^ithetic. but these two 
gr. •■ came into no |H»rsonal relations. 

Of u-e to face until 1851. a few weeks 

i»efore he was conducted to I'aris under the charge of 
Robert and Elizabeth Browning. Headers of Carlyle's 
.loumals will recollect a rude reference to the kind and 
dis'' ' ' 'illy who ]H>rmitted him to travel with her 

as • .."' But his bite (on jMii)er) was worse tlian 

hi- 1 the train), for E. B. B. records, with her usual 

1)CL .._■ :i:— 

Are yna aware that Carlyle travelled with iis to Paris ? 
H* Mt a deep impreasion with me. It i» difTicult to oonceivu of 
• mora interoatin^ human iinul, I think. All the bitterness 
fill .  scil. Ho 8eein» to mo to have a pro- 

('<- iind and turbulent that it unsettles 

hia KL-nifrul i<_viu|uitliies. 

In 1855 Carlyle apjiear.s again. " in great force, par- 
ticularly in the damnatory clau.ses." 

It would, however, be doing the heroine of these 
channing volumes a great injustice to turn to them mainly 
for what they s.-xy alx)ut others. Their cardinal interest 
♦•onsists in what they say about herself. We rise from 
their perusal with the impression that, although so much 
i« told us, we need more to enable us to form a 
thoroughly clear vision of so complicated a character. 
She wa.s — this at least is plain — a woman of an 
ex(]uisitely delicate soul, inspired by true jMety, human 
and divine, full of tenderness, rectitude, sweetness. We 
know not how it is, but with all this, and with the 
of her excellent judgment in intellectual 
• are left with a sense of some imi)erfection of 
.'^he observefl j)ersons keenly, but not always 
l)oubtless she was struggling all her life 
against a conscious tendency to be pfxlanU, to acknow- 
ledge the limitations of a blue-stocking. Wlien the 
f^irittmlistic craze swept over society.the high imagination 
anrl carefully-trained brain of E. B. B. were jtowerless to 
resist. .*^li' ' ■•(|, none lower, in the dust before that 

miserable iu(. This was, no doubt, the most 

dangerous. the only, moment of real strain lie- 

tween her ....... ,jjier and better-balanced huslwnd and 

iHTself. This wretched business is jjassed over lightly by 
Mr. Kenyon ; to the end of his life any recollection of the 
imiioitures to which she had l)een stihjectf-d was enough 
t" • ■■•t»ert Browning into a frenzy of indignation. 

All i^nge, jM'rHistent delusion aljout >iaiK>leon III., 

Ikjw is that to be accounted for ? These were strange 
lapM«of sym|iathy, instances of im])erfect judgment, which 
may well l>e forifotten in the blaze of Elizabeth Barrett 
Br  ' tlioy do not make the problem 



evidences 

m.t" 

sy: 
liuiiuiiily. 



The Bami)ton Lectttres, 1807 : Aspects of the OIcT 
Test«nieiit. Hy R. L. Ottley, M.A. Svo., xix. + 448 pp. l.«)n- 
don, 18W7. Longmans. 16- 

The delivery ot ■• eiglit ilivinity lecture sermons "' 
u))on the foinidntion of Canon .loini I^im])ton, of Sulishurv,. 
Ix'fore tiie liiiversity of Oxford, has formed an appri)])riat*^ 
conclusion to one periixl of Mr. Otf ley's brilliant academic; 
career, and the dignity of the ]>osition of a Bamptoif 
Ix'cturer suits the l*rinci]ml of such a home of theological 
learning as the Pusey House was intended to be. How far 
the view which is liere taken of tlie Old Testament is 
likely to commend itself to tiiose who revere tiie memory 
and accejtt the teaching of I'usey is a iiuesticni which, as 
litenu-y critics, we aix' not called ujion to answer. But 
many clergymen and other theological teachers and 
students are eagerly and, ])erhaps, anxiously hK)king 
out at the present time for help and light ujwn th« 
problems of Old Test,iment controversy. And, if thev ask 
whether .Mr. Ottley 's work is really serviceable to tliem, we 
have no hesitation in saying that a serious student will do 
well not to neglect the " asjjccts " of the subject wiiicb 
the lectures consider. Without going too far, we might 
almost say that the jH'ru.sal of the lectures is indispensable • 
in fonning nn estimate of the present state of the 
controversy. 

Mr. t)ttley has had in view several different classes of 
persons, some who, like Mr. (joldwin Smith, think that the 
Old Testjunent is a millstone to be cast oft", and who mis- 
understand, in jMirt or altogether, what is the true function 
of the Old Testament in the Church; others who, in their 
wish to discredit extreme criticism, ignore assured results; 
and others, again.who.se simple faith and piety are shocked 
by utterances which are thought to be necessary in the 
present distress. In the opening lecture on " The 
Christian (Church and the Higher Criticism," Mr. Ottley 
explains the 8tandjtt)int from which he approaches hi* 
subject. He does not attempt to reconstruct tlie history 
of Israel, but he looks ujwn the contents of the Okl 
Testament from a theological jwint of view, because " a 
true estimate of the ( )ld Testament .... is only 
]X)8sible on the basis of faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of 
(rod made man." It will be sufficient to say that Mr. 
Ottley's declaration of belief in the doctrine of the 
Incarnation at the outset of these lectures is what we might 
expect from the Christological work which he published in 
1896. He takes the fact of the Incarnation, in the orthodox 
sense of that tenn, for granted. As to inspiration, 
Jlr. Ottley would rather .«ay that " in the Bible tiie word 
of Ciod comes to us " than that the Bible is the Wonl of 
God, nn identification which he would not adopt "without 
caution." He would admit the existence in the library of 
the Old Testament of " semi-historical folk-lore and 
jirimitive myths." But he imderstands himself to " pre- 
suppose" the insjiiration of Scrijiture as a fact which is 
indejK'ndent of human explanations of it, which denotes 
the living nction of G<k1 on the faculties of men, guiding 
either great religious leaders, or the life of a community, 
or the compilers, editors, and collectors of the records of 
revelation. Mr. Ottley dismis.srs very briefly the inquiry 
resjiecting the extent to which the results of historical 
criticism are to Ix' taken for granted in the lectures by 
saying that he sultstiintially ii'^rees with Professor Sanday 
in accepting whnt he takes as " the est4iblislied results of 
nearly 150 years' investigation of the Old Testament." 

The different as|»ects of the Old Testiiment which Mr. 
Ottley considers are iive in nuinl)er. They are generally 
sur\cyed in the second, and discussed with much fulness. 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITEUATLKE. 



101 



pl(X|«ence, Bcholarahip, and modesty in the following; five 

li'(!tiin'H. CVrtiiiii ^^ciicrnl us[H!<;ts of tlui Old TfKtAiiH'nt, 
liititorical, proplu-ticiil, tipintiial, literary, anil arcli:( 
arc Kft on duo. siilo to inakf room for tliosc wliiili i 
spem to (Icscrvfl nttontion. Tlio Old TtiHtann-nt, Mr. Ottlcy 
points out, is a history of rodenijition and of the progretwive 
rt'vi'lation of (lod, it traces the steps of a covenantal re- 
lationship iK'twccn (KkI and man, specially exhibiU^d in 
its system of worship, it unfoldn in its prophetical utter- 
ances the Messianic hope, and it hears witness to a divine 
purpose for the individual in its teachinj; ujkju jx^rsonal 
relif^ion. It will be observed that the general arrange- 
ment of the Hebrew Bible closely correai>onds with the five 
aspects which .Mr. Ottley selects for considenition. In the 
siMice at our disposal it is not jiossible to enter at any 
li-ngth into the details of the subject, or even to mention 
the heads of all the topics to which we wish to allude. 
We must content ourselves with the statement that the 
scope and the standjwint of Air. Ottley's work are 
illustrated by such matters as the a priori credibility 
of miracle, the main features of the .Mosaic narrative, 
the elements in the )>rophetic theory of the sacred his- 
tory, the names, attributes, and fatherhood of (iod, the 
significance of anthropomorphic language and minute 
sacriticial details, the aspects of the work of the 
prophets, the gradual growth of the Messianic hojx^, the 
foundation truths of personal religion. The conclu<ling 
and in some respects the most imp«')rtant lecture upon 
'• The Old Testament and Christianity " draws out the 
analogy between the incarnate Word and Holy Scripture, 
examines the view which the New Testament Uikes of tlu^ 
Old, the use which our Lord made of the Old Testament, 
and the permanent function of the Old Testament in the 
Cliurch. We cannot overlook, says Mr. Ottley, that*'Christ 
and His Apostles assign to the Old Test-ament a unitjue 
and inviolable authority." The very object of our land's 
coming determined the method in which He employed the 
ancient Scriptures. To Him all that made for righteous 
conduct and for truer conceptions of the divine character 
was of ])riinary importance ; to all that the scribes liad 
overlooked or treated with inditVeience He assigned its 
rightful prominence. The sacred lilwrty, which is the 
characteristic gift of the Holy Spirit, apin-ars in the very 
manner of Christ's (Stations from the Old Testament." 
Our liOrd regarded the Old Testament as " an organic 
whole to which the .Messiah and His Kingdom are the key," 
and His use of it is the trueguiding line which leads to the 
goal of Mr. Ottley's incpiiry, — the permanent function of 
the Old Testament. It is to reveal Hod, to testif}- of 
Christ, to mould character by giving us a manual both of 
individual and social righteousness, and to assist us in the 
interpretation of the New Testament, as in its turn the 
New assists us in interpreting tlie old. 

Mr. Ottley's honest attempt to walk in a via media 
will of course exjiose him to attack from two extremes. 
This he may partially ward ofl" by some of his remarks in 
conclusion. Few v.ill refuse to praise the many marks of 
fine classical and theological scholarship which the lectures 
bear and to commend their ])rompt ai)iK\arance ; a greater 
number will enjoy their literary gracefulness and the 
mcxlesty and reverence of the lecturer throughout, and 
above all, the vast majority of his readers will, we tnist, 
bear us out when we say that, although .Mr. Ottley may not 
always gain their acceptance of all his doctrinal or social 
tenets, he has shown himself to be, a.s he sjiys,"a man who 
believes in the truth of l-.istoric I'hristianity with all his 
heart," whether that historic Christianity is '* latent " in 
the Old Testament or " patent " in the New. 



A History of Ileiui!»"«"""'n Arr.>ilt«cture}r> ^T»<»'nri»« 
1600-1800. Hy Regrin:i M.A. W 

liy llie aiilhiir aiitl tillu . - vhIh. .... , . i ; . 

[>iii<Ion, IHt)7. Qeorge Bell. £2 lOc 

Mr. I' has unilertaken in thc^e \i)liirn<-n t<> 

tell the wh . .. of lienaissance archit4'cture in in- 
land, giving to that phrase a m(*aning large en< 
cover the eighteenth century work, whic! 
dregs of the style. The nntlior is to l>e  
the manner in <• 
task. He has 

seedtime under Henry \ lU., the sowing of the i 
and (lennan tares under the later Tudors, the ^,,■ .. 
growth and splendid harvest under Inigo Jones hvmI 
Wren, and the »!■ ' ' ' ' i of the It i 

jteriod, until at tin intiiry t! 

of Italian mo<leIs final iy ci-iin<-tl, and the iniinicry i>i 
(.'la.«sical and Gothic swept everything before it. Having 
thus to deal not only with ])eriods of profound int<"res'. 
glorified by the work of men of genius, but also with th • 
dull years of uneventful tiecay, some unevenneK of tre.if- 
ment might have been forgiven, but the an 
need of forgiveness, for his work exhibits, asu.. 
should, a quite admirable projwrtion. He ha», t(  
as clear of controversial matter as is practia;: .^ ... 
any critical treatise, although he once allows himself to 
refer to Mr. Husk in as 

" The most uncritical and intolerant of nmatenns." 
Hut Mr. Kuskin's onslaught on the I\ not 

Iv taken too seriously, and it may 1" no 

pa.ssionate lover of Gothic can do entire justice to the 
Italian architecture of the Renaissance. We are all, it 
has been said, Iwm either Goths or Clas.sici.sts, and Mr. 
Hlomtiekl was obviously not bom a Goth. 

It is with the great name of Wol.sey that the fir-t 
introduction of Italian workmen is a.sso<,iated. The iii.-.>- 
rations of the Cardinal's palace at Hampton Court were f !,e 
work of Italian hands, and the King was not liehind his 
great servant in recognizing the sujieriority of their crafts- 
manship. Henry VIII. 's jialace of Nonesuch is said to have 
been built for him by Toto del N' ^ of 

Padua is credited with Longleat ; .kai« 

resiKjnsible for more than the details of decoration. None- 
such, imfortunately, has not survived. It was pulled down 
and the materials sold by Charles II.'s worthies.-) mistress, 
Barliara Villiers. But In^fore its destruction its  ' 
taken and Evelyn and IV))ys saw it. Kvelyn w. 
much impressed. and de.scritie<l its ))la.stic gfxls andgmlde>rt-s 
in terms that remind one of the (iroves of Blarney. Mr. 
Blomfield seems altogether justified in conclu<ling that, 

though the presence of numerous Italians and I' 

lavish employment of them are historically est;i 
" we cannot jwint to a single instance of a builiiing ol ; ,.> 
sixteenth century designed and carried throiigh by any 
one Italian in England." The reign of the Itidian work- 
man was not, however, of long duration. Under the 
chililren of Henry, when foreign artificers were needed they 
were.sought in Germany and thelxjw Countries. Sir Thomrs 
(jresham imiwrted both the design and the materials for his 
Exchange from Flar ms 

to have b(»en an enii _ !'or 

some iwirt, though how much is uncertain, ot Dr. Caiu.s's 
buildings at Cambridge, That the German influence wa?, 
as a rule, unfortunate, is .attested by the buildings carried 
out under Elizalx'th. " Though picture8(]ue in outline — 
a legacy," says .Mr. Blomfield, " of the (Jothic tradition — 
they are overcrowded with abominable ornament, ar.*l 
they have evident marks of having been designo<l by men 



1U2 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



who were dratitate of a taste sufficiently mature to save 
them from the jsilly extravapinoe of the tJeriimns." 

Tlie groftt e>'eut was tlie comingoflnifjo Jones — a talent 
so exceptional, 90 complete, so mn-M-uIine. so unlike any- 
thing that has apivari ; he wonl " prodigy " 
ap]>lied to him wcics ;. _,.vut. Mr. Blomtield 
has spared no ])aiu8 to make his sketch of Inigo Jones 
complete, but he is unable to clear up the mystery of his 
life, or how he. a \xk>t man. was enabled, at a very early 
age, to ' !vi'r>e with the preat 
maatei.- iie \>tdd two visits 
to tliat country is certain, and that " he returned to 
Knglaud filled with the very spirit of the Kenais^nce and 
lifted the art of his countr}' on to an altogether diflferent 
plane." As far as England is concerned he was the 
inventor of classii-al architecture, meaning by that phra.se 
architecture depending for its eflfect solely ujwn i)ro- 
portion and rhythm. *• There was, in fact, no pre- 
cedejit for such a building as Inigo Jones designed 
for Whitehall," and this is true not only of its 
character but of its scale. Nobody will, we imagine, 
doubt i" '  ~ of Mr. Blomfield's assertion 
that " ! . mere fragment tliougli it is 
of - to tliis day the most accom- 

plu I i .. , . i .-J jh in England, and not inferior to 

the finest work of Palladio." " His extraordinary 
capacity," says Mr. Blomfield, '• is shown by the success 
with which he freed English architecture from the 
imbecilities of the German designers and started it on a 
line of fresh development, borrowed, it is true, from Italy, 
yet so successfully adapted to English traditions that it 
was at once accepted and followed by the best intelligence 
of the country for the next hundred and fifty years. 
Hi ;h lay in his thorough mastery of 

pn mpt for mere prettiness, and the rare 

tlistijiclion of his style. His own theory of architecture 
was that, in his own words, it should be ' solid, ])ropor- 
tibnal according to the rules, masculine, and unaffected.' 
No man has ever more completely realized his own ideal 
of art." 

From 1 ' Wren is a natural 

transition, 1 i ctween tiie work of 

the two men is often striking, Mr. Blomfield rightly insists 
on the fact that the stream of development was never 
arrested. The torch was carried on directly by Webb and 
others; while tliat the '' ' •' between Wren's work 

and t!i;'.t <>f his great \)i r was due simply to his 

wai iiing is attested by the fact that the further 

he ;: 1 in mastery of his art the nearer he approached 

the founder of the school. Not the least wonderful part 
of Wren's career is t' ' ndant evidence that it affords 
that he learnt his tr. iy by i)ractising it. The ?"ire 

of I»ndon < .< k of time for him, and jirohably 

a talent so . ver so matched by largeness of 

opjjortunity. 'i i ihle result of the Kenaissance had 

Iwicn " that the ii. .>...< ...il ideal had taken the place of the 
coUectivist," and when the oi»ix)rtunity of rebuilding Lon- 
<lon and its cathedral came, the individual ide^l was ready, 
embodied in one whose i)Ower of conceiving a great 
architectural scheme was probably unique. How 
great a man the builder of Sjt. Paul's and Greenwich 
HoKpital and half a hundred city churches was is accentu- 
ated by the work of the men that came after him. Of 
these Ixird Burlington has ceneraliy held the highest 
lOUgh, a« he Lad ' !l and Kent and I^eoni 

'iyf"," it i-- r'iftif . ^, how much of the credit 

he tias ; to iiim. (hie of his supposed 

master]. . ...i.iji«ter dormitorj' — Mr. Blomtield 



has finally taken from him, by showing, from the evidence 
of the All Souls' drawings, that the original design was 
WriMi's. apjsirently pirated by Kent for tiie benefit of his 
jiatron. .Nloreuver, if you add them all uj). the eontem- 
j)orarits and successors of Wren to the third and fourth 
generation, how will the sum of their work weigh against 
his 'it Mr. Blomfield carries us carefully along the line of 
these able architects who were yet mediocre artists — Van- 
brugh, with his sormd feeling for mass, and Ihiwksmoor, 
his follower, Burrough and Aldrich, Caini)beil, Kipley, 
Kent, Gibbs, the two Dances, C'liambors, the ingenious 
brothers Adam, and a host of obscurer men. The merit of 
their work is appraised from the standpoint of a skilful 
architect, and only such an one could have done them jus- 
tice. Yet nolx)dy can read this careful and elaborate history 
without realizing that it is the history of a decline. After 
^\'ren the severance between building and arcliitecture 
went on without a check. Yet even iM'fore Wren tlied the 
disease had begun. Mr. Blomfield thinks that the fault lay 
with the architects. " Their vanity," he says, " led them to 
maguify architecture into a fine art and a mystery, and 
their cui)idity to hand o\ er its control to wealthy amateurs. 
As for the builder, they left him out of the account, 
and the poor man had to make the best that he could of 
designs made without regard to materials or climate. 
Many ofthesedesigns were extremely fine in themselves, and 
several of the eighteenth-century architects were very able 
men ; but an art such as architecture, Imsed on the actual 
facts of 1 '. cannot ntTonl to Ix' insane." Mr. Blom- 

fieldsay- udthings of thetiothic revival, as, indeed, 

does Fergusson, with whom he is not frequently in 
accord. He speaks of it as a movement that taught 
false history and ignored three hundred years of ]>er- 
manent work and good tradition ; and he even doubts if 
a good tradition can grow up again in English art. "The 
arts do not,'' he says, " at this moment express the finest 
intelligence of the country." It is difficult to deny 
the truth of this pessimistic conclusion, but at any 
rate it is well to face the fact*, and in them there 
may be a sort of consolat ion. 



France Under Louis XV. Ry James Break Perkins. 
2 Vols. 8x5Jin., 400+488 pp. l»ndon, 1H»7. 

Smith, Elder. 16/- 

Mr. Perkins has now brought his studies of FVench 
history, which l)egan with the administration of Kichelien, 
to within measurable distance of the Revolution. In tiie 
two volumes before us he carries his narrative from the 
accession to office of the Duke of liourlwn to the death of 
Ixjuis XV. His treatment is in the main chronological ; 
the only digressions being two chajjters on Dupleix 
and the loss of India and the two closing chnjiters on 
" Intellectual and >Social Changes" and " The Influence 
of Literature." Of the merits of the book there can be 
no question. Mr. Perkins has read all the latest authori- 
ties, and he has supplemented them by indejM'ndent 
study of tiie papers at the French Foreign Office, llo has, 
j»erhai>s, little that is new to tell the world, but he has 
constructed a clear, accurate, and interesting narrative of 
a very imjwrtant period, and English readers who wish to 
study foreign history in their own language have every 
reason to be grateful to him. 

If any fault is to be charged against Mr. Perkins it 
is a fault of omission rather than of commission. The bulk 
of the chronological narrative is occupied with tlie wars 
and the foreign relations of Fraiif'-. It is tnie lli;if fl.o 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



loa 



diitloiiintic w[iiiil)blcM from 172.' to 1731 aro i»a>i«i»*d over 
very Hlijjlitly, althoufjii for a triu: fntimato of Fleury'n 
ailininiHt ration and aiinH they are (|nite hh important an the 
action tiiiton when the agetl miniKter was fortified and 
urped on by the more resolute t'lumvelin. But from the 
outbreak of the Polish SucoeKsion War down to the Peace 
of Paris Mr. Perkins devotes most of his pa^jes to the 
elucidation of the continental relations of Kmnce. Kxcept 
in the rare intervals of peace, and at notable crises, such as 
the expulsion of the Jesuits and the suppression of the 
Parliament, we hear comparatively little of the inner 
history of Fnmce. No doubt it may be answered that the 
story of incessant bickerings between Jesuits and Jnnsr>nist8, 
between the Archbishop and the Parliament of Paris, is 
wearisome and not at all picturesque, and that the pro- 
cession of insignificant ministers across the stage is hardly 
worth tnicing. Hut the imitortance of history is not always 
to be measured by its jxissibilities of literary treatment, 
f'rance has a history of her own, quite ajmrt from wars and 
treaties, during the eighteenth century,and it deserves more 
attentive study than it has yet receivi'd. Mr. Perkins 
would have had a stronger title to our gratitude if he had 
worked more in this comparatively neglected field, and 
given less space to the general history of Kurojie, which 
has been amply tr(>ated by many of his predecessors. His 
testimony was hardly needed to prove that the Austro- 
French alliance of 1756 was due to the Convention of 
Westminster between England and Prussia, and not to 
Frederick being forcetl into alliance with England by 
France having become the tool of Austria. It is true that 
Mr. Perkins seems to think the latter view is still 
maintained " with but few dissentient voices," but he 
will hardly find any historian within the last twenty years 
who has either made such an assertion or thought it worth 
while to controvert it. 

Some of Mr. Perkins's statements are open to consider- 
able discussion. His condemnation of the successive 
Family Compacts with Sjmin as imiformly disastrous 
to France is based upon arguments of the post 
hoc ergo propto' hoc order. And even to these 
arguments important exceptions must lie made with regard 
both to the war of the Polish Succession and to the war on 
behalf of the revolted American colonies. Far more 
open to criticism is the assertion that " to aid the 
Eicctor of Bavaria in his endeavour to be chosen Emperor 
necessarily involved an effort to sustain his claim iqwn the 
hereditary ^wssessions of the House of Austria ;" and the 
correlative statement (i. p. 301) that " it was to wrest the 
Imperial crown from the House of Austria that the war had 
been begun." The most elementary student of eighteenth- 
century history hns to grasp the fact that the war was 
about the succession to the Austrian territories, and that 
the election to the Empire, though necessarily raised at 
the same time, was utterly and completely distinct. 
There was absolutely nothing to prevent Fleury from 
accepting the succession of Maria Thercfa, and at the 
same time using French influence to urge the electors to 
choose Charles Albert of Bavaria instead of Francis Stephen 
of Tuscany. Most French historians woxild admit that 
he would have been well advised if he had taken this 
course. The oidy inevitable connexion between the two 
simultaneous vacancies was that Charles Albert, if he 
ousted Maria Theresa from the succession to her father's 
territories, might have given the Bohemian vote in his 
own favour. 

Mr. Perkins seems to hold (ii. p. 122) that the third 
treaty of Versailles, concluded by Choiseul on his accession 
to office, was more unfair to France than the treaty of 



1757, n I by Kemis and is 

open to ilispute, though iL . , ...^ to 

analyze and comjian* the terms of the two tr«atie«. It 
may be doubtefl al-  ' " - .-•-.-_ r "" ito were 
often chosen from <> liimcnt 

(i. p. 23j, th'. isional 

instances of su^ i ,-t hiive 

been under a t<-nq)orary tial I uci nation when on the aamt' 
page, in a contrast Ix-tween the nobility of France and 
England in the eighteenth century, he speak" of the I'el- 
hams and N ''asifthey wc ' "...' ' '.u. 

Mr. I'l . . evidently < '-^ witli 

great care, and llien- is cjuite a ri ;; .in- 

prints in his jjages. He is a resolut<- ai or 

])erhap8 of the American, rules of spelling, and the <-. i. i 
to become accustomed to forms like "woolen,"" > | . !• d, 
" offenses," tic. As to the spelling of prop<ir n ...   .icU 
author is usually a law to himself, and can ]. ive 

some reason for his decision. But it hai nis 

worth while to sj>eak of an Archbishop of " ' .i 

Mr. Perkins does. It is a hallowed form, in <...^ .. ,.i;ct, 
as it is y)erha[)a the only mis-spelling which we have 
adopted indej)endently of French innuen ' .t it i> 
becoming more and more unfiimiliar. nn>l ms no 

good rea.son why it should not \- .1 to •iisafijxar. 

Finally, in sjjeaking of the iii is of ;» foreign 

country we must inevitably borrow the technical tcnns iu 
which they are designated. If we translate these terms 
into oiu- own lancuage we either make them colourless 
and uiii 've to them a.ssoci;i! ' ire 

in all 1; iig. When we ar. l»n 

Law sjwke of the kingdom of France as '• j; by 

thirty Intendants " we understand at once wL... mt. 

The word " Intendant " has been used so often by English 
writers that it has become the recognized title of the 
famous local rulers of France. But when Mr. Perkins 
sj)eaks of " thirty su])erintendents " with a sn 'it 

requires a mental efl'ort to understand who h<- ing 

to. No doubt it is a suflSciently correct trii of 

Intendant, but in this case we contend tlmt ti i"- 

not only unnecessary, but much to be deprecatetl. 



DarvTin and after Darwin : An Ezposiiicu of the 
Darwiniun Tlicory .uid .i Discussion of PnKt.Darwiiiian 
Questions. Uy the Into Q. J. Roman r ...i- 

Darwinian Questions : Is<ilation and 1 on. 

Crown 8vo., viii.+ 181 pp. London, IM'T. Longzxuui. S/- 

In Darwin's Autobiography there is an ing 

jMis.sage referring to the solution of a great pri ,i)w 

to account for the tendency of organic beings descende«l 
from the same stock to diveqje in character as they 
become modified. " I can rememlier the very spot on 
the road, whilst in my carriage, when to my joy the 
solution occurred to me. . . . The solution, as I 
believe, is that the mo<lified offspring of all d"' 'nd 

increasing fonns tend to become adapted to iiid 

high ly-diversifietl places in the economy of nature.' Iu 
other words, isolation of the several new stocks from om^ 
another, and from the parent one, is essential to diver- 
gence of specific character, or what Professor Romanes 
here calls " polytypic evolution." 

The present work, the of 

" Parwin and after Darwin,"' is d' . of 

the principle of isolation. Professor Romanes's view is 
that, in relation to the theory of descent, this principle is 
second to no other, and that heredity ami variability being 
given, the whole theory of organic evolution becomen a 



104 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



t!i(y>rj of the causes and conditions which lead to isola- 
tiun. 

From Hii.s point of view natural selection itself is n 
jnrticular fonn of •'• ■• — iiiate isolation. But Romanes 
shows. ».•> Ihtniin U linitte*l.tliat this natural selec- 

ts " • xclusive cause of the 

«• .-t difficulties in the 

«;iy of ac. 'f selection as a com])lcte ex- 

{ilaiiation •. ., lers is the difference Ix'tween 

vjrieties anil sjicfies when crossed. Another is the famous 
<»se of tlie land-shells of the forest refjion of Oahu, one of 
the Sandwich I>lands. " Here," says Air. tiulick, whose 
«' M> were made with preat accuracy, "we fre- 

ij> uid a penus represented in several successive 

valleys (often only a mile ajMirt) by allied species. . . . 
In every buch case the valleys that are nearest to each 
other furnish the most nearly allied forms ; and a full set of 
tl  '  ' i>nt a minute gradation of 

f it tyj)es found in the more 

V cji.' Tlie difficulty of explaining, 
in. . :. J selection, how allied varieties are 
generally mutually fertile and species infertile is overcome, 
according to Komanes, by his theory of physiological 
election, which is stated and supjx)rted in thethird, fourth, 
and fifth (' •f this work. The second case is pai- 
ticularly ii ig. Mr. Gulick urged, in essa3's to 
which Itomanes does full justice, that the constant 
differences of the land-shells of the little island of Oahu 
oouid not be due to natural selection because they occur 
ill ' "^ ' " ^ on the same side of the mountain, 
w . and enemies were the same, and he 
fiiiiiliy C4»nclud»\i that they were due to wliat he called 
" cumulative segregation," what Romanes here calls 
" discriminate isolation." The special interest of the case 
lies in the fact that it led Mr. Gulick, a lonely worker in 
the Sandwich Islands, to the same conclusion as to the 
ii ' " li Romanes had indcjiendently 
r<  ■•. I :iiig. The first two chapters of 
tlie work are devoted to a discussion of the imi>ortance and 
the kinds of " isolation," while the opinions which have 
be<;n held by naturalists who have specially considered the 
Fuhject ai( d in the concluding (sixth) chapter. 
IJy far the jKirt of the lxx)k, however, lies in the 
statement and defence of the theory of " physiological 
selection " which occupy the remaining cliaptcrs. This 
theory, |»er{iaits Romanes's most original contribution to 
the literature of Darwinism, implies that when a species 
is undergoing modification in several directions, so that 
('■ ' ^ and the lower classes of animals) tlie 
n to inhabit the same area as the parent 
Kto<i;, then these new forms are sexually incompatible witli 
escli other and witli the parent si^ecies. Physiological 
■eleflionin fact is, in regard to incii»ient species, a form of 
isolation which may act alone in preventing "the swamping 
efT' ell of iiitfrero'.uing,'' or its influence may be furthered 
by nat i. 

'J' ' , '" which Professor Romanes attaches to 

is-ilatioii, and esj)etialiy to physiological selection, in the 
production of new sjK-cies has recently Ix-en the subject of 
ui-v.-re controversy. I'nder these rirciimstnncfs the present 

V  :  •  . .,i, 

*' K is 



jfi\ n at III 



lie, which has been carefully 



Oreec« in the Nineteenth Century : A Rt-cord of 
HolI<mic KoiaucipnlioD and Progn-j*. 1821-1S07. By Lewis 



Sergreant, Knight of the Hellenic Order of the lledeeiiier. 
With limp iiiul '.it ilhistnitioiiM. llj xdin. 4(10 pp. I^ondon. 1HII7. 

Fisher Unwln. 10 6 

" Plants do nourish ; inanimate bodies do not : tlioy Imvo 
an accretion, but no alimentation. " In quoting this dcUnition 
of Bacon's wo do not moan to infer that Air. Louis Sori^oant's 
book is thu product of an inanimate l>ody. nor tlint it will not 
nourish some minds, but merely to show that, in cnlliii); it " nn 
accretion," and confusing a prucoss with tho roKiiU, ho uses a 
strained metonymy, and (to quote the old doggorel) " impoiiit 
nova nomina rebus." Whut ho moans iu tliat it is n now o<Iition. 
Probably u good many forg(itt<>M books on Ureok and Turkish 
subjects will appoar in now editions txtforo the Eastern problem 
is solved. Mr. Sergeant's " New Greece," when it first came 
out in 1878, w«s rocognizcxl a.s a meritorirns attempt to put tl'.e 
case for Greece in a favourablo light at a time wlion Europe 
regardo<I Hellenic aspirations as rather a nuisance. It reappears 
with a new title, and a good dcnl of new matter and additional 
statistics, in a very similr.r mood of public opinion. A goo<l 
many people are incline<l to endorse the Apostolic a88ii:^ment 
of attributes — " to the (ireeks' foolishnoHS " ; — others arc 
willing to see a certain element of heroism, a "divine folly," in 
their dauntless kicking against the pricks. To Mr. Sergeant thoir 
conduct is purely noble from first to last, and hia cnthuHiastic 
championship of their cause will warm the heart of many a 
despairing Philhellone in England. 

Tho book is avowedly a plea. Reduced to its elements, the 
plea consists in throe arguments. It is contended, first, that 
tho modern (ireeks are tho lineal descendants and rightful repre- 
sentatives of the ancient Hellenes, to whom European civiliza- 
tion owes a delit that can never be liquidated, and, as such, are 
entitIo<] tohr>ld and enjoy the possessions of thoir ancestors. In 
the second place, it is argued that tho Eurojican and especially 
the Western Powers, and most of all England, by interfoiing to 
create tho kingdom of Greece early in the century, have made 
themselves morally responsible for the stability and well-being of 
tho Statu they established, and are bound to further its " legiti- 
mate aspirations." Thirdly, if tho Greeks have not entirely 
realizi'fl the exf)©ctations of their liberators, have run deeply 
into debt, and failed to develop to tho full the resources of 
thoir country, it is all the fault of tho Powers, who denied 
them any freedom of action. 

We confess we think tlie argument from nationality, the 
appeal to the ago of Pericles, 'iltlo bolter than seutinicntal clap- 
trap. Mr. Sergeant holds that Fallraerayer's demonstration of 
the strong Slavonic element in the modern Greek race has been 
exploded, but his principal witness to the purity of Hellenic 
blood seems to be Esmond About. Students of ethnology will 
find it difficult to believe that a country swept by successive 
hordes of barbarians can have kejit its inhabitants uiulefilcd by 
intermixture. Travellers nro by no means unanimous in detect- 
ing in modem Greeks tho lineaments of the sculptures of 
Praxiteles, and Mr. Sergeant's illustrations of " Greek typos " 
do-not remind us of the works of Scoj as. Tho very fact that tho 
present occupioM of Greece aro strongly imbued with a national 
sentiment makes against the theory of a pure Hellenic ancestry ; 
for when did the ancient Greeks over unite as a nation for any 
purpose soever ? There was an Athenian patriotism, a Loce- 
dsmonian {mtriotism, finil any number of smaller civic senti- 
ments ; but a national patriotism for Helios as a whole did not 
exist. The sooner we recognisio that tho (Ireeks, like the 
Russians, aro a mixed eeiiii-Oricntal race, the easier will it 
become to arrive at a ranc estimate of their performance and a 
just judgment of their conduct. To recognize tlio truth is really 
in the interest of tho Greeks themselves, for we shall no longer 
try tu measure them Ivy our own standard ; we shall judge 
them, as we ought to judge the Turks, liy a criterion suited to 
their origin and conditions. 

More than a third of this volume is Gllo<I with an account 
of tho War of Indepen Icnco, and tlio various steps, warlike and 
diplomatic, which led to the founding of tho kingdom in IHI/O. 
It does not pretend to be more than a sketch, designed to show 



November 13, 1807.] 



LITERATURE. 



105 



that Briglanil, liavini; put her h«n<l to the plough, mnrt not 
turn back. Tho ar);iiiiiont ia opoii to challongu. Ikxiaiiiio one 
auts a (Iriiiikon man on )iis logn in tho itreet, ia one obliged 
to svo him homo I Kngland may naturally fool sympathy with 
tlio Btuto shn liulpod to ostabliah, but bur obligationa atop 
tlitiro, until bur own interoata in Kuutb-Koat Kurope aro in- 
volvoil. Mr. Sorgoant, howovor, maintuina tliat tho nhortuominga 
of Grook govonimonts in tho post wuro nil our own fault. " Tho 
young kin(;dom wtia »tillod in ita birth." Tho (in^oka, ho saya— 

" Have nuvur luid tliu chanco of growing into a grrut and 
powerful nation, or of duvuloping tho gt'iiiun fur trado and tho 
civitiy.itig energy wbii-li uro thoir natural inheritance. Thoy wore 
uxhorteil to bo fri'o with their chains lialf aovorcd, t'l nin in tho 
raco with shacklcn on Ihoir foot, to bo a model for the very 
Europo which hml ilomonilizod thorn. Kurojui dui, ' ' im- 
poasibility of Ciruoco ; and to that inju.stico shr i ! iho 

greater ono of condonuiing and neglecting tho hall-..ii.iMi i|.iktu<l 
race for what has l>eon, not ita orimo, but its chief mixfortuno." 

Thia ia lino rhetoric, but when it cornea to proof Mr. 
Sorgunnt ia at fault. If his utterly misleiuling account of the 
Pacilioo atfair in 1850 ia a fair uaniplo of his diplomatic studies, 
his history must )>u taken with reserve. To abuse Otho and his 
Bavarians is easy and natural enough, but there is no attouipt to 
show why tho descendants of Loonidas and Thomistocles did 
n'lt Booner bring the King to his bearings. Nor does Mr. 
f^orgeant explain why a practical iioople, imbued with a genius 
for trade, did not develop to its utmost capacity tho country 
restored to them, howovor incompletely. Themistocles wonM not 
have run into bankruptcy whilst crying for tho moon. 

We cannot commend tho ilhustrutions, which aro poor anil 
often irrelevant. Botzari's portrait is en<uigh to give one the 
nightmare, an<l why tho well-known sculpture from tho east 
frieze of tho t'artlienon should be described iia a " Timib in the 
Keraniikos " posses understaniling. 



Stories of Famovis Songrs. By S. J. A. FitzGerald. 
Sixoiin., xviii.+ iaj pp. lx>nd<>n, 1807. Nimmo. 7,6 

" I know a very wise n:an," wrote Fletcher of Faltoun," that 
believed that, if a man wern ] crmitted to make all tho ballads, 
wo need not care who.shoidd niako tho laws of a nation" ; and 
of tho many songs describoil by Mr. FitzGerald those aro cer- 
tainly the most interesting which recall some groat event or echo 
tbrougli some crisis in a people's history. For fifteen years otir 
author has laboured to gather up " tho stories of such lajs and 
lyrics as were written under romantic, pathetic, or entertaining 
circuni.itanccs" ; and tho excellence of his subject atones ftr 
much that is lacking in tho presentation of it. In tho matter 
of the history and origin of his Irish songs Mr. FitzOcrabl is not 
invariably as accurate a.s could bo wished. Thouph indi- 
vidual singers may often find a favourite strain omitted from 
these pages, yet in tho account of tho«o melodies that have 
voiced th'j loyalty of a nation or roused its " stonea to rise and 
mutiny " there is a wider interest which must apjwal to every- 
one. 

That there is fair ground fcr thus distinguishing between 
those who may look through those chapters is unfortunately 
but too true. There are few citizens of to-day who have a 
" book of songs and sonnets " which they value as high as 
Falstaff's forty shillings. Yet it is cump.irativoly but a 
short time sinco Mr. Secretary Pepys deliberately chose a 
housemaid for her capabilities of voice, in days when almost 
every household had at least its own quartett, and there were 
" musicko-moetings " at tho Post Office. Even in his time tho 
thing was no longer what it bad been. The popidar appreciation 
of music had grown weaker : the power of po[)ular song was 
loss : and it baa grown less ever sinco. Whether thia change be 
due to tho quality of our music or to some more general con- 
sideration of character and manners it were no easy task to say. 
Sir Philip Sitbiey could never hear tho rhyme of Percy and 
Douglas without finding his " heart moved more than with a 
truujpst."' And there arc a few such old aongs that can even 



now thrill the tenaaa ol all tboM who liaten. But aa a rale our 
ears aro dulled in thuao more blatant day* by the infinity o( 
unini|x>rt«nt outcry. Our paaaiona ar.' i.orn trainwl to • Oitroct 
roatraint than were the men of eorlii : i. It iu at loMt 

certain that the " Ballatl " aa tho ki .. century kiiaw it ia 

no more. Tlie Proas hoa killed it. When every great event iu 
politics, in literature, or in r> !' - - r i» celciirat>d in vorae 
which stimulated and informed t tual life of Kngland, 

the man who hud no music wos con.-.. .. l« •' lit for 

truosons, slraUigems, and spoils." T i innnory of 

that yet older timo when the i> ! 

who brought news from distant < 
of the local hero. 

" Wor nicht liobt Woin, Woib, und i.. ^^..f., 
" Der bloibt ein Narr auin l<vbunlang." 

And the couplet holdj good not in Germany alone but throu{;li- 
out all Euro|)e. 

Even at the end of tho seventeenth 'on 

ooulu bjoat that hu drovo James II. from .ow 

verses and a tune. Tho ridiculous chorua of " Ldliburlem " 
only won its popularity by Henry PurcoU's muiic. tJnt it ranks 
nevortholou in that Una of our national uiolodioa which bcginn 
with tho old Norman bunlen " Vivo lo Itoy." Durio;; the Pri>- 
toctorato the Cavaliera ha<l to aing " When tho King ahall enjoy 
his own again.'' .\t tho Ito.toration there might bo hcarci iu 
every loyal house tho sound of — 

" Here's a Health unto his Ma'esty, * 

'• With a fal lal lal lal la ! " 

IViforo 1743 Henry Carey, to whom tho mtuic of tho people 
already owed the immortal " Sally in our Alley," had written 
and composed a National Anthem which was to remain thcnct- 
forth the song of all thu English race. It would seem now 
beyond ipiostion that to Carey alone is due the honour of this 
noble melody. How much he wrote of those words in which so 
many others have claimed a share is not so certain. lyongfellow's 
final verso was first publicly sung in April of this year at the 
oiioning of Her Majesty's Theatre. But tho thrc« "t^nwis of 
tho original in tho simplo majesty of their first wo 

never been surpa8se<l and never seem likely to br » It 

is not without its tignifioancc, in tho matter on- 

noxion,that the some year which gave us "Ged ', ii " 

also saw tlio birth of Henry Fielding's " Roas'< Beef of Old Eng- 
land " and James Thomson's " Rule Britannia," while in 17t'J 
(the year of Minden, of (juiburon, of Quebec) David Oarrick was 
moved to writo " Hearts of Oak," which was Crst sung in that 
same year to Dr. Boyce's music at Dmry Lane. 

It was not long after " Lilliburlero " bad died out in 
EngUnd that you n\ight have heard almcst anyitKeio on the 
Continent the resonant refrain of 

'• Malbrouck s'en va-t-en irnorr*, 

Mir<mtoH, ilirtmton, 

Malbrouck s'en va-:. .re, 

Ne sais quand rcvieudra." 

The words were of very ancient origin ; even if the mother of 
Siscra was not the first to cry throngh her lattice, " Why ia his 
chariot so long in coming ?" That some such poem wm popular 
diu-ing tho Crusades is well known ; indeed, the structure and 
phraseology of the modern lines can only so bo fully understood. 
But there was an evident break in their popidarity until tho 
burlesque chant that followed Malplaquet t)ecamc the favourite 
camp-song of half-a-dozon armies. Vet, still neither words nor 
music seem to have been written down. And had nut a certain 
Madame Poitrine (as Mr. Fit/.Gorald writes her n.imo) used it as 
a lullaby for the infant Dauphin at Versailles, it would barely 
have survived another century. Tho lively fancy of Marie 
Antoinette was taken by the cradle-song, and it was soon hoard 
throughout all France. Bcaumarchais iusertetl it in his Maria'jt 
de Figaro. Barros and Murat sang it. Beethoven uced Uie 
tune in his Battle Symphony in 1813 as symbolical of tho French 
Army. The melody is shouted still all over England to the 
words of '* For he's a jolly good fellow," or to the still more 
convivial chorus of which " Father Prout '' gives the origin in 



106 



LITERATURE. 



rNovember 13, 1897. 



kit tmuKiiption of tbe Mrljr Taraion of .luaoolebnUd funeral 



•' Maribrook, tho prin-" ■■•' .-.-in-niiwi.! «, 
Haa eone to the « » 
Hia fame is like A 

Bat whoii 
flip invi'f — ; 

"* ' ;lit dotli upiK'iiT. 

AHp: •■' Mall'i, . - uamo the terrible Carmnguolo, with its 
" \ ;i Ihi Canon," id hideous jiarody of tho farandole of 

Ol ! Uut both thia and " ^a ira " won gave way to 

a I '.r»in than any which tho rorolutionary spirit had yot 

■rua»<xi. ir. tho winter of 1793, Claude Joseph Rougot de Lislo 
wrote the first words of " Allons, Enfants de la Tatrio " fur 
Baton Diotrich, Mayor of Strasburg. Tho wave of popular 
apfroral carri«^ it swiftly to Southern France, and it was soon 
olirialer ^IarscilIaiBo," from the town whoso citizens first 

broagfct i'aris. Its wild refrain swept in a torrent of 

•notion thtougk the capital. Something oren of Barri-re's 
b]r>terieal desoription we can realize to-tiay, for wo know how 
Bachol kindled her audiences to a frenzy of excitement as she 
sang " A.ax Arntes, aux Armos, Citoyeii!< !'' By Lamartine and 
by Ueina sooie eoho of what that first enthusiasm meant lias 
bMB preaarred. No "art made tongue-tie<l by authority '' 
eoold ovor produce a ritral to theoo paMionatc strains. Xo other 
•ong has ever so fully ; 'lotcber of Saltoun in his 

duotation. It remains ti. J musical expression of tho 

Wrench iU-public. 

In Au;iu«t, 1813, a young Saxon soldier, only twonty-two 
years old, lay dead after a skirmish in Mocklonburgh. In his 
pocket-book was found tlio " Schwcrtlied," which made Komor 
famons, and to Weber's music has been sung wherever German 
•oldien fought. " Die Wacbt am Rhein," which was written in 
1840, was tho sole effort of Max Schneckcnburger, a perfectly 
oh  'lant, who never lived to hoar it chosen as 

til In tho same war the German outposts at 

SaarUuck were cliauting tho Kutschko Lied, with its more 
simple, soldier-liko words and tho refrain — 

'• Was kraucht da in dcm Busch hernm ? 
Ich glaulo 08 ist Napolium " — 

which dates back to the old War of tho Liberation. 

Bat we havo no spaoe to mention more of these national 
lyrics, or even to aay anything of tho many other examples of 
perfect mnsic net to noblo words which upon slighter occasions 
bare won their place in this record of tho power of song. That 
power seems weaker amid the growing indilTerenco and the 
clamorous Tulgarity of our modem life. But there is one clear 
Doto that sounds an echo of the Elizabethan lyro, one singer 
who is not ashamed of patriotism, nor afraid to take tho British 
Bmpire for his theme. It is from Mr. Rudyard Kipling that we 
most seek— if we dare seek at all— tho song that fthall stir Eng- 
land of to-day as these old songs moved our forefathers long 
ago. 

The Connolaaeur : ICnMtys «>n the Romantic und I'ictu- 
TY!n>|uc A:«M>i.latioiii< of Art and Artists. By Frederick S. 
Bobinson. Demy 8vo., 'JX pp. London, 1807. 

Red way. 7.6 

Thif Titi'o book has, at any rate, tho rare merit of being 
tboroni: .'>lo. It is a sort of artixtic olla, made up of 

pleasau'.. ,, ii'ing essays about collectors and things which 

interest collectors. There are anecdotes of artists and art 
patrons, talcs of art frauds and art discoveries, while whole 
chapters are devoted to tho elder Pliny and Horace Walpole, 
aii ' ' 'inpensable " but inn'  ^■:l«ari. It may bo 

CO • .nly a very few of ) ' tcs are really new, 

b«r ■- email • in tliot, provided that 

til' Kn with J .ind seasoned with apt 

Tomnieat. Nor does the book seem to be- addressed to the grave 
or eradito etodent, but rather to tho class refcrrud to in the 
flhaptor on the art collector, to whom "tho thoiiglit of such a 
pJac«* a^ thf Hotith Krnslngton Museum conjures up only 



recollections of a smell from hot-air gratings, which were noisy 
to walk u]Hni, and of a refreshment room which it was only 
too dilHodt to find." 

Though for the most part tho author has gone for his matu- 
rials to more obvious and generally available sources, he has to 
some extent exploited thu stores of information in the iK>sses- 
sion of his father, Kir John Robinson, whoso long previous 
experience as Superintendent of the South Kensington Museum 
has, as ho frankly mentions, 8uppliu<i him with n poi-tion of tho 
contents of this volume. In the chapter on " Tho Ideal 
Collector," there is a fiiio flavour of keen personal enjoyment. 
Mr. Robinson certainly draws a very attractive picture of tho 
life of tho ardent connoisseur hunting curios throughout the 
world, and in particular of the foreign travel, spiced with tho 
danger and excitement of rough journeys in a wild country, 
" with the added anxiety caused by tho consciousness of plenty 
of ready money in yourl)elt." Nor must the thorough-going 
collector, ideal or not, insist on dealing only with tho virtuous, 
and, indood, we imagine that Mr. Robinson is right in assorting 
(so frail is human nature) that " moments of mild intrigue in> 
crease your delight in tho acquisition of a coveted treasure." 
As, for instance : — 

" Is it a question of church plato which tho priests' aro 
anxious to soil ? Tlion yon may havo judiciously to grease the 
palms of half a cathedral chapter. His holiness tho bishop 
will display for tho future a brighter diamond on his finger since 
ho facilitated the exchange of his old communion plutu for now. 
Most of tho proceeds willpo to the completion of tho cathedral, 
as at Saragossa twenty years ago, when tho votive offerings of 
tho Vorgen del I'ilar were disjiersod — to bo found a!;ain, some 
few of them, at tho all-embracing South Kensington Museum. " 

Naturally, wo turn to tho chapter on frauds and forgeries for 
interesting matter. " Wo aro not ablo to say," tho author 
sentontiously remarks, " when the first artistic fraud was perpe- 
trated." If we might venture a guess, it wii« probably daring 
tho later palaeolithic period, but the practice sooms to 
have kept abreast of advancing civilization up to the present 
time. The singular thing is that artists of extraordinary ability 
continue to exhibit an equally extraordinary readiness to under- 
take tho work of forgery. A familiar instance is that of the artist 
who a few years ago engravotl an exquisite arabesque ornament 
on a genuine steel corselet of tho IHtli century. This fraud was 
discovered, not through any inferiority in the modern work, but 
because a connoisseur detected tho incongruity between tho 
coarseness of the armour, which was only that of a common lane- 
knecht, and tho delicate beauty of the decoration, which only 
befitted a grandoe. Tho forger in this case was a Spaniaixl, but, 
judging from tho examples given by Mr. Robinson, probably 
Italy has suppliotl most of this unprincipled talent. Nor is the 
Muscovite far behind, for if Professor Ftlrtwiinglor bo right, and 
Europo knows no more aicurato or accomplished critic, the 
famous gold tiara of King Salaipharnos, the latest glory of tho 
gold room in the Louvre, is the work of an unscrupulous crafts- 
man in a small Russian town. The author has a somewhat loose 
grip of medieval history, and talks too glibly of " Gothic 
times " and " the darkno.'js of a thousand years," a period 
which ap{>aroiitly would include the building of Saint Sojihia bud 
tho prime manhood of Leonardo da Vinci. Similarly, his criti- 
cism of men and things, as when ho calls tlie author of linos tu 
tho evening star a misguided eccentric, is apt to be a little too 
summar}'. But he has written an amusing book. 



Lumen. By Camillo Flammarion. AulhoriztHl TranB- 
Intion from the hVi-nch by A. A. M. and R. M. Svo.. vi. ! 2:iJ pp. 
London. 1HW7. Heinemann. 3,6 

The scienti6c romance is always a dangerous thing to 
handle, and, to judge from this hook, a still more dangerous 
thing to translate. Such mistakes, in fact, as are mado by tho 
ordinary novelist matter little, because it is only the very 
young who take their ideas of life from tho novels tliey read, 
and most of us aro quite com|>etent to avoid being led into 
errors by stories that wo take U[) '"• niiii!''cmi!iil. But tho 



November 13, 18S)7.j 



LITERATURE. 



107 



■oientiflo romanco it on • difToront footing ; •-'' — ~ -- no little 
fftniilior to thu avorof^o man, and in yotun int' mioMiou 

■o juulouHly (loBirod l)y him, that tho novoliiit wti", lik'- M. Julua 
Verne or Mr. H. (!. Wulls, apfxiars to coinbinQ amu.Humtjnt with 
instruction in apt to l>o rogardoil an a iiHoful ; Yut ho 

is gonurally nioro liable to orr than tho Hitrio nf text- 

books. Kven Sir. WolN, for iiigtun>-u, has one  kUtii 

to look forwaril to a time wliou bactoria will h _ ' ir 'd aa 

a Hort of golden ago, in apparent unuonaciousnoa* <>f the fact 
that thoy are tlin true scavongers and piiriliora of the world. Me 
may be readily exuuHed when wu tlnd hu auunil an OHtroiionior as 
M. Flaminarion committing himself to tho statoment tliat " a 
more or loss quantity of hout would produce liipiid air," and 
that if the earth flew off at a tangent to its orbit, its atmo- 
sphoro wo\dd " booonio liquid." This statontont is certainty 
not ju8titied by all that we know of tho temporaturo of intor- 
atollar space, at wliioh pressure as powerful as that usi-<l in tho 
laboratory of tholtnyal Institution would still bo needed to liquefy 
air. Many of M, Klamiuarion's numerical statements have been 
shown to bo erroneous by tho more accurate measurements of tho 
thirty years which have elapsed since " Lumen "wus written, and 
his translators have helped to pilo up a list of orrors which would 
have boon avoided by tho most olomcntary acquaintance with 
astronomy. As tho charm of tho book desci-vos to carry it into 
a second edition, it may bo worth while to coll attention to 
some of thoso. Thus the earth's speed in its orbit is said to be 
12,700 kilom^trea por hour (p. 10) ; it is really about 66,000 
milos, or moro than oight times as much. On p. 95, whilst 
correcting M. Flammarion's arithmetic, tho trannhitors havo 
forgotten that tho statomont of tho speed of lif^l't as " 75,000 
leagues por second " convoys either no meaning, or a wTong 
one, to an English reader. Thoro is also a misprint in the 
number of " leagnos " traversed in a day. Pago 108, " spectral 
analysis," is not tho proper English phrase, bnt sooms to refer to 
tho proceedings of tho S. P. R. Pages 131 and 160, tho meaning- 
loss " leagnos " recur. Pago 132, tho translators' arithmetic 
has gono all wrong in tho attempt for once to turn French 
measures into English. Pago 170, we are introduced to a 
chomical novelty in tho shape of " carbolic acid gas." Page 
176, " azote " should bo nitrogen. Pago 202, " tho worm 
called lombrio " is simply the common earthworm, and not such 
a " strange serpent " as it must appear under this unfamiliar 
designation. Tho translation throughout is far from reproducing 
the poetic charm and attractiveness of the original, but it might 
pass if the orrors, of which we have pointed out the moat 
glaring, were removed. Tho ingenious speculations and romantic 
hypotheses on which tho book is based, which havo earne<l it an 
immense popularitj' in tho original, are too well known to need 
criticism. We may quote Dr. Newcomb's brief summary of the 
main idea : 

" If an intelligent being h.ad an eye so keen that he could 
see the smallest object by the faintest light, annf a movement so 
rapid that ho could pass from one bound of the Stellar .lystom to 
tho other in a few years, then, by viewing tho earth from a 
distance nnich los3 than that of tho furthest star, ho would see 
it by light which had loft it several tbou.-Jand years before. By 
simply watching, ho would see the whole drama of human 
history acted over again, except where the actions had been 
hidden by clouds, or under other obstacles to tlio radiation of 
light." 

M. Flammarion has worked out this conception with mnch 
literary charm, and even in tho rather inadequate translation 
his book is sure to find many appreciative reatlcrs. It is curious 
to notice in it what may bo taken as a prophecy both of tho 
Rontgon Kays and of Hertz's electrical vibrations, which Signer 
Marconi has just turned to such useful account. 



Social Switzerland : Studies of Present Day R<x-ial 
Movements and Ivogislation in the Swiss Republic. Ry 
William Harbutt Dawson. SxSiin., :««pp. I^mdon. issr;. 

Chapman and Hall. 

Mr. Dawson's " Social Switzerland " might, perhaps, have 
been moro appropriately called " Industrial Switzerland. " To 



I 'ir, 

— It- 

Daw- 

> dat«, 

nt thb 

iue,but 

ijfficiat 



a l*ts» extant, though working on a s- 
over tho aanie ground aa was travvlltd 
Dra«|u, ;' ..... . , 

in thu 

■ion in IB'JJ. Uu!, thcu ;ui, 

son's h'v.k. Not only ii tb- 

s«i • 

ye 

Mr. Dawson 

reports by j • _ . I.. 

dealt with, ilu is thus able to give mucli fuller in; oa 

to tho workin • ■' •' •■■■titntions than is to bu (■.umi m the 

Ulue-lxwik, « ing facts afT^rd an occasional insight 

into thu pen i. r and ; ' ' ' .worker 

which will ' tho book _, to the 

average reader. 

Mr. Dawson is, on the whole, content to lot Ids f.-.ct-i odc.iU for 
them.HeIvi'Sv  his own views too ii it, 

so that tliou„; what ore in somo ii: .....Jljr 

controversial subjects, he does so in no controv' rit. In 

his preface ho says : — "I believe vr-  '-irn mui^n ::iir-. .ho ame- 
liorative movements which are j.' near our own doora." 
This, I'! '  , is tho point m: to 
regard , it hn gives of '• t ;ty 
which the I .i i« 
Rejmblic ha\ in 
tiio field of '>rm." It w(/ oly be 
pos.siblo for ; Oi people to i . ' "f t^"* 
Swiss in all these excursions. Tho conditions in Switzerland are 
mach moro paternal, and tho combinations alike of labour and 
capital much loss i>owerful, than thoy are in England, while tho 
Democratic spirit is so prevalent among tho Swiss th.it, as Mr. 
Dawson tolls us, " tho public tako sidei with tho striker* almost 
as a matter of course, and sometimes without rej;ard to the 
rights and wrongs of the dispute." On thi* point li" «av^ : — 

"As a strike oddity may be i- :oh 

occurred durini' a strike of watchmak< ire 

in the sprin: When tho struggle  he 

Communal .\ i one village ~"'cr' t^ 

tho 8upp<irt <-( tiio htrikers. 
Cantonal tJovornmont, which 

within its ri." s as helj :ii oltn-r 

destitute or "us not c 

Then, again, there are mun; t Heme, 

where young pe>ple are given a t!.u of four 

common handicrafts ; but it is not that the 

goo<ls ma<le and sold and tho " ri:.. ........ ^. .,..., ssions " 

undertaken are regarded by the ordinary nuuiufacttirurs as an 
nndosiroble fornj of competition with themsolrcs. 

Tlie references alike to Poor Law agencies and technical 
education certainly suggest that in those : •, least, 

them aro lessons to be learned by us from .:id. In 

regard to tho former the system of X.'l; 'ii.:. i. - . i'ms 

(called " Natural " Relief Stations in tl.o lioik, ;; ;.:i ob .■ ua 
misprint) afTonls an excellent moans of distinguishing between 
the ordinary tramp and the gennino workman who is hone.<»tljr 
seeking for work, and it is certainly open to consideration whether 
some approach to this dual system could not'' ' ' 'heroin 
profcronco to leaving tho honest bnt unfort ..ker to 

choose between tho tramp ward and a commun . te. 

Mr. Dawson's references to technical education le- 

serving of caruful consideration. Ho says :— 

" It is the ' 
industries is witli 
special ■=♦•;''• '" 
as a ni' 
establibi . ... , . 



. , , 



te 
i>re. 



they are wanted, haviug been 



Containing, as it docs, the latest information on these ar.d 
a varietyof (ithcr matters as regards one of the most ••ailvancod" 
of European countries in respect to industrial questions, Mr. 
Dawson's book should be reatl by all who are in any v.-ay interested 
in tlio subject of present day progress. 



lOS 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, IS 97. 



History of Dogma, nr Dr. Adolph Hamaok. Trnnn- 
!«t<-tl from tlu- thinl (ii-minn Kdilioti by Jnnii's Millar, H.I). 
Vul. III. (T)iculc)|;i<-al Tmnsl.it icm Li Imirv. Vol. VIII.) Svo.. 
::U) pp. Ixjndon, 1^97. WilUains and Norgate. 10 6 

This it a further instAlmnit of the Eiif^lish trciislation of 
Dr TT vrn-i.-V'i »oll-knowu work. The prose nt volume covers a 
P" <>ptional interest in the dei'elopniont of Cliristology 

an..  i^., ...;.. iiy, oxtomling from the beginninc of the second 
century to the time of Angustine. One of the most in- 
tOTPsting point* in this volume is the »tut1y of Origen's 
disciplM and ancoeaaors. Dr. Hamack draws attention to 
t!>e mediating position of MothiKliiis, n theologian whose 
extant works are comi>amtivi-Iy little known, but whofe 
imjKirtaaoe in the history of thcologj- neo<)s to be «luly recog- 
niKxl. In a aense he is the prconsor of Atlianasiue in so far as 
ho ropreaenta the tendency to regulate the scientific theology, 
the " higher thought " of his day, by the accepted tnuiition of 
lljo Church and the facts contained in Christian consciousness. 
Dr. Ilornack's sketch of Athanssius is on the whole most just 
and appreciative. The following criticiam is specially note- 
worthy. " Athanasius's greatness conaiitvd in rcdnctun, in 
the enerjyr with which, from a mnltitudo of divergent specu- 
lations claiming to rest on tradition, he gave exclusive validity 
t/» tHnu? in Tilich the Ktrcnj^th of religion then lay " (p. Uu). 
TI; • s a note which does not occur so often in 

Dr to end exhauttivo wcik as might be ex- 

pertod. He rightly points to the enduring interest of the history 
of dogma— tl:e fact that it deals " with matters which have 
gained, an I still exercise, an immense power over the feelings 
and minds cf men " (p. riii.). It may be questioned, however, 
whether, aironz the various inflncnces which ditcrmincd the 
directit.n of " .Dr. Hamack has adcquatoly 

re?^»'nir«l tl ;i.in experience. In dogma there 

at. . the iiit4.-llcctiial and the religious, the one 

'c tl c?:pres«ion or envelope of the other. The 

lif' is religious experience, and even the most 

nir.; .1, !. ;_, ,..: ctrincs conveys only a faint impression of 
t!:o life »nd worship which they inspirefl. 

In spite of its magnificent scale, and the thoroughness of its 
method. Dr. Hamack's work, as he himself seems to hint in the 
pr '  s .second Volume, lacks the interest which a more 

■t- 'ilocical study of dogma would possess. 

'liioliji  s the same high standard of work- 

mar.ship as » ,n the former volumes. 



A Treatise on Sanctification. By the Rev. James 
Praser (of Alness). New and It<-vi.se<l l-xlitiim by tin- Itev. 
John Hsrpherson, M.A. 8vo., xxxi.4 tiK! pp. l/.ndon, 1807. 

Bliss, Sands, & Co. 7 6 

This book ia a reprint of a rather scarce work which the 
author completed a few mcnt'is lufore his dtath, and which 
paaaod through aovoral editions between 1774, the date of the 
<»ri;;inal publication, and 1824. Mr. Macpherson has re-odited 
tlio book with evident care, and describes it as " an extremely 
intc;esting specimen of 18th century exogcsir." lie has also 
prefixed a biographical notice of the author, the Rev. 
■;.\mes Fras?r. of Alnass. Neither the method nor the style 
of the bo^k ia likely to commend it to ordinary students 
of tlioology. There is son-.othing repugnant to the modem 
r.'ader in < ■< of Scripture, and it is 

difficult t« 1- I. can l)e served by reprint- 

. wliith 1 .a peculiarly barren oge in 

The thf 1 1 h the writer mainly insists 

i»  i.vji., 14-25, St. I'aul is delineating the experience of 

* < i>"t an utirrgenerato man. Most students will agree 

«i ' Dr. }>anday and Mr. Hcadlam that "we should 

do i, .: . I . ^. , J) t" introduce so technical a term as regenera- 
tion into a context from which it is wholly absent." There are, 
in fact, few portions of the New Testament in regard to which 
the h'uUyrvJtl matb'Kl of exposition is more necessary and more 
fraitfol tbin the Bpistle to the Romans. Mr. Frasor defends a 



Kii 



" rigid doctrine " with the exegetieal weapons of a period in 
which the historical sense was only leginning to waken, 
and when it was taken for granted that the wonls of tho Now 
Testament writers already pospos.ied the (ixeil, formal, and 
technical moonings assigned to th«m by Protestant scholasticism. 
The Appendix consists of a long dissertation on the doctrine 
of the Apostle in its relation to practice and preaching. It is 
evident that the writer overrates the extent to which the 
mass of hearers can l)e moved through nppt^ls to their leason. 
Ho lays cjiecial stress on the importjinie of knowledge and goo<l 
judgment in the religious life. Ho closes his disRortation with 
the remark that " it becomes ministers to labour in leading 
persons to know themselves and to know Christ . . . and to 
enforce holy practice by evangelical principles, arguments, and 
motives which alone will have effect " 



The Story of Our English Towns. Tol.l by P. H. 
Ditcbfleld, l'"..S..\. With Intitxhiction by .^^l^rllNtlls .Icssop, 
D.I). 8vo., 307 i)p. London, 18D7. George Redway, 6 - 

Dr. Jessop's preface inditutos clearly what this book ought 
to Ih! ; but " to summarize in a popular lorm the m.vin results'' 
of the labours of experts during the lost few years on " the 
history of the origin, the growth, and the constitutional develop- 
ment of our English towtih " is a task which might have proved 
arduous even for him. Mr. Ditchfleld docs not oven attempt it. 
His work consists of antiijuarian chit-cliat of the niott ordinaiy 
kind ; and, but for a i-hort description of the !ato discoveries at 
Silche8ter,a few facts about the origin of the Univen>ilieH,and some 
.-illusions to the Kmj)ire, " on which, as yet, the sun never sets," 
there is notliing wliich could not have been written &0 years ago. 
As we wander or walk around under his guidance, wo see, or 
seem to see -do wo not ?— the " good old " fancy scenes of 
Charles Knight's " Old Kngland," and we hear a vast deal of 
familiar moralizing. " Familiar also is " his ono clieap rhe- 
torical device of inverting the usual order of tlio words in a 
sentence ; and very melancholy are the improfsious produced 
by Mr. Ditchtield's style as he contrasts — f. 3., the present 
with the past state of Sandwich. " Departc<l," he says, " is all 
its glory now, and the streets are as silent as thoce of 
the inland decayed towns through which, in old coaching days, 
kings and queens, statesmen and nobles, passed (r stayed the 
niglit, and which the railways left high aud dry, and their inns 
deserted." 

Mr. Ditchfleld begins with BritiHh and Roman towns, a 
Roman city, .Saxon towns. Church towns, castle towns ; 
and it is fair to say that under each head ho manages 
to provide just a few relevant facts, though many pages 
are devoted to unnecossarj' doscrijitions of the nature of 
an abbey, a castle, or a Roman country house. He passes 
on to a short account of guilds and fairs, which is 
fairly intelligible ; but the remaining chapters are more dis- 
connecte<l. '' <hir Great Metropolis " is perhaps the most 
absurd ; in " Memorable Siege.s of fJreat Towns," lie mentions 
only Kxeter, Cloucester, and Colchester ; and much space is 
occupied by the " Thnce told Tolos " of the Plague, the Fire, 
the Armada, and so forth. Actiuil blunders are nunierous. John of 
Gannt's first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, figures as the daughter, 
or step-daughter at least, of his second wife,Constanco of Castile ; 
" basilica " appears as a plural ; a piscina " outside one of the 
doors " indicates the existence of a chapel ; Winchol.sua was 
rebuilt by Henry III. ; Kxeter street is named after an Earl 
ofKssex; and a famous Koraan town is now called " Catterwick." 

It api>ears from a rem.irk on p. IM that these |>apers were 
written not long after l.'^.t-, and they seem to have biren intended 
for publicatiou in a newspaper at Iteading. They would do very 
well for that, or for delivery as lectures with the ai<l of a magic 
lantern, esjiccially as on p. 178 wo find a roforonco to " accom- 
panying illustrations," wliich are not inserted hero. The frontis- 
piece is as irrelevant as the v*hole work, since it consists of a 
secondhand woodcut of .'■'t. Leonard's Castle at Mailing, which 
is not mentioned in the text. 



November 13, 1897.] 



i.m:itATURE. 



109 



MILITARY. 



Richard Baird Smith. Hy Oolonel H. M. Vlbart, R.B., 

Sx8ii>., 1U5 pp. Londun, 1W7. OonBtabie. 6,- 

Iii Huoking to claim for his (1ou<I l>ri>tiiiir i>flievr tho chief 
honour o( thu vitally important cuptiiru of I)(!lhi Colonol Vihnrt 
t'viiUmtly acted from (;unorou» motivuo. Colonel iUcharil liuiril 
Smith wiut witliout doulit one of the ^r(Nit men hy whom India 
was Kuvod, and his appointment a» Chief Knfjineer in .Juno, ISiu, 
to the force wliicli for iioventoen days hud occupied a |Mi8t of 
4)b)ervation on tlie •• I<idj»e," unquestionahly murljetl a turninj;- 
point. 'I'u him wa.i due thu plan of oiMiratioiut whicii le<l to 
complete success. Ho not oidy planned the so-called »iei;e, 
hut ho personally directnd tno works carried out by Ids 
uhlo suhonlinate.s. Finally, it is certain that the nlan was 
<lisliked and distniated by CJoneral Wilson, on whom the 
«umnuind before Delhi dovolved in consoi|mn;o of the illnoM of 
General lleed. There was probably no oHicer in India to abso- 
lutely competent to direct siege operations as Kaird Smith, who 
liad Hfcon much ti>,'htiiig in the lirst iSikli war and the campaign in 
the Punjab in 1S4S-4'J. taken nart in the battles of Huddiwal, 
Aliwai, Sobraon, Chilliiinwaltab, and (ioojenit, and was in 
addition a most aci;i>mplislied engineer. Kssontially a man of 
action, as bo showed himself at Roorkee on the outbreak of the 
Mutiny, full of vigour and ready to accopt any responsibility, 
lie was" not the man to assort his claimi when the tunc of |>eril 
■was past, and his great services before Delhi received no recog- 
nition. .\fter the siege, he returned wounded and broken down 
liy lUnes.s to Roorkee. " 1 fear," wrote Sir John Hurgoyne, ; 
•• that his having resumed his old quiet iwst has put him out of | 
sight, and »o proverbially out of mind. ' This may have been i 
the case, and in the Army distinctions do not always corresjiond I 
with merit. i 

Colonel Vibart. however, considers that history has not 
accorded justice to Baird Smith, and this somewhat rambling 
volume is written with the object of upholding a reputation 
assume)! to be endangerc<l. The grounds for this a.ssiinip- 
tion aie by no means clear, and the fact thac a share 
in the honours of Uelhi is assigned to others detracts 
nothing from the memory of Itaird Smith. The earliest and 
greatest historian of the Sepoy war. Sir .lolin Kayo, gives 
the highest prai.se to the chief engineer, as Cohmel Vibart points 
<mt. The latest writer. (ieneral lniies,allowBhis opinion of General 
Wilson's attitude to be clearly shown. " He disliked Bainl 
iSmith's scheme, and thought it likely to fail. Hut ho could not 
buggost any more hopeful scheme of his own. So, on tbo latter 
ground, he sanctioned his Chief Engineer's riro|M)sals, yielding 
to his judgment, but avowing his opinion that the chances of 
success were unfavo'.irable." In a letter to Sir .lohn Lawrence 
<teneral Nicholson stated : — " Wilson has made overvthing over 
to the engineera, and they alone will deserve the cre<iit of taking 
Uelhi. Had WiLson carrie<l out his threat of withdrawing the 
guns, 1 was quite pieimred to appeal to the army to set him 
.aside and elect a successor." John Nicliolson would certainly 
Iiavo carried o.it his intention if the occasion hiul j)resente<l 
itself. General Wilson was, however, in poor health anil over- 
Imrdeiied by the heavy respon.sibility for which, at this time at 
least, he was totally unfit. Xevertheless, ho did not put a stop 
to the measures ho distriLstod. The siege wa-s carried on m the way 
ISaird Smith desired, and the titular commander cannot justly be 
»leniedtho."fair share of rewards " whichhisChief Engineerclaime«l 
for him. 

Oolonel Vibart's l>ook, however well intontioned, is neither 
in manner nor in matter well calculatc<l to promote the object 
■he has in view. Some of lUird Smith's private letters, in which 
he comments bitterly on the obstruction from which ho suH'eretl, 
might with advantage have romainoil un]>rinted. In such 
A'xploita as the siege of Delhi it is rarely or never possible to 
assign the cau.se of success to a single individual, and it is a 
•military canon that a general in command, who will Ih> hold 
accountjible for failure, must, even when merely {xjrmitting 
iictitms of which he disapproves, receive the cre<lit and the 
lewards i»f success. 

The Coldstream Ouards in the Crimea. By Lt.-Col. 
Ross-Of-Bladensburg, f.B. 8x5in., :J08 pp. Ix)ndon, ISO". 

Innes. 6/- 

" The Coldstream Guards in the Crimea " is a reprint of a 
■portion of the author's earlier history of this distinguished 
regiment. Colonel Ross-of-Bladonsburg succinctly narrates the 
painful story of a cruelly mismanaged campaign, quoting fre- 
qusHtly from tlie diary of Colonel Tower, and adding souie intercst- 



inS detail* aiwl alntiiilixi ri'Inline to tliu f 'oMnlra'ain Giiaitla. 

Hu eritieiams on i «f 

attacking the nort .to 

tio undomttMl. 

"It is ohvionx,' :bat, if thu invadars 

could have ' •" thi« northern laiik, 

tb«v could o'hI Homo if tl a forta 

in reverse ; and tli.it il •T- 

I'iant guns of thu letpiisn .l<l 

.tilo, and til -tr :rti' II <>i iw i.ij ■• Ml ii.« 

. the fore« of the pluugiiii; lire dir»<t«l n|Min 
till III . 

This is true, but the " if» " are imjMirtant, and it ia 
.i,ii;..,,lr r., .i,„l..i .t ,i,,l )i..M til.. Alli,'^ \M.iilii Liiv  ' < ".(..dilinhed 

I ins anil 

; . r. lU 

at Old Fort was in . mg column tle|MMHliiig 

on certain con ti with its shipping. 

Todiuiieii was probably right in ' - on Iho 

north side would have fallen to i; the fito 

of the fleet, but thoir capture wmilil uul li.ivu iiuiMcl the armies 

tu have dispensed with a base of supply for their immediatu 

needs, and an o|M,>n coast line wouhl have Ihhjii a dangerously 

precarious substitute. 

The devoteil gallantry of tb' ' • -b' of Guards at 
Inkorman dwells in the national ; but the Iomm 

were severe. Of the '."• •■!'■■■-   '' "••■ C,.I«I- 

stioam (Juords who em H 

..iImhh nn.l :.()7 iiii'ii rt I the 

than lilt* men iind die<l, of whom 604 were 
se mainly jireventablc. In view of the prf'cnt 
state of the Army, it is specially int. 'lat 

the drafts sent to the battalions in twi 

of grown men, the average of the first Itciii^ 'Jl w itii ntai ly t»<> 
years' service, and of the last 'SM with l« months. The lino 
battalions were, however, loss i ' ' ' No»erthe- 

less, when the fighting was om "mI, and the 

bitter lesson of the campaign i'.-. I force was 

paratlod for the inspeotion of the 1; " I never 

saw onything so well ns our troop .,. . . .. mte Colonel 

Tower on the 17th of April, 18o<>. "The men had thoir best 
clothing on ; regiments all made up to thoir full strength ; 
artillery with now liMtiioss, horses in lirst-rato condition." Thie 
was an army ; tho force sent to the Kast in l^iVl was only an 
aggregate of brave regiments. 

Cuba in War Time. By Richard Harding Davis. 

Illustnitcd by Ki-edcric Keniington. 7\ • ."lin.. 1:5 pp. I>)niioii, 
181/7. Heinemann. 3 6 

" Culm in War Time " is, stat** tho autbiir. partiv rom- 
I)ose<l of letters contributed to the P: '■ .tes. 

A work thus constructed is usually  to 

know tho route taken bv the writ< '•"■ and 

the events which occurred nnder hi.* ad of a 

continuous narrative, wo have a seri. ■< ■. ....-..-.m,. L,.i articles 
in which pcrs<inal oxporieiices are merged in general di»- 
qiiisitions, and tho hurried reader of a newspaper, rather than 
the portion of tho public which really desires infornuk- 
tion in regard t > Cuban afTairs, rej resenVa the audience. 
Tho book, however, has many ]x)ints of inU-rost, and. in certain 
respects, it throws vivid light upon the prf>ccedini;8 which have 
ruined one of tho finest islands in the world, and thrown an 
almost intolerable strain upon the Sj>ani»h iicople. The military 
ptilicy, if such it can Im> called, is one of fortifications supple- 
mented by purposeless raiding. 

" When the revolution broke out in Cnbo. two years ego, 
the Spaniards at once began to build tiny forts, and continuc<l 
to add to these . . . until now tho whole island . . . 
is studded as thickly with these little forts as is the fole of a 
brogan with iron liails. . . . These forts now stretch sll 
over tho island, some in straight lines, some in circles, and some 
eig-i'agging from hill-top to hill-top."' 

W ithin those immense linos of defence the Spanish army 
holds control ; outside the country is in tho possession of the 
insurgents. 

" Flying columns of regular troops and guerillas are 
sent out daily, but they always return eaoh evening within the 
circlH of forts. If thoy meet a band of insurgents they give 
battle readily enough, but they never pursue the enemy, nud, 
instead of camping on the grotind and following him up next 
morning, thoy retreat as soon as the battle is over to the town 
where they are stationed." 

No policy could well be more hopeless, or better cakm- 
latod to demoralize an army. The military prix-cwlinga 
have conscquent'y assumed the form of simple brigand- 



110 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



•M Oil both aidaa, and no deoisiv* rMult is poMible. 
(Stncral Woyler, aooonling to the author, delibcratolv 
d«citic<<i to lay waate every portion of the islaiul whicn 
his trxKtpa, issuing from their fortificationii, could reauh. 
Tbs n>io»r»W»« " p«oili<-oi» " or non-combatants were conso- 
oUBiit' ' una and their houses and crops 

oastr' ,:>.'lher half-starred and periwhin); 

from tii»'ii.<i>, iiio>e wrt-tiiu <i ih'oiiIc iiro iinvcntod from doing 
any work and Mr« tmettl with ansoluto ruin when ])eaoe is 
restored. '• In *'•- --r it is the women, liertlod together in 
Um towns iiki' ho arc goin;; to die, while tlio men, 

cnmiied in the 1.^....' ..:..; the !"•";"'  '■; " ''' 'ii'' " "^'r- Davis 
briags the grkrest claries : . who, 

ha states, have kei>t t!.. r.'1< '<iests. 

They nre  "Ut of forced loans from 

|ilaiitetii a: ubtedlj bold back for 

thsMselves a (:i' «f the mun." The latter are 

des cri bed an " . alert," although the ranks 

are being ' - 

The :: interesting description of the 

troclia, a sjt' les  wall, fifty miles long, traced 

through denre jii I stretching across the eastern 

end of f  ' '• nro to Moron. The trees 

base been of ITiO yards and formed 

into a ban i>. ny nml higher than a man's 

heed." Korts -^ I'dt of barl>ed wire, land 

nines, .iii>l ;> -^: ., cimpiete the most astounding 

fortit'. n times. The idea, like that of our remote 

•Boest • (\ Iv llio Vii-ts and Scots, is apparently to 

ereete an impessablt alike ingress and egress. 

" Kvery sheet of arii irupated zinc roof, every 

roU of barbed wire, uvtiy plunk, bcum, rafter, and girder, oven 
the nails that hold the planks together, the forts themselves, 
ahippe<l in sections " — all have been obtained from the Unite<l 
States, whose manufacturers must have benefited considerably 
from t' neo. In spite of defects 

of m:i ■■: in War Time " is well 

wortli (•ailing ii.~ iiii in.|Kiiiinjj i i-niaiii HI of military and admin- 
istrative incapacity. • 



MEDICAL. 



The Ori^n of Disease, with Chapters on Diagnosis, 

Vr -'- and Trc.itiueni. By Arthur V. Meigs. M.D. 

^' riginal Illustrations. 'Svc, xiv. 4 "iai pp. I'liilailel- 

l" Lippincott. 21- 

It is a question whether all books on the origin of any thing 

Si' * ' ■' ' • ry nature unsatisfactory. Their title is too 
a .jreat lioiies in the re.ider, hopes which ore 

ai.  : L.. oe iinfultilled, for nothing is more unknown 

than ti." i.. ! iiinp. The origin of disease is involved in even 

p'  ' • V il I, tl... w..,,i- f most things, for disease is 

it.~. !f .• ry .■ rorest cases can the linger be 

laiil 'ij <ij   ■_; h is alone the ceat of a morbid 

IKOOsas. The work .-s is unsatisfactory, therefore, on 

general grounds ; it : ome inherent causes of weakness 

peculiar to itself. 

The book is the outcome of many years of honest work, and 
it is valua)'' • in so for as it affords fooil for thought, and 

this it doi-- rinro. Dr. Meigs, who is physician to the 

Pennit; " " it it has Ixsen his custom to attend 

the SI ' practice and to retain for micro- 

seopit. . of the (ivo groat  'i-art, 

Img, y— and of any oti the 

•ppeai-i.- i.-.i,. (iin.^j,_ 1 en- miiiit of 

enawiiinn g us of the five organs 

"vi  to the unaided eye, has 

I r lesions whicli entirely 

tp lion to Jii. revealed by 

the Hi !• .. iiu- no un- 

healil. , .vj,. ,1,, i"- ,tii<iie<l. It 

is often n.. ;er an unntitiiral condition 

that i* ■<•<'■ .luo to ;««i/-moi<t7n change or 

I"-''  1 !■ " Dr. Meigs has ondca- 

^' ! : , . y t/i a minimum by pur- 

■ning a iiiuiorin . :iiid of preparation 

«f Motions. 8oi ciamiind with the 

•■■ ^' • ' ' ro at 

^' I ige<l 

daring:...' -..--..:,. ..^..1 ..v,..;™. .«. -i: , ,.• .„,,.ivc>iis 

tlMoee, when Mliller's flnid wm used. I ^ns were then 

cut in parafEn and atuinod to a onifurm f._... : with carmine." 



The preparstions thos obtained wore skilfully drawn to scale by 
the Messrs. Kaber, and to insure accuracy in detail the reflec- 
tion of the mognificd object was thrown by a camera lucida 
upon the steel plate, and was then traced directly with tlie 
etcher's noodle. 

We are hero preaonted with the whole secret of the strength 
and weakness of the work. It is strong because it is the faith- 
ful representation of certain a]ii)earanecs seen under certain 
coiiilitions, and all records of facts are of extreme value. They 

are of especial value in patliolopical hiatolo: ' asyetwo 

ore only familiar with the ver\- commonest :. i, and wo 

rei|Uiro such oli-^^.i i ut i.»i>; as those made by 1.. ... ,_.. to be re- 
poate«l over and :ti with every possible variation. The 

work is weak I'e. i . Meigs ha.s chosen to build a theory 

u]H)n this series of sections. He .says : — " Fibrosis, which is the 
growth and increase of morbid fibroid material, is the essentia) 

fathological change incident to sge ; it is the ' disease of age.' 
n nil those who live beyond the ordinary term of life excess 
of fibroid tissue develops, and, if no accidental cause of death 
steps in to close the scene, this degeneration finally roaches a 
stace when life can no longer continue." His observations have 
also led him to the conclusion that, " owing to the operation 
of various causes, there arises even in now-born children a state 
of disease which mav ho likiiuil to age in youth, the lesion in- 
variably present being liliiosis." This theory is still further 
elaborated in another jiart of the book in the following words : 
— " For the diagnostician nothing can be more important than 
to recognize chronic disease in its very origin. This can !« done 
only by remembering that it is almost always widosjircad in its 
effects, and by the observation of very little things. There are 
no set symptoms. an<l it is largely by inference that a correct 
catimato can be made. IVrhaps no one thing is more important 
f<ir the diagnostician to know than that valvular disease ami 
fibrosis are certain to come in all men if they live to be old 
enough. The corollary is tliat a similar state is produced earlier 
if the neces-sary conditions exist, and thus chronic disease re- 
sembles old age in youth." 

The conclusion would be both interesting and important if 
it could bo cstnblif^l'.ed, but in the present instance it is vitiated 
by a fallacy. l>r m. '•— lias haitlened all the tissues he has ex- 
amine<l by plun :it once into strong alcohol. Such a 

method causes . _ slirinking ; all minute detail is lost^ 

irrevocably, and the fibrous tissue is brought into undue j)romi- 
nence at tho expense of the cellular elements. In histological and 
pathological lalxnatories the metluxl of hardening in alcohol has 
been long abandoned, therefore, in favour of other and more satis- 
factory rc-ngents. It is no wonder, therefore, if fibrous tissue, 
like King Charles's head, obtrudes itself everywhere in tliis series 
of preparations. To make his work scientifically complete Dr. 
Meigs should also have given porticulars for each piece of tissue 
examined— first, as to the length of time which had elapsed 
since death ; secondly, as to tho meteorological conditiona 
whilst the Ixxly was expose«l. Otherwise it is impossible to say 
whether tho vacuolated appearances, seen in such n figure an 
No. 105, were due to organic changes or were the result of poat- 
inotiem dccompo.sition. 

Tho work concludes with some very satisfactory suggestions 
about the treatment of cases of chronic disease. 

The Practitioner's Handbook of Treatment: or, the 
Principles of Therapeutics. liy tlu' laic J. Milner 
Fotherg^ll, M.D. FduiIIi Kdition. Kditcil and ill great part 
rewritten l>v WiUi.ini .Miinell, .M.D.,. F. U.C.I'. Sm)., xviii.i 
688 pp. Lundun, lhU7. Macmillan. 16/- net. 

Useless to the person who is still in statu jiupiUari, th& 
" Practitioner's Handbook of Treatment" shoula certainly be 
tho first to be Imught by every medical man as soon as he has 
obtained his diploma. It is a |>crfeot mine of wealth to tho 
general practitioner who is a<-tively engaged in his <laily work, for 
it tenches him what he has had no opportunity of learning during 
his student career — the whole art of jiractico. OHteiisibly its 
object is " to enable him to wield satisfactorily a great propor- 
tion of the remedial agents" which scionco or individual 
experience has provided. Keally it does much more. It treats 
of the application of abstruse physiological problems to the 
necessities of everyday life. It tells why uodics grow and decay. 
It tca<.'hes the many minute ]>oints in gait, attitude, or ex- 
pression which are usually learnt only by experience, points 
which t«'ach tho old family doctor when to look for recovery in 
apparently hopelcsH cn^e8, and when to prophesy evil though 
all appears • ' ' ' y. It deals, too, with many points of public 
and private •uch as the metlx d of tibtaiiiing change of 

air in India ■'! '<>ivi«;ii, the uHe and abuse of baths, and the 
disastrous effects f>f a [lolluted water supply. The liest methods 
of foe<ling in health and disease are also di8CU8ec<1, and many 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



Ill 



'!•'.■— 



—Mont 



reoiptis nro pivor f - •• -.-Hd diotary. 

clmutur oil tlio i nt of C'lii-. .n- 

tlooil, that it iM w... ..., . : '■•■ '•<•■■<..,., -tui , , :u bo 

reo<l by ciirolosii and anlf-w ntn buforo thoy uro alluwwl 

to Itiavo thoir >it)ds. Tho I"  witli a miction "On tho 

Medical Man at tho IJoiUiilu,' wliicli contAins tho whole daty of 
a doctor, and is wortliy t<> bo road with "Yo Manors of. a 
Leooh," writlon by John of Ardorne in tho fourtconth ountury, 
for it showH that in such niattciB tho modicnl jirofiisaion hai 
mado but littlo advance on the teaching of that able and astat« 
pructitionur. 

Tho book was originally written by Dr. Miliior Fothergill, 
whoHo striking ixTsonality and luiarty Uumborland <lialo<'t aro 
still ronionibore<l by all those with whom he cunio ii'  * ' 

Dr. Kothoigill was a brilliant rtrilor ami an acute ol 
oxcoUod abovo all things in tho art of treatment. 1... 

titionor's Handbook " prosenta all those (pi'ilitioi of his mind at 
their host. Tho book is interesting throughout, and the various 
points are often driven home with some proverbial expression, 
or by some quaint simile, as when it is said of gnnt, 
*' Tho man of long descent and of ' blue bloml ' is usually also 
tho inheritor of an iiisutlicient or reptilian liver ; while the 
plebeian alderman, with a perfect liver, oats and drinks with 
iinnunity, until hi« iiululgonco brings fruit only in old ogo, or 
iiuieed ho inav himself eacaiK) scot free and only leave the ten- 
dency to uric acid formation (alone with hi.s wealth) to his 
descendants." Tho book finds an excotlont editor in Dr. Murroll. 
Ho has brought it up to date by adding very largely to its sul>- 
stanco, yet ho has lost none of its salt. It still reads as crisply 
as when it only consisted of a few papers contributed to a 
students' journal. 

Medical Hints for Hot OUmates and for those out of 
Reach of Professional Aid. By Charles Heaton, M.D. 

Hvo., .\ii. i- 151 pp. I>)ii(loii iind Calcutta, LSU7. Thacker. 

" Slodical Hints for Hot Climates " is divided into six 
chaiiters, dealing with general hygiene, food, tho more common 
me<iical and surgical diseases, the treatment of accidents, and a de- 
scription of the remedies in general use. The information is very 
elementary, but it is trustworthy, for it is based upon a sound 
professional knowleilge. The book may therefore be rolio<l upon 
in coses of emergency where it is inipi>s8ible to obtain skilled 
advice. Tho next edition might be completely rewritten with a 
greater roganl for style, and with the omission of such disfiguro- 
uients as " liimmDnt," " scarletina," and '• bubcc."' Tho dia- 
gram (No. 7) of tho treatment of fractured clavicle by a knotted 
nandkorohief may then bo replaced by the latest pattern of tho 
triangular bandiigo copied (Fig. lu) from the iSlanual for tho 
Medical Staff Corps. It is more comfortable to wear, and it has 
tho great advantnt:o of not pressing upon the broken ends of the 
collar-bone. 



LEGAL. 



Revised Reports. EtliU-d by Sir P. Pollock, Bart.t 
assi.sied by R. Campbell and O. A. Saunders, Ruristors- 
Jtt-Livw. Vol. ."«). KixOJin., lAWjm. London. 1M»7. 

Sweet and lilaxwell. 2Sr 

The Revised Reports aro pursuing the even tenour of their 
way, becoming more and more valuable at each succeeding 
stage in their course. In vol. 30 a number of cases of considerable 
legal, and even public, interest are reproducml. We have the 
" Corporation of Ludlow v. Greenhouse, " in which Lorn Uodes- 
dale recorded lii.s conviction that statutory alterations in pro- 
cedure aro generally " ill understood, . . . precipitately 
undertaken, and loosely expressed ;" " Dulliold v. KIwes," in 
which Lord Eldoii de.'iTibed tho Court of King's Bench as " a 
place where sometimes eipiity has been rather more misunder- 
stood than it ought to be " ; and " Doe v. Morgan," in tvhich 
the legal point at issue was the scojhj of the word " property " 
in a will, but which will attract the lay reader chiefly by the 
<]uaint bo<iue3t contained in the ambiguous testanientar\' instru- 
ment—" 1 give to Howell Jones, apprentice, if ho wilf wake a 
aobor life, with the secuircty of person of the parish where he 
lives, the sum of £o i>cr year." An indication of tho substantial 
progress which the work is making is alt'onle<l by the fact that 
the presont volume contains tho case of " Davis v. Rus.iell," 
which stands almost at the fountain hoaH of tho modern law of 
false imprisonmont and malicious prosecution. Sir Frederick 
Pollock's prefaces to tho Ueviseh RKroRTs are literary gems. 
They ought to be repiibli8he<l in separate form. 



Qoodeve'a M"<l«m T^aiw of R^al Pmr»«rtv. 
Howard Warbi:: 
Arthur Dickson 
1W7. Swvut 

Ooomvb's Monr.BN Law i,r]lr\i I' 
versally rooognized ai 

to S»V u'eMillillV tliat 1" 
the 

soul 

imiHHUiil, u.; 

is necessary 1 1 . 

work of revision liaa been il'ii'-. 1" 

rical matter hiui boon to a great e\ 



"l" 



nvSir 
.(1 

■II, 

ni- 
III 



I'ropcrty," oa well as t 



l.i.'l, f)... I.' 



the 

luar 
mil' : 

references to t 

tions aro doaii 

by later Acta. An uuliiely ., in alpl. 

1*0x1. Notes, and Ap[iendix nlded. V. 

"ditioiis to 8«-o the dale:, uf the 

. .Old also a complete enumeration 
ii all lliu reports in which any given decision is v> c»- n 

The Principles of Pleading. Hv W. T.' " 
M.A., LL.1)., (i.e. Tbiiil lulitioii. 1»  .".I'iii., h 
don, 1HU7. Stevens aa.^ ^^ua 

In its first and seci>nd e<lition», Otxittii* ox Pi.kapIXi 
pie*l in ti u science <.f ' 

now too 1 . 11 work >■: 

Without aiiemi'iiiig to supi>uiiu s 
Archbold, or Bulleii and Luake, it g 

hensive a-' - ■'•»■ both of tli 

law of p d and of tin 

Tho thud ;. . .... Odger's 1>,, 

thing moro. It now includes a r 

in an onlinary action at law. Tb. 

value to students, and ought to win tho a{'i 

ing bodies as it IS remarkably free from a- 

puqHises of the mere crammer. ^ 

tively with parties, joinder of cau 

apiteals, execution, and costs, and a.:. 

cetlunts have been adile<l. All tho l.c 

end i>f Sopteni' ' ' ' ' 

completeness \ 

it may l>e reinunw i iuil >|>.i 

ment of tho sco]>o of the 

ilirections which came ''>' 

last. 



•r 
al 



c- 

-da 

: lur, to 

II Blll>- 

t.d in 



ileers, 

. ize 

•lie 
 I. 



. o 

-t 



 to 

I 



•'Lii le- 
ns for 
vtober 



The Sale of Goods Act, 1893. \>y Frank Newbolt, 
Ban-ister-at-Law. Ixndiin. l?i)(. Sweet and Maxwell. 8,- 

This is an excellent little book. v 

consulted by all who desire to obtain a - ,0 

statute with which it deals. All relevu: us, with a 

curious omission, however, nt p. H of "I l.-r.n Cnm- 

pany v. Stone," liave be d 

tho convenient pl.in (see. .pj 

separate, in the form oi a digest . iy after the hst of 

cases cited, those that turn on tli' of the Act itself. 

Marsden's Collisions at Sea. \ Treatise on tho Law of 
Colli-sions ut Seu. By R. Q. Marsden, B-i'-'-i'-' ■''-' •"■ 
Fourth Edition. Sxdjin., IxxvL+OMpp. Loii<: 



The form of Marsdem's Collisions at Sea 
no substantial cluui.-e in the present editi .11. 
work has been y revised ; al! 

as well as a Cf. number of A: 

added, and the clianged - 
appearance of the third . 
pmg Act, ISiU, and tho i&suu i>t tho i 
oeen maide. Wo are plad to see tli 



.>t'i LIU- ir;i^. iliifn-\ t .0 _' ami 

author's analysis of the cases by w 
the division of d»t. !,...,» where both .^o.-^.o .... . 
be grafto<l into iw. In this, cs in the p: 

the author has __._ assistance of the Hum .1. 



has 

Hut 



undergone 

the wbole 

 aseii, 

b'-en 



112 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



Hniono in\! ifGoohs. 



THOIGHTS ON STYLE. 

lateniry men of old were supi^sed, I U'lieve, to 
wander at will among their books and cull Iroin their 
shclvi>« what took their fancy. If such was indeed the 
case, thov enjoytxl a leisure very different from that of 
our jjeneration. The man of books no longer brings out 
of his treasure-house things new and old, like the house- 
holder in the (iosjx-l, but these things are borne in u[)on 
him by cin^umstances, and his mind is determined by 
wliat he has to read. Who can avoid, at this moment, 
r<- itic after critic ujkmi the '• Life of Tennyson," a 

bj h has hit the fortunate moment, " wlien nothing 

else was going on," and so has got an ample hearing. 
A college Don in Dublin is led by his examinations 
at this .same moment to re-read the great classics 
which have long been part of his mental furniture, 
and so I chance to have liefore me again Virgil, the 
literary artist whom common consent has declared to 
be the most Tennysonian of the ancients. Not that our 
poet's direct obligations to Virgil are so marke<l as those 
to Theocritus, with whom he seems to liave been satu- 
rated, but the general resemblance is surely the most 
remarkable. Virgil is far the greatest of the Koman 
poets, not by re^won of his great ideas — in that Lucretius 
it his rival — but by reason of the combined purity and 
dignity of his style, which bears the evidence of being 
deliberately and consciously jwlished to the utmost 
degree of propriety and refinement. Illustrations abound 
on every page of his work. Take but one, not above the 
average, in his brief lines on the palace of Circe, which 
..I'Ineas {lasses at the opening of the seventh book of the 
epic, from which I select but two : 

Hinc exaiuhri gemitus, ira'que loonum 
Vincla rfciuantiim et seri sub nocte rudontuin. 
Vou feel that Virgil must have heard the strange 
grating and metallic sound of a lion's roar at some Koman 
amphitheatre. And so he uses the word rudentuvi. This is 
the kind of i»erfection to be found all through Tennyson, 
and when one of our weekly oracles of wisdom, in its 
recent comparison of ."^hakespeare with him, said many 
trae things, it seems to me to have missed an imjwrtant 
contrast in this resjiect. To talk of thestyleof.ShakcsjH'are 
seems to me odd and irrelevant. The style of Tennyson 
is of the essence of his greatness. 

This reminds me of an interesting remark in Gustave 
Fl.-iii!)ert's orn-spDndence. " What distinguishes great 
genius is generalization and creation ; it resumes scattered 
ixr-onalities in a type, and brings new characters to the con- 
^■  of humanity. Shakesjieare is something tre- 

in . : . in this res|)ect ; he was not a man,but a continent, 
there arecrr)wd8andcountriesin him. Such men have no need 
<  •'• style. They are strong in spite of all their 

i-:-. . ' n becauM" of them ; but we, the little ones, 

are worth nothing except by tinish of execution. V. Hugo, 
in this century, will eat tiji ever}l)Ofly, although he is full 
orrntilt-i. I w!if in-' >i:i t'ii- iiii'i.ii-iii.iii — tliiit "ivat men 



oflen write very badly, and so much the better for them. 
It is not to them that we must go for the art of form, but 
to men like Horace and \a\ Hruy^re." I should leave out 
V. Hugo, who certainly aimed at a splendid style, and 
should put in Walter Scott, who now ott'ends the young 
Scotland of Stevensonians by the negligences of his 
diction. But he, too, was far too great for style ; he wan 
unfolding such a wealtli of human nature, galleries of 
great jK)rtniits, of nationalities, volumes of history and of 
legend that he had neither time nor care for the graces 
of a iwlished style. Ix)ok how his people live, just like 
the i>eople of Shakesj)eare. in the hearts of all Knglish- 
gjx'aking jieople, nay, even in the hearts of foreigners, for 
Scott, owing to his want of style, is capable of translation I 
On the other hand, there is something so personal in an 
elaboratetl style that the characters are thrown into the 
shade by the personality of tiie i)oet, and so Tennyson ha** 
not left us a single character whose n{(me is a household 
word, such as Scott and even far lesser men have created. 
His imagination lias not furnished us with a great hero. 
The jtortrait of Arthur llallani is drawn from real life witlv 
loving care, but fades out in the great " In Memoriam " 
before the great world-problems which till the jioet's 
mind, and so that exquisite monument of jiersonal grief i» 
like the Attic tomb reliefs, in which we wonder at the 
poetical pictures of human sorrow without knowing or 
caring what individual bereavement they were designed to- 
commemorate. 

But here I am, discoursing of style, concerning wliich 
my fastidious academic friends tell me I know nothings 
Nevertheless, every man who writes must have some 
notions about good and ba<^l writing, tliougli they may be 
faulty. In a \ia.\)CT just published I had reason to com- 
pare two authors whom I called Miss Austen and Mario 
Corelli. An excellent academic Mentor said that was wrong j 
I should have said for confonnity's sake, " Jane Austen.'* 
But,if I could only clear myself of the grave chargeofiiaving 
courted alliteration, I should defend my jilirase by tiie fact 
that when I was young I always heard from my prim and 
staid relations of Miss Austen, a lady of whom they s])oke 
with res|>ectful l)ut distiint admiration. They would have 
thought Jane rather forward. And this marks the contrast 
to which I was jiointing between certain older and newer 
novelists. 

I have just said that tlioughts on style may \w> 
expecte<l from any literary source, and. by way of curious 
confinnation, where do 1 find the latest essay on this sub- 
ject ? Actually in the Hellenic Journal, where there is a 
jMiix'r not only very instructive but very interesting on 
the well-known tract " On the Sublime," which dates fron* 
the purist Renaissance in the days of Augustus. The- 
author, wlu) is ajijiarently a literary amateur, tells us his 
ideas concerning fine style, as opjwsed to jjoverty and vul- 
garity on the one side, artificiality and bombast on the 
other. Mr. Khys Roberts has given an excellent analysis 
of this very sensible and " modem " piece of criticism, 
and only shows in one si>ot that he has not taken the 
lessons of Ix)nginus adecjuately to heart. I do not 
think tlic i.f1-li:iii(l judgnwiil <li.-])araging Bacchylides in 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



113 



comparison with I'indnr will Im> justified hy what I huxo 
read of thi- now pupyrus. Tlierc Meeins to bf , with j^reut 
Biinplicity of Htructuro and of inctr*', a rich v(H-abulary 
and a j^rcut donl of tim- mid niovinj^ jmthoH in thetn* «kU'H. 
Kut it is iiard to judj^c ustlir'tically, when iiniH'di'd by the 
trouble of deciphering, even an easy hand. Tliere is no 
need, liowever, to antici|Mite tlie verdict of Nclioiars which 
will be let loose ui)on tho world almost immediately. 
Kut I return to the interestinjT jMissafjp thus translated in 
the Hellenic Journal : — '* The h'j^islator of the Jewo, no 
ordinary man, having formed and expressed a worthy con- 
ception of the might of the Godhead, writes at the very 
l)eginningof his Hook of Ijiws : — ' And (tod said ' — what ? 
Let light be, an<l it was ; let earth be, and it was." What 
a strange bathos in expression ! And lias Mr. Roberts 
never api)reciated our Autiiorized Verjtion ? Ixmginns 
is quoting loosely from some version (not the LXX.) read 
out to him by some Jewish friend. Bnt surely the A. V. 
is just as accurate — " jA^t there lie light, and there was 
light. Lot the dry land ap]">;ir. ami it wiis so." At all 
events, this wa.s English. 

I suppose it is only in so very simple an instance that 
we can reproduce sublimity in a translation. And how 
many of \i» can really understand the beauties of any lan- 
guage but our own ? When I see criticisms on French 
and German ma.sterpieces written by men who are unable 
either to sjjoak or write these languages, it reminds me of 
the foreign criticisms on Burns by jM'ople who can read 
Knglisii, but who only know the dialt>ct of Hums, as I do, 
through a glossary. And what knowledge of a dialect can 
we gain through a glossary, or even through a diction- 
ary ? How can we learn the clusters of associations, tiie 
delicate shades of feeling which cling about words familiar 
to the iwet from childhood and which determine Iwth the 
beauty and propriety of their use ? So then, to the 
great body of English-sj)eaking jieople, Bums, as a 
great poet, is inaccessible. How much more to foreigners ? 
And for the same reason Goethe's Founf, or the lyrics of V. 
Hugo, are by us only very imperfectly understood. Of 
course the same may be said of our apjtrecintion of Sopho- 
cles and A'irgil, who would laugh their sides sore at our 
Babu verses in their language. liut then in dead 
languages no l)etter knowledge is now to be hail. In the 
living we should perhaps be content with native judg- 
ments. I have even heard it said by a great linguist that 
no man really knows more than one language — and most 
men not even that. Hut what a blow to all our critical 
literature and oiir fancied appreciation of the great 
inasteii)ieces of many languages ! These considerations 
are so humiliating that I feel disiwsed to ajwlogize for 
bringing them forward. 

J. P. MAHAFFY. 



FICTION. 



The King witJi Two Faces. By M. E. Coleridge. 
Sxuiin., 4:il pp. Ijt)iuU)n luiil New York, 1SS>7. Arnold. 6/- 

A novel of atlventuro should have a striking commencoment, 
and Miss Coleridge has borne this rule in mind in her remarkable 



• more cx- 

^ this (tury. 

(>n« iDHtinctivcly IrMiks to Diiiraii . |, and And* 

it «itli"iit miirh troulilo m u ^ _ ■_:,,_. immortAl 

:n. This is not, of course, to soggust that Miaa 

I i^u combinos all the gifts which united to producv the 

excollence of a novel by I)ainas ; but that she can ttAnd 
the mental comparison witliout being ruled oat of court i* the 
best |>ossiblo warrant for tho reality nf her p<.>wor. And the 
reception of C'<iunt r  1 y tho fon? M 

ftnnA hesi<lo tho i 'f D'Art :\t 

^ • in tho li 11. ()i,o i, tvaiiy klruck lijr the 

'if the >: r, thu fanatir, i7/umin/, and 

wittul chivalrous u who thus dis|i<>bcs of the argu- 

ment of one of his c _ iiS, that thu King's messenger, whom 

they woro waiting to assassinate, might at least be challenged 
and decently killed in duel, for the other plan waa too like 
murder for his taste. 

" ' It is murder ' was tho cool reply. ' There ' ' a 

certain element uf cKunco in a duel. I nave never f.i I 

might fall : and tho fate of im;, — ■'■  l..;*; i 

mIiouM n<'t fall— yet. Murder, if What 

right have you to object to in; ■.. . .:.__, 1 _, ,u to re- 

monibor your oath ( ' " 

This is tho kind of conspirator for our money. When the 
moisenger, Count liib'jing, arrive*, one is quite prepared to i*a 
tho work done in a gentlemanly fashion, and to hear the con- 
spirator explain, as Athos migiit have dono if ho liod been a 
fanatic— 

" ' We wish you to understand that wo have no personal 
gnidgo against you — that wo are, in fact, not peraona at all, 
bat repreaentatives. The canso wo reprefont demands ynur life 
— except on one condition. . I ask your fur f'T 

mentioning it uoforehand. You comprehend that n ; -a 

is the merest formality. It is a condition which no gtniiiinait 
could accept, namely, tlrnt you reveal to ua the message with 
which you uro charged.' " 

And when tho condition has been duly rejected, it ia qaite 
in keeping that our conspirator sboald thus obeer up the man 
ho is about to kill : — 

" ' Reassure yourself. Count ! A sudden pang, no worse than 
that you exiterience when a t""<.h is drawn, and then a Biidden 
sloop ; death moans no • '  that. Hut if yo-i • it 

it, it grows mysterious : iil. Try rather to lo 

mind! I feel for you. I Ki 'y 

to the end. Uo yuu take any i '' 

Hn handed Uihbing t)ie b' <.k "ii»iii'i, d. 

Tho Count t'>ok it ineclionicuUy, and even "t 

fiirbeiir a (>milo attho grotescpu'ne.ss of the : .d 

tho title : ' On tho I'roper Cultivation • ;n 

the Island of Ceylon.' Ho was about to ^ , _ ; an 

idea occurred to him." 

For Count Ribbing is tho hero of tho tale, and, as Mr. 
Meredith observes, " heroes don't die, you know." Wo must 
leave the reader to discover by what stratagem the Count goes 
free. Students of Swedish history are already familiar with 
Count Ribbing's name and singular history. While still quite 
young — Miss Coleridge gives his a<5o as ZJ, but it was really 27 — 
ho was mixed up in the conspiracy by which Oustavus III. of 
Sweden lost his life. Count Ribbing was then condemned 
to perpetual luinishroent, changf<l his name, went to France, 
8ettle<l down, after many vicissitudes and wanderings, to the 
life of a newspaper hack, and for many years he earned his 
living by translating the Englith journals for the Cwrrier 
Franfais. In this story Miss Coleridge only deals with tho earlier 
part of his life, down to tho death of Gustarus. She carries turn 
to Paris, however, and intro<luces him to that whirlwind of a 
woman Madamo do StagI, of whoso mi fun and conversation a 
very clover picture is drawn. The account of Paris in the years 
just before the Revolution, when " people complainc<l very much 
of the triviality of tho age," and only folks of insight like 
Madame do Stacl and her father saw tho growing misery of the 
poor, is brilliant and convincing. Fersen and his ho{>eleeB 
devotion to the Queen are delicately sketched. In a few trifling 
particulars the picture might be amended. Thus it was the Roe 



114 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



dn Bm ill which M»d«m> de SUil lir«d, »nd Wilborforo«'B 
raoMttly-pulUished account o( Pitt'a French tour aaoma to dis- 
|iraT« the current tradition, which Mim Coleridge pat* into the 
month of MatUmo do Stacl, that I'itt erer propoaed to that 
lirely foui^ ptraou, who hail made love to Gibbon when Hhe was 
t«n " bec^iue I thuught that papa would like to have some one 
ftlwaya iik the booae to talk to him." And it was not the de*th but 
the abdootion of Clariaaa that Madame de StaJSl oaed to declare to 
hare been one of the groat eventa of her girlhood. liut tlioso 
*re tiny details, and, on the whole, Mies Coleridge's historical 
»tmo«i:^ere is as good as her story—" the making of a con- 
spirator " it might be called— is vigorous and convincing. It 
is, in short, one of the cleverest historical romances that the 
recent run on that form of fiction has produced. 



Ijawrence OlaverlnfiT. B>- A. B. W. Mason. 7;x5|in., 
980 pp. London, I»07. Innes. 6/- 

Mr. Mason here returns to the romantic fiction which ho 
•tt«mpt«d, not without success, in " Tho Courtship of Morrice 
Bockler." Readers of " Lawrence Clavering " will not fail to 
recognize that he has done wisely ; for it is the work of a 
writer who has founded himself on Uio best nimlols in this kind 
of composition, and it reveals a knowledge of tho requisites of 
An historical novel which ought to place him in the front rank of 
those who represent its recent revival. Tlio renewetl popularity 
daring tho past 20 years of the romantic novel, which, if ono or 
two brilliant isolated productions are for tho moment ignored, 
may be said to have flickered out with Harrison Aiusworth, 
G. P. R. James, and Bulwer Lytton, is almost comparable to 
its new birth at tho beginning of tho century. The causes which 
hare now brought it to a new and vigorous life are not easy to 
define. Its instantaneous snooess nearly a century ago was duo 
to a rariety of cauaes more or less obvious — the largely increased 
facilities for the study of history, the attention devoted both by 
poets and connoisseurs to the manners and literatiire of tho 
past, the exhaustion of the novel of manners, and tho failure 
of tho theatre to supply a dramatic presentment of historical 
seenes. But the establishment of the historical novel in 
BngUnd was chicdy duo to tho appearance at the right moment 
ot the one man who by common consent was best fitted to 
show the principles on which it should be composed. The 
tendency to romantic fiction at the end of this century has no 
sneh one single representative, and we need not cavil at a writer 
like Mr. Mason producing a novel so redolent of Scott as 
" Lawrence Clavering." The highest praise wo can give him is 
that, with its inevitable reminiscences of tho Wavcrleys, the 
moat enthusiastic devotee of Scott can read " LawTence 
CUraring " with enjoyment. The hero was " out in tho '16," 
sad his estate, lilackladies, in tho lake country, came to him 
oader a will which disinherited the testator's son, and enjoined 
that if Lawrence Clarering did not enter into possession the 
«state should pass to the Crown. Jervas Kookley, tho son, is 
disiabsrited because ho is a Jacobite, and ho {wrsuodes Clavering 
that King James if he ascended the throne would not accept a 
beques t which came to him because its rightful owner siip]>ort«d 
his claims. Clavering, therefore, promises to hold the estate 
in trust for Kookley, pending tho result of tho Jacobite rising. 
But Clavering is also a Jacobite, atid in that fact the astute 
Bookloy, who is quite prepared to side with King tieorgo, sees 
■n o t h s r cbaaca of gottiitg the estate if the causo of James is 
nnsncc— sful. This is, as it were, the scaffolding of tlie story : 
th* tmX stmetur* is built up on a wrong dons by Clavering to 
«n artist, on* Herbert. To Clavering 's a«t was duo tho ruin of 
Herbert's married life, and his arrest on tho charge of 
Jaeobitism. To repair this wrong booomes the ' i^' im- 

polse of our hero's life, and it is only by bin . _, sur- 

nadsr t« tiie OorenuiMal and almost certain dualli that he oan 
(■lAl his porpose and radaem his eharacter in tho uyes of Miss 
DoroUiy Cnrwen. Miss Curwen is a delightful coquetto, whose 
covnoiM violds to the call of pmtitiulo and to admiration for snlf- 



sacrifioe, and when Clavering escapes from the " Hanoverian " 
prison, sho agrees with him that there is a bottcT word than 
" friend." Here we hnvo tlio life, tho sooiiery, and tho porio<l 
mode familiar by .Sir Walter Scott: wo hovo something ofWaver- 
loy, of liasbluigli Osbaldiston, uf Catherine Seyton,and a host of 
others from tho Waverluy iH>rtrait gallery. And as tho romance 
is a good ono wo do not regret it. Mr. Mason is of course not 
a Sir Walter. If ho oould i)riKluoo some thirty stories us good 
as " Lawrence Clavering " he might claim a nearer comparison. 
We miss, too, tho brood clear touch ; tho mochiiu'ry is a little 
too intricate ; tho sunao of proportion not always exact, tho 
characters — Herbert oiid his wife, for instance— sometimes lacking 
in individuality. But there are scenes of singular iK>wer — we 
may mention particularly the encounter between Lawrence 
and Kookley in tho hall of Ulackladies, and the chapter entitled 
" A conversation in"-Wastdalo Church " — and both Clavering 
himself and the heroine, if so we may term her, Dorothy 
Curwen, ore creatures of tlesh and blood. The whole story is, it 
soems to us, conceived in tho best vein of historical romance. 



The Making: of a Prig. Hy Evelyn Sharp. 8x5iin., 
410 (ip. London, 18U7. Lane. 6,- 

This novel is the work of a writer who steers a judicious 
course between two extremes. There is no attempt at being 
either very profound or very dramatic in " The Making of a 
Prig." But it is a story carefully thought out, and with just 
sufiicient touch of originality about the main conception to make 
it worth the telling. In Katharine Austen wo have a heroine of 
a fresh and agreeable type. Tho chief fault we have to find with 
the book is in its title. Katharine is not a ]irig in tlio ordinary 
sense, nor does her story describe tho manufacture of a prig, oven 
in the sense which Miss Sharp a]>pears to give to tho word. She 
IS a clover girl, natural and frankly afl'ectionate, who, partly 
from her training, jmrtly from her tem]>cramont, fails to realize 
the re<|uiroment8 of Mrs. Grundy. This delicioncy seems to 
arise from tho natural naircte of her choracter rather than from 
any social theory or intellectual conceit. 1'hero is indeed a certain 
self-content, an unconscious assumption that she could do nothing 
wrong which partakes of what might perhajjs bo termed moral 
priggishnoss. But we become so fond of her that wo fully 
sympathize with her protest against lioing branded with so 
opprobrious a term ; and as she reveals her character in tho first 
page of tha book, it is difficult to soo whore the " making " 
comes in. Miss Sharp has written a good story, but sho has not 
descrilied the " making of a prig." Tho unconventionality of 
Katharine's life in London, whore sho joins tho army of working 
women whose lives have so little interest for themselves and 
so much for philanthropic ladies of leisure, is <loscribed by 
Miss .Sharp with taste and good sense. The sternest social 
moralists could find no fault with her treatment of it, for her 
freo-and-eosy ways lead to the attempted suicide of oue of 
her admirers, and to her throwing herself away on the 
other, Paul Wilton, who is quite unworthy of her. Miss 
Sharp, however, does not care to point a moral, and she might, 
therefore, have made Paul Wilton a little less self-contained and 
selfish, and a littlo more worthy of her delightful heroine. Wo 
like Katharine the least at the end of the book, where she gives 
uttcranco to such remarks as " Wliole books might l>u written on 
the psychological asjiect of tho hump," or " The annoyances of 
life are much more important than tho tragedies." " Currento 
rota, our urceus exit?" One almost foars after all that 
the prig pure and simjilo was 1)eing developed all the time, 
as a surprise no less for tho author than tho reader. Miss 
Sharp is a careful observer of tlio details of life. The de- 
lineation of her characters is not wholly without faults of tasto, 
considering the society in which they move — notably in the case 
of Heaton, Paul Wilton's friend -but they interest the reader. 
The dialogue, if not brilliant, is never dull ; tho stylo is facile 
and unjirutentious, and the work throughout is that of a WTitor 
of sense ami discernment who can tell a love story in a natural 
and interesting way and with no inconsiderable literary skill. 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



115 



Amy Vlvlan'B Ringr, or the Heir to a OurM. By 
Surgoon-Major H. M. Qreenhow. "ur.in., SH pp. Ijnn- 
don, 1HU7. SkefBngton. 6;- 

It IB long Hinco tlio 'i'liiig liait tigurod iii Aiiglo-Iiidikn storioa. 
Thugguu iH practically a tliiii^; of tlio post ; or at loiuit, it no luiigor 
ongagoM the publiu uttontion aa it once did. I'urlukpii, alto, 
writorH aro agreed tliat tlio mibjoot had lioon trj<nt'd om-o siid fur 
uU by MoadoweTaylor.and that liowho would riv:i  
and Kjiirit-stirring work of that adiuirablo Btor)-: 
himsolf to bo anothor Anglo-Indian Lo Sago. 8urgo<>n-Major 
Oreenhow Bcorooly achiuvog this diHtinction in " Amy Vivian's 
Ring." Ho has writtvn a story, liowevor, whioh, in spite of 
Bomo woaknoss of stnictiiro and a somowhat ill-knit cotitae 
of action, has decided merits. The tliroo Thugs of tlie 
story aro mot at night in tho opening chaptor awaiting 
victims, and discuss business, tho prosiHJots of which aro 
bad, and lament the loss of a certain ring whioh insuros 
them, as they boliovo, good luck and protection. Lulla, tho 
coarsest and most ferocious, wrangles with his Iciidor, tho 
polite and wily Nasir, on tho subject of methods. Ho clamours, 
like anotiier llobcspiorro, for more expe<litious and " modern " 
moans of murder. Ho would substitute wholesale poisoning by 
datura for the Rue art of the " roumil." Wo were under the 
impression that tho ono process was as old as tho other and that 
both nourished together— the elect favoiunng tho strangling, tho 
baser sort tho poisoning. It is signifioant, however, that it is 
tho rufllan Lidla who betrays his comrades by a cunning 
stratiigom, in which Ciijitain Arthur Tyndall undcrtfikes tho 
rather risky part of vicarious victim, while disguise<l as a 
merchant, and captures tho accomplished Naair. This exploit 
supplies one of tho most etroctive scenes in tho book. What is 
inexplicable, or, at least, inioxplainc<l, in this young oflicer is tho 
suddenness and facility with which he transfers his love for 
the beautiful and interesting Amy Vivian to tho pretty 
and onlinary young woman whom ho marries. That Amy 
Vivian is clothed in mystery, of which the ring she wears is a 
symbol, and that she warns Tyndall in the vaguest terms of tho 
danger tohimsolf which must come if they wed, are circumstance.i 
that should increase, not quench, his ardour. She tells him that 
her motlior was of mixed race, though her father was an Englisli 
gentleman, and he knows that the mysterious ring is adomo<l 
witli a roprosontation of the knotted instrument of the Thugs. 
Obviously, this gallant olTicor fears nothing, and regards her own 
foars as " hallucinations." Then the ring, of which wo expect 
much from tho ojM)ning chapter, is anything but a potent agent 
in the story. Tho Thugs do not attempt to regain it, tliongh 
their chief knows its possessor and might have obtained tho talis- 
man. Of course, it is no part of the novelist's business to dis- 
card tho improbable. To tho contrary, it is ono of the triumphs 
of his art that he sho\ild transmute tho improbable to conditions 
that aro persuasive and riitUcmblablc. Surgoon-Major firoenhow 
is hardly successful in this when ho causes the unfortunate Amy 
Vivian, after refusing tho man she loves, to marry another, and 
make another " Bride of Lammermoor " of tho Tonture. 



The Gadfly. Py B. L. Voynioh. 7f vRin.. r{7J pp. Txin 



don, 1807, 



Heinemann. 6/- 



rnnuffglhig of forbid''-— 
a sudden ho is bro'^ 



This powerful and distinctly agitating story deals with 
revolutionary Italy some fifty years since, when tho lilwralizing 
influences of Mazziui and others were bearing fmit. The interest 
of tho book, however, is not historical. Tho author, at tho out- 
set, is at some pains to indicate tho period, and ho is successful 
in suggesting the atmosphere and tho general ferment of tho 
times. His revolutionary types, with their diverse tempera- 
ments, their disconlant views, their differences of methotl. and 
their almost iniixnimous practice of vag>io rhetoric and windy 
declamation, are skilf\illy depictetl. The students, too, by whom 
the '' Young Italy " party was largely- recruited, aro very well 
drawn. AmpDg these is tlie hero, a sensitive and oiithusiastic 
voung Catholic, whoso revolutionary activity is confined to tho 



:»*.. *K.. ^.^.,.4 ..< I . 



t .1 



of it ! . It in 

tlio \ !'>vcs. Kb' 

faoe. Til' 'f catn^tropho folluwM, wlwn I 

he \H the I ' >n of tho priest who haa acte^l 



 • and instructor. Tho moral effect of tl r-. ; 

.... rwbelming. It leads to an outburst of •; , ..,; lur;. 

and hysterical passion, the morbidity of which is perhaps a 
triHo too peniistvnt, and tho noto of anguish too prolonged. 
Hut there is no denying tho power and poii^iancy of tho scene. 
At Uiispijint (■ of •'The': '• Ily begins. Tlie 

priicess by wli; .lueloss yo' ' transformed to 

tho satirist who in Uiiown as the Ciadlly i ' •-' 

imagination of tho reader. Wo havo, it !•< • f 

tribulations in South America, and we i'>ry of 

his sufTorings rankles in him. Hut ti _ cnm- 

pare<l with the fruit they bring forth in t: "•* 

after many years OS " the (Jo<llly," the roU..... .., al 

enemy of tho Church. " The Gadfly " is a tmnscondent egoist. 
His own wrongs— not his country's — form Uio mainspring of 
action with him. Tho Church is the enemy, but not aa with 
many of his honest comrades in ri . because he is 

Ilopublican and Atheist, but because t i is represantad 

by tho priest, his father, tho Cardinal M . Tho evolution 

is quite unforced. Every stage of tin- ws the author's 

rcmorkablo dramatic aptitude. The scene in tho prison, when 
the son reveals himself and tho father soft«ns, though the 
Churchman is resolvml, is tho finest in the book. In the final 
scene, though this, too, is well imagined, there is something 
theatrical that detract« somowhat from the pathos of what is 
nevortlioless a deeply moving situation. In spite of such lapses, 
" The Gadfly " is a notablo story. 



I The Freedom of Henry Meredyth. Hy M. Hamilton. 
! 7jy5iin., ^rr? pp. London. 1S07. Heinemann. 6,- 

Tliis is a story of " tho unlit lamp and tho ungirt loin,*' 
and as gray as such stories usually are. But it is well told, 
if not with much dramatic intensity, at any rate in a vein of 
vigorous and consistent realism. It is tho dreary chronicle of 
tho year which follows tho winning of Henry Moradyth's divorce 
suit, when he finds himself free- that is, wifeless— and left alono 
with a daughter of 18, tlio ono soft si>ot in wl. 'ire 

is her love for her mother, aiul three younger < ' ra 

he has never taken tho slightest interest. Ho ia p^iur, t>A), for 
tho money was tho erring wife's, and his futile efforts to 
rearrange his life on a new liasis aro ludicrous even to |>athos. 
He makes one half-hcarte<I attempt to cam money as a bagman, 
travelling in " Pimley's ale," a situation the comical possi- 
bilities of which aro discreetly left in the shade. But, of course, 
this comes to nothing, and ho is glad to accept tho post of 
manager of a farm and hotel in the West of Ireland, offered 
him by his brother the Earl of Meredyth. Hero, with a salary 
of £400 a year, ho enjoys quite a considerable degree of happi- 
ness, for his temper is perfect, his manners charming, and his 
position as heir presumptive to an earldom enables him to bear 
tho crosses of his [xisition with ijquanimity. But the danghter, 
Virien, turns up unex])octe<lly and things pr wrong. 

Tho choice of the girl's name is singular, in v r unre- 

sponsive, unsympothotic, unbending, and egv>tistic nature, but 
that nature is most happily indicated, and makes an excellent 
foil to that of the well-bred, easy-going, go<xl-temjvered, and 
profoundly selfish father. Tlie p<Kxl angel of the family is 
Alison Caniegie, an old flame of Meretlyth's, who has forgiven 
but not forgotten her lover, and who now, at 40, is a worker in 
the slums, and presides over a rescue mission in the East-end. 
Naturally, and quite sensibly, he tries hard to marry her : it is 
the only sensible thing he really tries to do. After a paiaful 



116 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1S97. 



ateuiBl* *i^ baneU, she retuaea him, partly moTMl by th« 
jmJuos torjr of Um danghttir's opiMMiitioii anil |NU-tly by hor own 
(•ligiooa aoruplaa about flivorco, but mainly by a n»blu senti- 
OMOt of womanlinaaa which |>ruvt>uta her from usurping the plaoo 
of a mother wboae cliiUlruu still luvu her. With this fortunate 
aanajiii of Aliaou's the book 8t«>p«, not because any liettoftnttnt 
baa bean raaobad, but because tliere is no more to bo said. 
Aliaon ia rorj naatly drawn ; tlie young Jew )ihilantliro]>ist, 
Abram Saroar, is a spirittxl bketch, though marru<l by a few- 
»tmke<> proper U> caricature : and the way iu which tho author 
to temper our scorn of tho unheruio hero, Merodyth, 
tly clever. 



The Two Captains. By W. Clark Russell, llhistratod 
l>y B. .1. HoMiiincyn-. "4 x.">jin.. I2:{ pp. I/mdon. 1^8)7. 

Sampson Low, Marston. 6 - 

The remarkable ingenuity whicli llr. Clark Russell has dis- 
{ Lived in so many of his books in the way of imparting frebh 
interest to a few familiar characters and situations by new 
croupings and \°ariation8 of incident is not so much in evidenco 
in this latest of his soa stories, in which ho introduces his 
readers to a sc«ne that is comparatively unfamiliar. Captains 
i'ojo and Crystal, tho heroes of the tale, arc a pair of almost 
i:iiiuitigatc<1 ^cound^el8. Thrown out of employment at tho peace 
ot lt>15, they make up their minds with very little hesitation to 
reiiort to piracy. They obtain the means for buying and 
I i^'.ipping a vusaol by a successful burglary, incidentally accom- 
{.iiiic'il by a murtler, and set olf for tho Atlantic with a primary 
].iir|.o.<ie of capturing a rich treaaure ship expected shortly to sail 
from Cadiz f^T Manila, but also with a verj' definite intention of 
plundering any other merchant vessel thoy may hapi>en to come 
across. Their cruise is fairly successful at first, and it seems as 
though tho end of the evil enterprise might hare been as 
]iri'Sperous as tho beginning were it not that tho two captains 
fall out. The cause of the trouble, as may easily be anticipated, 
is a woman— a beautiful girl named I>aura Crystal, found onboard 
a West Indiaman that i» captured and destroyed by the pirates, 
and to whom Captain Pope loses his heart with even more than a 
aeaiuan's traditional facility. But tho young person, with a sense 
of the proprieties which, iu the circumstances, seems to be rather 
straicetl, objects to a matrimonial connexion between his relative 
anil so disreputable a |ieraon as Captain Pope. To prevent it, he 
organizes a mutiny, kills the captain in a hand-to-hand fight in 
his own cabin, and then straightway runs his vessel into the 
clutches of an Engli.sh cruiser that is on tho look-out for her, 
and blows his own brains out to e8cai)e tho gallows. The 
story is full of bustle and movement, and is told with tho 
vigour, directness, and richness of local colour to which Mr. 
Clark Russell has long accustomed us. But the almost uiu^lieved 
nu4»lity of the personages and the sonlidness of most of the 
incidents make it rather depressing. There is not one of the 
irharacters in whom the most symp.athetic of readers will be able 
tu feel much interest. 

The Rip's Redemption. By B. Livlnc^ton Prescott. 
London. Sxa^in.. 311pp. James Nisbet & Co. 6,- 

Any ooa who, misled by tho cheerful-sounding title of " The 
Bip'a Redemption," turns to it f<ir pleasant rt^ading will sustain 
a mde shock. It is a very clever book ; tho greater ]>art of it 
ia admirably conr*>Mv<Hl and executed, but by no stretch of 
langnage can :' <1 " pleasant." It is the story of an 

unfoftnnato ii' ^•■u\, a man weak rather than liad, who 

" goe* nnder," aa the phrase runs, and enlists in a cavalry regi- 
ment. The enbject has lieen treated more than once liefore, b<it 
never, we think, with such relentless realism. The Kip, in other 
words, Reginald Alurud Roche- Vandeleur, afterwards Trooper 
Vann ol the Cuiraawiera, becomea a reprobate of the most sordid 
kind. The geatUman ranker of fiction is usually a splendid 
Deril-me csre pewomge, wboe* courage, gontloneaa, and tho roat 
make bim beloved and respecteil by all the men. Trooper Vann 
i« a varj differont figure—* sullen, hoiwlusa, dull dog, despised 



by his fellows, of ainall courage, and no aelf-rospect, a weak 

wretched figure who drowns his cares, when ho has any money, 
in a public-house or the canteen. Such a man would not usually 
win the symimthy of the novel-roader who is apt to ask for some 
touch of what is fine and heroic even in his reprobates. Herein 
therefore lies the author's triumph. While ho never for a 
moment allows us to lose sight of Vann's nnamiablo qualities, 
he yet contrives to enlist our sympathies on hi.s bolinlf. In other 
wonls ho makes us understand him, and therefore pardon. On 
the other hand, ho seems to us to fail both in his descriptions of 
peoi)le in a higher social sphere and also in the method in 
which tho Rip is redeemed. Sir Clinton Roche-\'andeleur is a 
lay figure. He does not breathe, and tho interview between him 
and his brother, tho Rip, is unconvincing and, indeed, pre- 
posterous. The last chapters of tho book in which Trooper Vann 
works out his salvation betray an altogether weaker hand and a 
less siu^ touch than the earlier ones which describe his abase- 
ment. Sudden conversions are rare in these days, and Mr. Prescott 
has failed to make Vann's reclaniation as credible as ho made 
his fall. Tho real Vann, wc fear, would have died in a ditch 
just as he had lived in the gutter, a pathetic, sorrowful figure to 
the last, but scarcely a hero. Tfie rogimnntal funeral and other 
posthumous honours awarded to him by Mr. Prescott 
are out of tuno with the rest of tho book. We have criticized 
" Tho Kip's Redemption " with some fulness, Iwcauso of tho reol 
power and ability which much of it displays. No novel of recent 
times has describe<l tho horrors of barrack life with such grim 
fidelity, or drawn the British soldier at his worst with more skill 
and success. 



A Spanish Maid. Hy L. Qiiiller Couch. TJx.liin., 
3(r2 pp. London, 1SU7. Service and Paton. 6;-. 

Miss Quiller Couch has displayed a certain measure of skill 
in the management of her theme in "A Spanish Maid," but she 
has not attained to complete success. Tho ofTectiveness of her 
story depends upon its evoking a feeling of terror, of iiorror 
rather, in the mind of tho reader and whetting his curiosity by a 
parade of mystery and owe. This particular department in 
fiction, of which Edgar Allan Poo was such a past ma.stor, has an 
attraction for many people, ond, skilfully handled, it is capable 
of providing an effective novel. Mi.--s Couch fails because the 
note of horror with which her book opens does not grow in 
intensity as tho story proceeds. It di>e8 not oven maintain its 
level, but rather recedes and grows fainter. The mysterious ship, 
with its ghastly crew of white-facwl monsters, is on excellent 
o|>oning, and the incident of tho casting ashc re of " the Spanish 
Maid " on tho Cornish coast is effectively managed, but as the 
story proceeds this intensity diminishes and with it tho interest 
of tho scones. This is partly due, no doubt, to tho length of the 
hook. It is hard to keep tho flesh of your rea<lor« creej)ing 
throughout three hundred j)agos. Partly, too, it is duo to tho 
structure of Miss Couch's plot. In a work of Mystery and 
Imagination, to lx)rrow Poc's term, tho horror should work up 
gradually to a climax, whereas Miss Couch plunges at once, in 
point of fact in her second chapter, into her most night- 
marish scene and deduces from it a doscending rather than an 
ascending scale of disastrous calamities. In one point, how- 
ever, slio has shown a complete realization of tho necoa- 
sitioY of her art. She never explains anything. The Spanisfi 
Maiden comes on tho scene with lier train of mis- 
fortunes to those who befriend her and disappears at 
last, as sud<Ieidy and causelessly as she came, in a weird 
atmosphere of awe and mystery. This is as it should be. In a 
story of this kind explanations are out of place. Its design 
should bo rather to prodtice certain emotions in tho mind of the 
reader than to tell a story. Poo realizod this th<iroughly, and it 
accounts, in part, for his extrnordinaty success. But Poe was a 
genius of a high order, and it is |H'rhu]is hardly fair to hold up 
so unattainable a model to a mcKlem novelist. Miss Couch 
describee Cornish acenes and Cornish character with considerable 
skill, and her book is written in an agreeable atyle. 



November 13, 1S97.] 



LITERATURE. 



117 



An Attlo In Bohemia : A Diary Without Dntwi. By 
B. H. Lacon Watson. 7;x5iiii., 171 pp. Ivomlon. ixn. 

Blkln Mathewa. 8.S 

L«t ii.s say at onco, to provout ilisapiHiiiitmuiit, that Mr. 
Wotaon'a llohemia in no wi.so rL-Hunihlos Hoiiri Murgor'H. 
Ever siiico tlio appoarnnco of tliu famoUM Vie dr. lluhimr, aiithorn 
on both sides of llio Cliaiinol liavo trioil to give lis glimiwos of 
the wild country wlioro pninturH unil poets aro aupposud to po«» 
tlio larval stage of their oxistoncc. liut their olforts have not 
iifton lioun cTownod with success. Already in Paris this life i< a 
thing of the jiast. In London it never existed. The nooreat 
)iomi>l()guo wo can show to it is the more or loss unconventional 
life of more or less impecunious Phiglislimon living in chamlx-m 
and trying to get their livelihoiMl by letters. Needless to say 
that among such Uohemians neither the tragic note nor that of 
roystoring gaiety is struck. Its discomforts, its disapixtint- 
nient'i, its humours form the subject of Mr. Watson's sketches. 
Tlioy aro a little i>ale in colour, perhaps, but lend themselves 
to the mild cynicism and placid iiony of which, in his way, he 
is a master. There are varinus characters slightly but vignrously 
indicated -Tulliver, a JIark Tapley of a projector, Carington- 
Smith, a journalist and so forth, but of course the diarist 
is tljo chief personage, and his is the Ix'st and miwt 
consistently drawn figure. Indolent, humorous, cynical, and 
withal a minor poet, ho is yet curiously well off, and though 
lie lights his own lire and cooks his own breakfast, it is mainly 
to avoid the necessity of being forced to get up by the advent 
of his laundress. His ma-sterpioces are produced much as |«arls 
in nn oyster. " Some foreign matter," he says—" a stray 
sentence from another author— a scraj) of conversation -ia caught 
lip in my mind and causes irritation, until clothed by the 
smooth, prisniatic-hued lilm of my own fancy. Then it is snld 
f.ir a groat price, sometiraos as much as thirty shillings." 
Ho sees life through rosy spectacles and rejoices in it. 
Some of the best of the plums, perhaps we shovdd sny the 
currants, in this little book aro in the quasi-serious vein, as when 
the owner of the nttio complains of the want of staying power 
in the dinners at the vegetarian restaurant, or insists that the 
ftult of thu ago is that wo take things too seriously. 
Mr. Watson's Bohemia never takes things too seriously, and ho 
thus lays tlie amused reader under an obligation. 



The'Vicar of Langfthwalte. By Idly Watson. (NVw 
Edition.) 7iv.-,^in., :H5 pp. I><indon, 1H!)7. John Clarke. 5- 

In republishing her novel " The Vicar of Langthwaite '• 
Miss Watson carefully guards herself, in a preface, against tiie 
charge of having written a novel with a purpose. " The author's 
first and last desire," she says, " has been to toll her tale rather 
than to point a moral." She has also prefixed to the present 
edition a fragment of a commendatory epistle from Mr. (rlad- 
Btone, the dominant sentiment of which is " one of satisfaction 
ttt the publication of a work, written with ability and in an 
attractive manner, which exhibits from a favouring point of 
view the social, moral, and spiritual facts of English Nonconforra- 
ing life." Miss Wat.ion's aim, therefore, has been, not to make 
converts, but to hold up the mirror to a certain phase of Non- 
conformist life and thought which has not often been sympa- 
tlietically handled by her predecessors. The story is not a 
particularly thrilling one — perhaps its subject forbade this- but 
it \a ably handled, and this new edition may very well find a 
welcome among novel readers. 



The Beetle : .\ Mystery. By Richard Marsh, lllu.s- 
tr.ited by John Williamson. 71xrnn.. :Cil ii|>. Ixmdnn. 
ISO". Skeffingrton. 6- 

Story -tellers who would deal in things occult should l>elieve 
in them, or be able to command the show of belief. That was 
where tlie strength of Bulwer Lj-tton lay in " Zanoni " and in 
*' A Strange Story." Ho believed in his mysteries, and we, 



nndw the tpell of his maiM.-. d.. aUo belMr*. Mr. Riebard 
Marsh neither inspires tv d with faith in thi» maltor of 

the Kgyptian myst«ry of . ...: ;-utle." ||.. .i...^.. .i-v ....... 

in managing the Wilkio Collins method of i 
,, 'v of the story. I-n • 

,,. ilhers.hecomplical'-- :. 



narrftttvo uncnuvineinj;. 'Ibfiu i» n- the 

mystery, i .1, if not clumsy, is the story  c at 

Cairo, with its unholy rites, which I«<d»ingham relstes in . r.b r 
to account for the iiersocutions llio Beetle subjects him to in 
England. Alexandria, by tlie way, rather than ino<lem Cairo, 
should have boon tin source of this mystery of transmigration. 
But Mr. Marsh's treatmentclearly shows no faith, I'j-thagorenn or 
other, in the Beetle, and we cannot say we find it more terrifying 
than the ]>asteboard dragon of the Wagnerian stage. 



Bl.^dvs or THK Stkw 
Bnrin!;-< JoiiM of lifr- in 



' 'hiien) is a slio-  
 in the Ust  
: d think. I 

t in the " ' 

btuiidiah 

" Ho couhl dictate 

" Seven letters at onco. -' '' '• -■'■■.■■ i--- « •- 

But, quiikly as his Vi., 

writes like a man of l... ... 

assimilating facts, and he knowH a 
a story together. Ijocal history ai. ; 
an attraction for him, and he t 
cave dwclHiii."*, some of which are r. 
the li I on the Irish road, and th< 

for '• ison," which took p1no<» nt ^ 

I 'iiey. it should Iw <• 

founde<l by a sil 
fr iUi i.stipona, in the south  I .'^i;iin 
Blttdys, the tlaughter of the landlord of thi 
sensational account of the last victim of th 
fullv, but t.'o relentlessly. Brisk and int<  

narrative is, the life doscribed i" '"■■ 'm... . — „ i 

violence to make it wholly pleasan'. 

Those who lovo to read of .Uenturcs ainl l.ai - 

breadth escapes, plots and ' 
woes, princes and politicians, 

mesmerists, will find much to ti u Thk > 

Marly, by T. Hooper (Methuen). . woiiM N- . 

reading if it contained nothing but t!i< 
Bridget are a noble pair, and well i: 
which brought them together and the cru'l i>l • 
them aro cleverly conceived and (inely told. Tli- 
■.\ ' '' nendisti tormentors Hit to and fro 
-I in Ireland, in the year Ui'J", a ci. 

oi iii. .-i.i Faith, then shift- t ^' ♦■' ' 

tany and the noisy crowd of 

Indies, where all wrongs arc .. . 

oven crowdwl, but it is not a medley « 

figure domin.\tes the story in spite of .' 

maskoil as the Singer of Marly, or playing the part  

bridegroom, or braving tho worhl in his own name 

The writer has power, and can do even better than he lus duuo 

in " The Singer of Mnrly. " 

Theindefn:' "!'r. Honty continues to lal our for tl- 

stniction and im of tho British lxiy, and we ■! 

doubt that A -M \}.< i\ ■•> London and With Moorf. at C^ri .s > \ 
(Ulaokie) will find many readers. " A March on London " is " a 
tale of Wat Tyler's rising," and .'■■'- ■■''' .. ..»t.^« r.r i, ;•♦„.;,. 
interest in the author's well kiio 
kniirht.i. unknown to history, are : . 
their iliity as manfully as tho real folk. 

and those who follow the fortunes <i ■! 

Sir Albert de Courcy cannot help learning about the 

troubled times of the great peasant revolt, i of *■ With 

Mooro at Corunna " is a wild Irish lad, who, by a lucky 
chance, gets a commission as a cornet in the Mayo Fusiliers 
before ho is sixteen : tho energy and the wit which led him to 
play endless pranks and to torment and plague all around him 
are henceforth directed to a noble end. 'Terence O'Connor is » 
iKirn Soldier and a born commander of men, and his career is 
brilliant from the very outset. The present volume gives us 
only a part of his adventures. Mr. Henty promises to give us 
the se<|uel next year. 



lis 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



CHILDREN'S BOOKS. 



Icelandic Pairy Tales. Tr*n»l«t<Hl »nd wlitt-d by Mrs. 
A. W. Hall. Willi <.riffiii«l ilhutrutiona by K. .\. Miuion. 
tjyjiin.. 317p|v London, ltV7. Wamo. 8 6 

Nothing hu been more uiArketl of rvccnt yoors than tho 
improvemaut, both without luul within, of children's books. In 
particular, the folk-lore of all countrit-s has been ransacked for 
their benefit, and prvsontml to them for their Christmas reading. 
Mrs. Hall's volume is a somewliat beliited example of this move- 
ment, Sh« has translated and adapteil a number of tales from 
mdic aoorce*, containing the usual incidents, and told 
lit mueh ohann or attmcttrencss. She docs not mention 
' f<"iuvo whence th« tales are ilrawn. They do nut apiiear to bo 
; 1 I'ooation, Amason, Maurer, or Goring, the four best-known 
w. rVs on the Icelandic folk-tale, and they scarcely bear internal 
■• '. nco of being native to tho island. Tho very tirst story is no 
' than the adventure of the three King's sons with the 
: ^e, telescope, and carpet, best known from its occiurcnce 
of the Fairy Paribanou which forms one of Galland's 
;o the Arabian Nights. It is true the leading per- 
hnv*? Tftitonic names given to them, like Brunhild, 
! and Edric, but these are scarcely sullicicnt 

iio or Korso yrorenaiife. So, too, tho story 
ve iirothers has a theme, that of the helpful com- 
1 -:.- ;.- . ihich is eommon to all Aryan-speaking peoples, and 
occurs even in tho mj-th of the Argonauts. 

Altogether, this volume contains little that is new in its 
incidents, and, but for the names, tho talcs might be located in 
almost anyquarter of Kiuropc. Nor is the manner in which they 
are told at all distinctive. No attempt has been made to adapt 
the ): r an audience of children, and the book is couched 

in a '  r above their heads, and scarcely likely to arouse 

t! ' .:■ imaginations. " Hastened to make preparations for his 
j.iiimey," "anxiously imagining all that ha<l happened to him," 
are locutions hardly adapted to attract youngsters. iStraight- 
forward statement in simple English with plenty of detail is 
what is wanted, Init is scarcely supplied in tlie present volume. 
It is, however, excellently printed, in clear type, its illustrations 
do illustrate the chief incidents, and the price is niodcrate, so 
that for children who are not surfeited with the " common 
forms" of the fairy tale, the volume may serve. But why 
Icelandic ? 

Children's books may be roughly divided into the purely 
imaginative and the historical story. Of the two, the latter kind 
is no doubt tho more popular with children themselves, though 
ll)r iiowder of history must l>o artfully mingled with the jam of 
'ti'M. This diflicult task has been very well accomplished by 
M n.l.'rf ll:ivcns in his " Paris at Bav : A Story of tho 
>•. . ' 'I t.c ( '.ijimune " (lilackie). There is plenty of fighting 

i;; t;:. i k. which Mr. Staidey L. Wood has illustrated with 

»:;;i.t pj.irit' d drawings. Two other books issued by the same 
firm bring us nearer home, Mr. Kdgar Pickering's " A Stoct 
ExoLisu Bowman- " -• ' >'- ' 'harlea W. Whistler's " KjnqOlap's 
KiNMMAX." Mr. i 'tale is placed in the reign of 

Henry III ' ' ^:r. *> iimlcr's is a story of the last Saxon 
stnigglo II Danes in tho days of Ironside and Canute. 

They are an easy, clear style, yet with none of 

that infu: 'n-hich Wounds an intelligent child's 

•elf-esteam, ai -h well illustrated. "King Olaf's 

Kinsman ' ' wou i iy valtiable as a present for any 1x>y 

or girl who baliarea that Kngliah history begins with *' William 
the Crmqaeror, Ten Sixty-six." 

Of the imaginative class of children's books several have 
lesmtly bean published. It is a much more difficult gtnre than tho 
lustorieal story, and th« appaaraoce of Mr. H. Oskar Sommcr's 
translation of Haas Chrintian Andersen's " Stokim and Faikv 
Talks" (Oeori^a Alien) ii a melancholy reminder that nothing 
approaching tba old nursery classics is now being written. 



Andersen was himself essentially a child, in whoso mind wistful 
niysticul abstraction and rnjit contem]>lation of ideally loautifnl 
or ini]>ossiblu things are divertingly mingled with a perfectly 
matter-<if-fact liternlness. Certainly, it makes us think hotter of 
tho modern child that it should bo worth whilo to publish this 
really l)oautiful edition. Our only doubt is as to Mr. A. J. 
Ciaskin's hundred illustrations. Growrn-up people will appreciate 
them, but children, wo fancy, would prefer tho more amusing, if 
less artistic, old cuts which illustrated the editions of .Vndorsen 
twenty or thirty years ago. " TiiK Rbvelatioxs or a Sprite," 
written and illustrated by A. M. .lackson (Fisher Unwin), area 
number of pretty littlo stories about fairies ami trolls and elves, 
supposed to bo told to a little girl named I.ily Neville, tho 
daughter of a journalist, by a sjirito whom, fired by her father's 
example, she " interviews." Kvidently personal journalism is 
invading our nurseries. " Just Foktv Winks, or the Droll 
Adventures of Davie Trot," by Hamish Hendrj- (Blackie), is illus- 
trated by Gertrude M. Bratlley. But the pictures, admirable 
08 they are, do not seem to us to possess the qualities that 
appeal to children. Most of them are overloaded with detail, 
and in some tho influence of Aubrey Bcardsley is curituisly per- 
ceptible. As for the story, perhaps tho kindest thing to say 
about it is that it might conceivably amuse children who havo 
never heard of tho " Alice '' books. By way of controst, " An- 
VKNTUBES IN Toyi.anh," by Edith King Hall, illustrated by 
Alice B. Woodward(Blackio),exhibits real Icnowlcdgoon the part 
of both author and illustrator of what children want, as well as 
unusual power of supplying it. Tho pictures are, most of them, 
of that directly comic kind that children love, whilo the storj' is 
capital " make-believe." 



SIR PHILIP FRANCIS'S LETTERS. 



The mere fact that Sir Philip Francis has been credite<1 
with tho autliorship of the Junius Letters is a testimony to his 
undoubted ability ; a much more satisfying proof, however,! s 
afforded by tho great mass of documents \i\nn which the 
late Mr. Joseph rarkes and Mr. Herman Merivale based their 
" Memoirs " in 1867. Inconclusive as aro all thopo facts, so 
far as the argument that Junius and Francis are identical is 
concerned, they are nevertheless invaluable as material for the 
political history of the i)erio<l. The correspondence to \>o sold 
at Sotheby's on November 27 undoubtedly comprisos the most 
important series of Francis's letters extant ; they aro charac- 
teriKod by their vigour and by their unus\ial length, but they 
only remind us of tho master hand as excellent imitations. 
Several of the letters written in tho spring of 1768 deal with 
" Jack " Wilkes and his election. "Wo aro all as mad," he 
writes on March 12, " about the Elections as you Americans 
were about tho Stamp Act." Two months later ho was writinir, 
" You may say whot you ]ileaso of j-our Americans ; but I'll bo 
curst if we don't match you for ri<its. The worst on't is that 
they keep mo at the War Ollice many hours a day moro than I 
like ; such marching and oountermarching. " The peculiar 
advantages of themartyrdoni of Wilkoswere very clearly indicated 
in Francis's letter of January ■!, 170!) : — 

All our npwn hero in that Wilkes ii elccteil Alilcrmnrxif FarrinK<inii 
Without. AtthiK mtr I »«« no reiuon why he in»y not l)o ShiritT nndl.onl 
Hsyor in regular micceiwion ; ami why not l*rim<> MiniRt<'r txforo beiliii'r 
In short, Dotoing can be more ridiculona than rrcrything that hap)M'D<> 
alKiiit this gi'ntlriimn. Every attempt that has been made to injure ur 
oppreaa him has in reality clone liim aorvice. 

The i>olitics of the diy, by their intricocy and tho duplicity of 
all parties, mucli concerned Francis in May (4th), 1779 : — 

!   «i what «ii;' ' J-.i'n, without 

al party i y both. \ 

I : , . . „ (hem than " II. 

Tlie unrest in America in the year 17C0 is reflected in many 
„i (Iw ..., l.tt,.is : — " I/onl North has assured the House of 
I at the opeiiiiij,' of next Session, there is a resolu- 

l. odate m.ittiTH with America to tho sotisfa<;tion of 

all parties " (June 7). " The news from America mokes things 
worse and worse " (July C). Again :—" If you Americans can 
submit to be quiet— that is, to confine yourselves to o passive 
resistance — you will infallibly carry all your points " (Aug. 2) ; 
ami, a still more important i)a88ago :— " Grcnvillo himself gives 



November 13, 1897.J 



LITERATURE. 



119 



op all ylewB of taxing America " (Nor. 4th). Sereral of the 

Ifttvra rolato to l-'riiiuMs's purcliaso of land in Americ* ; but 
«iuito the mimt iniportiuit letter in tho whole htiU-h in one dated 
Juno 12, 1770, in which tho following passiiKo oioirn : — 

Juiiiui ii not known, ntvl t'vit cirruniiitBm-* i« lurhntx M rtirioa* 
an any of lii . i  ' ' ■'" 

in, it K ill ; '" 

Ilix Mnji-.it;, 1' - - ' , ■' 

coulil hupport ; be wohM wuin In- ■ruiUiixl. Aliiu-ii !.«« I'Wn 
of ptililiiihing bin Inttrr tn tlio KinK.uxl Wondfall, wlm wu 
pulilinliar, in t« l>o trinl to-iiiorruw. If he bo fouiul guillji, • ii>ii<} m 
will Imvtv rcMon to r>Mi«ml>er it. 

Tho fourtoon U.tterH from Sir Philip Francis to }•'• -;- 

Major riiilip Itii^;^'^, follow on tlmso to Macnihio in <•! 

onlor ; but, wliilf tlioy doni mainly with political niaL. , ...... 

primary intiiro.st to ixistority cuntros in tho roforuncus to Junius. 
" Tlio Duko of Grafton, »inco his api>ointment to tho Tnvy 
Seal, ha« had  popjxjring lottor from Junius, whej promises a 
continuance of his corrospondenco a» long as ho is in oflico " 
(Junu 25, 1771). A month later ho writes :— 

Junius ban (jiven Jfonio |Iloriio Tooko] a most m-voro rornctinn. 
Tho bi'st on't in that Jiiniut, iinili:r pntcnce of writinK II. m- 
letter, make* him the editor of the ({ro.Hiw«t niul moKl^iiifiiiiM 

ever wan printed. Tlii« I take to bo a coupd'htal. U... , .,,.,, 

Iaui(h if yuii ii.'>w tbi' pamon in tbo pillory for piiblisbing a letter in 
wbirh he bimxclt is virulently abii»ed. 

Again : — " JuninH and Wilkos Boom to mako common cause. Poor 
Homo is drubbed till ho screochos for morcy. Never wa.s there such 
a lottor as Junius hasi flattorod him with. All mankind agree 
that it is his masterpiece ; and now I hope we shall never hear 
anymore of thorn " (August 20, 1771). Francis and Junius are at 
one on most points, but neither this fact nor the ad<litional one 
tliat they wore writing, tho one private and tho other publiu, 
letters on similar subjects at tho same time would bo sufiiciont 
proof thatthoy aro one and tho same person. It is l)olievo<l that 
tlioso aro the only lettorH of Sir Philip Francis referring to 
Junius and actually mentioning his name which have ever come 
'nto tho oixin market. 

But the colkn-tion includes also a very remarkable series of 
letters from no fewer thaneight other supjiosod authors of Junius 
—Lord Harrington, Kdmund Burke, William Uurke, Christonlier 
D'Oyly, Richard Tilghman, William Pitt (Lord Chatham), .John 
Home, and Alexander Woildorburn (Lord Loughborough). Thcsie 
letters are 12;$ in number, and wore all addressed to Sir Philip 
Francis. They vary, of course, in importance. Eleven are from 
Lord Harrington, whom Junius descrioes as having, next to tho 
Duko of Grafton, " the blacke.st heart ii\ tlio kingdom." Two 
of those letters aro couched in very mysterious terms. In one 
ho asks Francis to call, when " wo may, without interniption, 
converse on a subject very m.iterial to mo ; " and, in another, 
" tho matter will soon ho known to so many persons that it 
cannot remain a secret " (Fob. 1!) and 2<>, 1772). The letters 
from Etlmund Burke and his brother William relate to various 
public affairs. One of the two letters from his brother-in-law, 
ftlaorabie, is dated from Philadelphia, March 10, 1770, and in the 
course of it he exclaims :— 

But Junius is the Mars of malcontents. His letter to the King i« 
part all endurance a« well as nil compare. Tbe Aniericnns aro under small 
obligations to him for his repre.nentntions of thoni. I will do them more 
justice than he does by declarii.g that his produetioD is not very favour- 
ably received among them. Who the Devil can be be 1" 

Tho several letters from Richard Tilghman, from Philadelphia 
in 1773, aro printed at length in tho " Memoirs " by Parkes and 
Merivalo, and neo<l not bo quote<l here, with the exception of a 
passage of the highest importance from one dated Sept. 29, ami 
roferrnig to Francis's extraordinary appointment from tno position 
of an obscure clerk in tho War Oflico (" tho most adverse [xjli- 
tical antecedents ") to that of a member of tho now Council of 
India, with a salary of £10,000 a year. Tilghman was only ex- 
pressing a very general astonishment when he asked ; — 

But how did you get this appointment ? It is miraculous to mo 
that a man should resign oftioo in 1772, and in '73, without any change 
of the Ministry, in-, ndvanecd in so very extraordin.iry a manner. Your 
merit and abilities I was always ready to acknowledge, 8ir, but I was 
never taught to think much of Lord North's virtue or discernment. 
His treatment of you has in some measure redeemed him in my opinion. 

It is certainly a very remarkable coincidence that tho 
Junius letters ceased in May, 1772 (in which year Woodfall 
published the '' author's edition " of those bitter invectives), 
just at tho turning point in Francis's life. Hut coincidences 
equally remarkable and startling are not unknown in tho poli- 
tical and literary history of this country. Unfortunately, coin- 
cidences are not e^•idence, and, however strong a theory may 
be deduced therefrom, it is only a theory just tho same. And 
so it is with this intensely interesting series of Francis cor- 
respondence, inasmuch as it neither proves nor disproves that 
Francis was Junius. 



Ht the iCoohstall. 



It i* t- 
tions will 

,,f til,. 111,,! 



I... I,.., 



«i>,.t til. I tniMt.u.i ..r ., 



•nal c.>lIoc- 
■iirii more 



of th. . Ki-ttt». I 

the |: iro in t! 

! n, anil tliey iii.iy at iiiiy moment b«< ; 
to Aineririm enllnctora, who, more t 
eviii.' 

I' 
the quoKii.n, ixii, wn:: i 
no class of literary pr^ 

c---'- shown such a r.^....., 

I ts. The nation has tlf 

. .. ,ll. l.V :,.l,,l.t itV :. \^ .,■! 



to do ' 

f 



rith 



... y 
 and 
 fend 



into tiid hantls of u i.i 
tho Mu 



n.l tl 



of far more coi 

however rare. I 

have alrcadv i 

out any ill. it iH-ing matle by 

secure thoni. So also with the Bronte maniisciipto. 

lust ten yeara these havo gimo up in value t<> a 

.' ' w it is I'l ' ' '' 

1 m. Oidy 

AiniTifa..! i.-KlO for the inanuHCE ijn. i.i i in- ii-.i.-.-v- 

lie refused. 

lliore is also another way of regardi"" ♦'■■• '"■■*♦' 
is from the exhibition point of view. I i 

woman finds a pleasure in looking at t: 

authors, and if they do so at all it ou h 

the projMjrty of the public. One gentl. 
the iKist private collection of these manusui . 
allows any one to see his collection who e- 
intnHluotion ; but this is not what we want. Thuso trcasurus 
ought to belong to the Nation, and the gratification of seeing 
them should not bo dependent upon the generosity of any 
private individual. 

One hobby which .\ 
hard at nresent is the 
work of tne great Englii-n ..m... . •, . 
and Roger Payne. The result of this il 
in reganl to Pavno, that a number of 1 
of tho country which aro not his work at 

festly no dithculty in identifying those bo.. t 

many, which contain his bifls. In the absi'noo of 
it isnot always easy to decide upon their claims of 
Payne binding, especially when it is rer: 
thoeber and his other contemporaries and i; 
copied his designs. However, there is one tcit i 

strangely overlooked. It is not a great matter in 
a hallmark it indicates the genuineness of the work. .Xs is u. il 
known, PajTie cut all his own tools, which accounts for tho 
qualities of crispness and delicacy found in his bindings. But 
Payno always failed to make a presentable capital K for his 
lettt^rings : the upi>er portion is unusually short, and over nnd 
alMjve that it is so squeezed in as to give tho letter :■. 
ungainly appearance. PajTie's other letters are well dcsi^; I. 
and his imitators, while copying most accurately his general 
forms, omitted to reproduce this peculiarity in tho R. Col- 
lectors would thoreforo do well to Dear this marked feature in 
mind when purchasing books said to be bound by Roger Payne. 

Among other peculiarities Payno had a fondness for working 
on russia leather, and this doubtless set the fa-shion for binding 
books in that material which so largely obtained at tho end 
of tho last and tho beginning ^if tho present century. Very little 
of the material is used for book -binding by " - '•; 

bibliophiles, so little indeed that Charles Lanili 
through manymodern libraries without meeting h..- |. i, .... . .... 

Genuine russia leather — that is, calf or horse-skin curried with 
white birch tar (oleum ruaci) — is hard to procure, but the article 
" made in Germany " — sheejvskin currie<l with the essential 
oil distilled from oleum ntsri- is plentiful enough. This lattvr 
material is practically worthless, for it possesses no lasting 
qualities, and should therefore never bo used for covering books 
of any vailuo. 

It is frequently asserted that not only has the competition 
of American buyers sent np prices, but the commissions from 
that country have made dealers so Ij-nx-eyed that it is useless to 



120 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 18!)< 



hop* to eocM merom m nul "find." Thia, however, ii only « h*lf- 
tmth. Kuxtiah oolleotora are just aa keen and ns o<im]H'tont aa 
their kin beyond the aea, and rare booka of fxtruordiiuiry value 
need no loogw be aooght for here at about a shilling a]>ifCo ; 
but there ia a ■eoondary daaa of b<>ok which is priEL-d us lH>ing 
■■ong Um fint-bom of the great housoa thut sprang into 
wrirtww during the fitat half of the IGth century. Thv other 
^.v •— " ^f the«e, a copy of "Demetriua rbuloreus," Morfli, 1556, 
> ruaeia leather by Roger rayni;, and looking as 

L .and sound aa wl>->< >» rir«> l..ft his hands, woa ]>tcked 

up for lew than one-twi' 

In thia " PhaJarena r luxuries of tlio old-timo 

print ing-hooae^fine linen paper, ink evuu in texturu und deep 
in torn*— and there ia an air of luxurious ease, u charming old- 
world quietude, in the oaat of tlie page so mellowed and rclined 
with its mntv than three centuries of exiatence. The lustrous 
qual ' ' ink use<I in many of these old Ixxiks constitutes 

an i: jualitication in the eyes of a lH>ok lover, for one 

of the grvatest difficulties thut a workman had to cont<.'n(l 
against in printing a line and elegant book was the effects of 
the temperature upon his inks. It is this which gave such an 
eaay pre-eminence to books printe<{ in Italy over most of those 
printed in more northerly latitudes. Some of Caxton's print 
cannot be compared for evenness and richness with that of 
Aldus, but modem workmen, by the adoption of simple scientitic 
remediee, are caiiily able to counteract the injurious etfects of 
cold upon printing ink. The tly-leaf of this ancient classic 
indicates that it formerly btdonged to Michael Wodh\dl, who 
bought it in 178:<, and it l)oars his well-known inscription " coll 
and compl." Wodhull was a solid scholar as well as a collector. 
In his oollection of the classics he had none but the tinest copies 
procurable, and oven tlien he deman<led that they should be 

?|uite perfect. A glance through this book shows that WiHlhull 
oond no errors of any sort in it, although in the margins he has 
made frequent suggestions of difTerent rea<lings. It stioaks well 
for the French printer that a really competent scholar, taking 
his book in hami some 2tM) years after it was is.suo<l, could have 
detected no mistakes in the work. How different from that 
first reprint of the first folio Shake8|)care, published at the 
beginning of the presi-nt century, which in 56 pagi-s containetl 
no fewer than 368 typographical errors. 



(Tovrcsponbcncc. 



RUDYARD KIPLING. 

TO THE EDITOR. 

Sir,— Mr. Ki; \'r.r_- };:is «Titten of the private soldier, Ins life, 
and character witli .•-o much force, skill, and truth that it may 
jterhaps be not presumptuous nor unacceptable to the literary 
student for a private soldier to attempt to give his view of the 
creator of " Soldiers Three. " Tliat the keynote of this— dare 
I term it criticism ? — is admiration will surprise no one. llie 
s<ddier of to-day owes much to Kipling ; his country owes still 
more. Many writers, from the day of Cliauccr onward, have 
dealt with tlic man, but none has ever arousetl the 

interest, the a, of the soldier's countrymen for the 

aoldier that i r of •• Barrack-room Ualla<ls " has 

anooeaded in Since the publication of those ballads 

and the aoldii.. „.. ..la there has been quite a i-onai8.snnce of 
military interest and admiration. Even thnso good |e<>plo who 
do not read must bo .iw rf ..f this, for, if they go to tlie thoatres, 
military plays wer< re frequent and nouriahing, und on 

tht! T.ncort stage u 'j- successes of recent times have we 

II " Tomi 



." or "Tlio Soldiers of the Queen"? 

rig has t, in a t^isk that Acts of Parliament 

u<I in— mimely, in making the Queen's uniform 

lliis nlono entitles him to the soldier's gratitude. 

 iv, in his recently-imblished work of con- 

:. will have it that Mr. Kiiiling struck new 

■vith the soldier's " homo life, but this is 

Many, many writers had worked the coil 

' n •' 'vie, originality, was not there. Mr. 

who |>ut life into the marble. His 

... v,,i..- , : UK^hniqiie is the feature that strikes 

'■'■■ ' lier most forcibly : for the everyday life of soldiers is 
'ar^iiy cnmpoaed of <lotails, which, drv imd un in throating as 
thoy way b« to the civilian, are  K-ing to tho 

military mind. And if a writer </' . r story goes 

wrong eron in tho matter of a button or a )>eit he loses his 
aolJiar-raailer's gotnl opinion for ever. Most i«oplo remember 



the old story of the ancient mariner, who was shown a 
marvellous seascaiw, and at onco expressed his disgust thereat. 
A great critic took the fait to toak for daring to unfavourably 
comment on the masterpiece. "1 know nothing about pictures," 
repliod the seafarer, "out I do know that ii ship won't come 
asiixre when it's blowing a golo off land." Kvery one ia a critic 
in his own walk of life, and it might be as well if a goo<l many 
writfrs remomliered this fact. Mr. Clark HuspcU has pointed 
out tho folly of respectable old ladies or <-oui\try clergymen 
being put do«Ti to review yarns of the forecastle, aixl the 
average staj'-at-homo nowspa]>er man, whote acquaiiitanro with 
the military is of tho most meagre, cannot bo expecte<l to 
understand and apjirociatc Mr. Kipling's wonderful command 
of technique. It is almost i orfect. There is a glaring instance 
of error in one ballml that the soldier at onco detects, liut, with 
this one exception, I have never met the soldier who could 
liiid any fault with his local colour, nor can I myself. And his 
command of siiloriug technicalities is, f have learnt, jutt ns 
I)erfoct. A marine engineer to whom I road " Mc.^ndrew's 
Hymn " said, after I had concluded, " The man who wrote that 
has done his graft in the st"ke-holo and tho engine-room. Lord ! 
to think a chap could write poetry on my engines !" 

The three principal soldier characters, Mulvnney, Ortheris, 
and Leoroyd, are as ]>erfect as was l{obwell'.s bingraiihy of 
Johnson, and more than this one cannot say. His handling of 
his oliicers is equally good, so long as he deals with ollicers of 
infantry regiments. Bobby Wicks, tho Colonel of the " Fore 
and Aft," and Unless, in "His Private Honour," are as fino 
delineations of tho Knglish otlicer of to-tlay as is Thackeray's 
Cohmcl Esmond of tho days of Queen Anno or Scott's Ludovic 
Lesly of the time of Louis XI. of tVance. lndec<l. as one can only 
judge these latter creations of the writer by contemporary litera- 
ture, we might assert that the mmlom are better |H>rtrait8. 

Mr. Kipling's cavalry ollicers are not so giHKl. He is evi- 
dently not as conversant with tho mounted branches of the 
Service as he is with his beloved infantry. The oiBcors of the 
Pink and of the White Hussars (writing as a cavalry man) I do 
not like. But I jirefer them vostly to the imjiossiblo creations 
of certain lady writers who ]>rofess to have given us cameos of 
tho cavalry officer. Kipling's Three Musketeers are as near 
i)erl"ection as is possible on this sublunary 8])hcrc ; they are th& 
best yet done, and most likely it will be long before they are 
equalleil, still longer before they are excelled. 

" AX HUSSAR." 



THE LATE LORD TENNYSON. 

TO JHE EniToit. 

Sir, — I have been much interested in your review of tho 
" Life of Lord Tennyson ": and I venture to trouble you with 
a little incident in connexion with the great poet which I 
cannot but think would bo of general interest if it wero known. 
I only regret that I have not communicated the fact to the 
present Lord Tennyson. 

Just iKsforo tho death of the late peer, wo were arranging 
to present a memorial to certain dignitaries of tho Greek 
Church on liehalf of the jHjrsecuted Stundists of Russia. 

In answer to my request, Lord Tennyson signed the 
memorial and returned: it to me almo.st immediately l)ofore his 
death, thus showing his interest in the cause of religious 
liberty. 

I remain, Sir, yours faithfully, 

A. J. ARNOLD, General Secretary. 
Evangelical Alliance, 7, Adam-street, Strand, W.C. 



©bituai*^. 



The name of Sir Rutiikkkohd Alcock, who died last week, 
will not be without a placo in the chronicles of literature, 
baoauso ho was among the first to instruct the public on the 
people, tho history, and the art of Japan. Ho began his long 
diplomatic career in tho For East as Consul at Fu-chau in 1844, 
and closed it in 1871, after six years' service as Minister at Poking. 
His early experiences of Japan were doscrilied in a valuable 
work culle<l " Tho Capital of tho Tycoon." As long ago as 186;» 
ho calle<I attention to the itnixirtance of Japanese art, and in 
1878 wrote a useful work on tho subject, called " Art and Art 
Industries in Japan." He was also tho author of books on the 



November i:v IKOT.] 



LlTEKATUllE. 



121 



.Tapannna lanpmgo, nn.l contributed to the Encyclopmdla 
llritunnica niul to tlio lending rovicws on the aiibjoct <>f Jnpan. 

BiiiKOtt OiovAS.M Hatinta Cavamanklli:, wluwo douth 
w»« announced iit the buginnin^; of the wuek, is hotter known for 
Ilia literary work amune art BtudtintH than the f;ci' ' !; '. 

Crowe and Cavalcaaollo's workH on Italian url n 

important place in the artiHt's library. lUirn in !'_•■, > .i>.il- 
casolle was one of the many forei^'nor* who, after playing a jmrt 
in the moving event* of the middle of the century nbroail, Bought 
IV refuge in Lnglund. He wiui not a great artist, but hiB steady 
induHtry as an illuHtrator brought him into connexion with Sir 
iJotioph Crowe, who died in the autumn of lant year, and with 
whom lie collaborated in the production of " ICarly FlemiBh 
Taintors " (1857, 1872), '• History of Tainting in Italy " (180-J), 
" History of Tainting in North Italy " (187'), " Life of 
Titian " (1877), " Life of lUfaol " (1882). 






*U.. .»».!-..-* 



jfovcion Xcttcvs. 



GKKM.XNV. 

With the turn of the leaf in the Ladies' Mile of linio trees, 
llorlin Ruspoiids her nniniation. Authors are correcting their 
last revipo. Schulto's (lallerios are tilled for the benetit of the 
provincial cousin, and stngo-iiianagers are playing off the old 
favourites before the now season begins. 

The activity of the country is spent in congresses and self- 
preparation. In a free Hansa State the leaders of the Socialists 
have arranged to push their two million followers to the borders 
of privileged oloction, and invade the Prussian I'arliament. At 
Krfurt, in the heart of the region of culture, jirofossors and 
clergy have combined to raise tlio ghost of the Kmperor's past, 
and to draw from an otiiical Lil)eralism conclusions not dreamt 
of in the schools. In the cathedral city of " the llllino-land 
and the wine-land " an ex-f'obinet Minister has shocked Three 
Kstates of the realm by pledging a toast to the Fourth, and has 
followed up his indiscretion by Itccoming part-proprietor of a 
newspajwr devote<l to the opinions for which he was turned out 
of ollioo. 

This unrest in the body politic is reflected in the domoin of 
art. It speaks through the panting life of Itcgas" bronze and 
stone in his wonderful monument to William 1. It cries out 
from the canvas of Liebermann or Leistikow.or any of that band 
of 11 who are uniteil to tell " the truth, and nothing but the 
truth," through the medium of the brush. Socialist fersu.i 
individualist, Realist reivu.t Idealist, Democrat rermin Aristocrat, 
— one breath of reaction is fanning all these flames, and the Xiyoi 
of a single spirit is informing all their experiments. 

It is a part of the same movement in things that the reading 
public shoubl bo waiting with rapt attention forOerhart Haupt- 
iiinnn's next work. For Hau])tmann is the most famous of those 
literary sons of Berlin who revolted in the early eighties. 
Uumoin- speaks of a mystic seven — two less than the Muses 
whose control they shook off — who are even believed to have re- 
peated the droim of a Tantisocracy across the seas which our 
poets dreamt a century ago. Certain it was, whatever their 
theories of emigration micht bo, they wouUl create a new era at 
liomo. The outworn machinery of composition in painting, of 
construction in drama, and of harmony in verse, with all its 
attendant paraphernalia of types, and heroes, and adventures, 
was to be abandoned at a single sweep. The poem or 
picture of the future should bo a Lebev.iau.^sehnilt, a 
fragnient from real life, dominated by a problem, and with 
its details subn\itted to the microscope. In a word, the 
impidse had come from abroad, and the seven were the 
[lioneers of the naturalistic movement in Germany. Two of 
them indeed, to whom Haujitmann's first piece was dedicated, 
■were appropriately disguised by a Norwegian name : and Bjanie 
1'. Holmsen's /'n/vt JfamlH was, we liolievo, the first play 
to bo performed on the so-called free stage which they founde<l. 
The Freio Biihne survives, although its organ has taken on the 
less striking name of J\"d(c />ci(/.<r/4C JliDul.vliati, but the seven 
brothers in refiTm have long since parted ways. The authors of 
I'apa jramlet have fallen a little in the rear. The larger 
public waits for them no longer : only its stragglers, when they 
lag behind, are surprised at the beauty and the wealth of weeds 
where Holz and Sclilaf have trodden. " But of all the seven, and 
of all the names which are bound up with young (Jcrmany's 
revolt from Freytag and the Munich school — " never," says ono 
writer, " were fathers .nr.d sons divided by a deeper line of 




Ho CI " 

the " Tr. 

latust, " I 11, wait thu ; 

1H80. It .. .taneously in I 

stage. In .suvun ni' nllis it |mi>iiisl tbn.u^ii 1> 

attained the distinction, riiuili rnnr here than 

J.... . ... 



 rlin. H« t 
Ml works . 
i.iry of th" ii. 
the cane that 



fame has 



.il »t 
of a 

two 



thct 



critics 
d iU 
.irting 



niu;ii- >i SMS LiM"i" 11  III" ill 

i»ent in (iermnny. i* this 

liardly care to di.si,... ., .. U'tween '' ■• <• i <l. 

exponent. They write that IUmiIimu i-1 

of the ways, when they mean t). t • i »a« a 

oompromire liotwoon the t'. speak of the 

extreme of reaction as exl mean that the 

author of "The Sunken Bell " Im.-. iuilun a iu :• ;i r •! '■ -ht 

of his derotion. They point to the reconcilial;<>ii ^. m' u .r, i.imI, 

l>ocauso Hau]itmann'H last work was neither wholly realistic nor 

wholly idealistic in character. 

Tliey are all very much in earnest, tin d 

pamphleteers, and lookcr«-on ; and seriously i t 

Hautitmann's jKietical gifts .ir "' ■' *' r 

anxiety. His tirst three «!■ 

known to a comjiaratively h..,,.., , f 

them, Kiiisnrnr Mfnuthfn, was given on ■■' ^  

books, they have piis8e<l through six, threi . .  ' ' 

respectively. They are reminiscent of Zola and Ibsen, ^i- t: 
'• Tromethidoidoos," in 13 cantos, had recalled " < ; , .u 
Harold " to mind ; and it may frankly be said that they did 
not dishonour their sponsors in tho degree of actuality which 
they attained. They mark togetlier tho tirBt pcrio<l 
of the poet's history. After another 12 months' silence, his 
fourth arama, Tlir ]i'carfrii, was publishe<l. A year elapsed 
before the Free Stage would jirotlnco it. and it was not until 
SoptemlK'r 2r), 1894, cr nearly three y. " ' ' r- 

auio. that it was put on the brards oi :i 

Berlin. By the end of la-st s-asoTi it hail • 
and had gone through 18 editions in l)ook  v 

at any rate bo said that Hiniiii:iin liul .. ^ , c 

before ho scored his grca' r. 

■" "s a ; eoe. a drarn.-\ whore 

given to a tailhful pn ^ f 

ices. Its scenes — and it . i 

suooussion of (cenes— are place<l in u 



tha writer's whole 
a detinite set of 
little moro than a 



in 


the 


111 


r.iit 



facturing district of Silesia in the year of ferment, 18-1 
they portray with wonilerful truth the pity and tho Ixri' r 
of a weavers' strike. The book hxa been compare«l 
with /ola'a " (ierminal," but the foreign i ' a 

cannot be so directly traced as in some of t 

productions. It has been cbiimed for the <'■- t 

nis naturalism passes into a mibler phase, wi y 

is chastcne<l by something moro Inn'm i' i 

intimacy of tho associations. 1 

prize-ring. Hauptmnnn's most  

attempt to deny that The H'fnrrrs is hopeli 

its gloom is unrelieved by a single gleam from tli •■( 

the workiicople's life. It may have raised tho author at a l>t>und 

to the foremost rank of nn>deni literary men. It may l>e a 

masterpiece <f the literature of social revolt, but it does not add 

to the beautiful things of tl;o world, which we tirmly l>elievo to 

be the final U^st of art. 

" The Sunken Bell " — to omit the intervening pieces — marks 
a complete change of iierspeotivo. There are two Hauptmanns, 
say the critics in their iH-rploxity. Tho one is the realist, 
whoso naked power of will shrinks from nothing which 
is true : tho other is the m.in of imagination, whose longing 
for the unattainable breaks his earthly bounds. By all 
tho traditions of his own conviction and example he is forbidden 
to pratify this longing by an idealization of real lifo after the 
fa.shion of tho older school. Indofoult. • has recourse to 

the trick of allegory, as a convenient i which ho could 

slip off at will, should his principles or his t'oUowers rise up t" 
reproach him. The allegory of an artist's search for beauty, 
which " The Sunken B»dl " very i>owerfully omlx-tHes, may bo 
Hauptmann's own experience or not. Its lesson and its con- 
clusion are less to our present purpose — they hare ieceive<l a 
score of different interpretations than the evidence which is 

affortled of the author's i'" '■' vitw. His dramat'" ■•-< ''ct 

is too strong to display . anently in the nar: f 

allegory, aiul the Coui ,— for it can be c.x; in 



122 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1897. 



Ttaa 



politt—1 tw HW >r» dreAiniiig of Haaptawnn's oonr"'^: •• ...,> ,.f 
m Ham wImb the «po«U* o( liUruy rarolt will writi 
oftlMM>-eftll«dgoT«nMMt]rp«> Tb* terolutionaries : 
thair duunpion'a nium. " The Sunkon lloll " they would 
r«g«nl •■ m xu J'tntril, aa the raoreation of a aoriuus man whoso 
fame will 1 1 on TTtt Wtatm. The miUl nion, wlio 

■taiul in tlii- tako n half-way view ; thoy boliovo thatthu 

■tr«MB, which hao U ' for a while, will rejoin and How on 

with frwh virjoiir stiii It will pathor «j> what ishost in 

th* new -, UiLir wider range, their clearer view, 

thsir at ::(M<rin(r reatriotions ; but the wildness oi 

tl»«ir current will I'O curbe<l and checked hy the old. "The 
Saakm U«ll " ia at the jioint bc-foro the junction. There arc 
Otkan, finally, who fear that Gorhart Hauptmam's boat has 
baaa too much ahattwed by the Stumi iimf hraiuj of its earlier 

I to flow down now with the stream. 

is stirring, reatleoa city carefully puanls the secrets of its 
apring. Thi> linvi'-t which have fallen frcni the lime trees will be 
■wmtaway 'lest mimioiiiality in Europe. But will the 
winaofdis< axe to blow through the ranks of tlioHo two 
million workmen f Will the clergy return in peace to their 
palpita, and the profesm>r8 to their chairs ? Will Gerhart 
Hauptmann'a next work follow his Wearers or his "Sunken 
Bell ? " The questions have more in common than might appear 
at first sight. 

Tire UNITED STATES. 

WTien one read a week or two ago that we were to have a 
new volume of cartographic history fmni Mr. Justin Winsor one 
hardly noted it as im(H)rtaut. It was sure to be full of accurate, 
minute information ; sure to be the result of untiring, intelligent 
in<lustry and enthusiasm ; but then one felt Mr. Winsorliad 
already done so much work of this sort, and was sure to do so 
maeh more, that a volume more or loss made little difference. 
Perhaps, too, one had a secret feeling that, even tliough Mr. 
Winsor were undoubtedly a man of extraordinary information 
and method, he was not exactly a man of letters — an historian, if 
you like, bat not one whose work was to 1ms classed with litera- 
ture. And now, with hardly anv warning, he is dead. Already 
one begins to feel what a loss ho is. 

It ia doubtful if any scholar in America has been more con- 
stantly heartily helpful to all sincere students who approached 
him. Uia inforination, unusual both in range and in precision, was 
at the service of whon)s<iever it co»ild lienefit. A characteristic ex- 
ample of this transpired since his death. A friend of his some 
veara ago, chancing to get interested in David Garrick, asked Mr. 
Winaor for tlio best book about him ; to which Mr. Winsor 
answered that, having once been interested in Garrick, ho had 
collected material aTx>ut him more complete than was published 
anywhere, which material was at his friend's disposal. And no 
one would have uuppoted Garrick to be one of Mr. Winsor's 
specialties. That these wore various the very names of his publi- 
eations attast : the best known of these are his liibliography of 
Sbakecpeare, his Reader's Handbook of the American Revolu- 
tion, toe two series of Co-oix»rative Histories which he edited so 
well aa to make them almost coherent — the Memorial History of 
Boaton and the- Narrative and Critical History of America ; his 
Christonhpr rMlrrni i:s and his three volumes, under se])arato 
t ly of the West. His occasional writings 

»' H are very numerous. None of these 

w literature, yet none of them can bw neglected by 

ai. i'lUtd wiiih to put in literary form the matters 

With V. i..-,l. 

I' • ars Mr. Winsor had been the librarian of 

Harvaril. W l.tn he came there the College Library was only a 
treasury in which many thousands of bocks were religiously 
preserved f '' ' : his direction it has become the 

most potci ' • thot in working hereabouts. Ita 

raaonroea ai-' ■■|.ii imh ■■: .... .-... .^^^^^ but to students who 

wish to nae them. Mr. \' us policy may have worn 

out asood many Look' > oen worn out in honest 

ns« which haa aJrooat 



•dacation. Htudent 
BOW they consult : 
diarga of the Hnr 
librarian of the ! 
for increasiiic ar 
notable. Tlii* ui;u 
learned and iiofiulnr. 



d system of college 

 i\ to rely on text-books ; 

Kor some years before taking 

ry, too. Mr. WinHf)r had been 

n, where his measures 

ion of biH>ks had been 

K'lico in libraries, both 

temperamental liking 



for oonferencen and <<V)<:i- ;;atl)iriti;;» • 1 human In-ings — he was a 
vary " clubable " mail -to make him distinctly the chief of 
Anwrican librarians. 

How imjiortant tho nfi'tro of librarian is becoming in 
Amarioa one need hardly say. Our most notable public 



bnildings of the nast few years have been libraries. Three years 
ngo tho new rublie Library of Hoston was <it)ine<l — t 
most elaborate and generous building in New England. 



ngo tho new rublic Library of Hoston was <it)ine<l — hy far the 
most elaborate and generous building in New England. A year 
or two later came the Library of Congress in Washington, which 



is probably tho roost elaborate and generous building in the 
I'nitod States. And only last month was opened tho now 
I'ublic Library of Chicago. New York lags behind. But plans 
are already making there for a larger and rii-her one still. In 
each case the building hiis been nocessary : tho collection* 
of books have become too large and valuable for anything short 
of the best attainable accommodation. Wliether tho new 
buildings afford this may be disputed. That they are meant to, 
and that public moneys have been unstintin^ly devoted to thom, 
is beyond doubt. Tho architects of tne Jioston Library, 
however, and of the Library of Washington havc^ been thought a 
trifle too scenic in temper. Tho Boston Library, a masterpiece 
of construction, which contains somo excellent nuir.il decoration, 
is not intelligently adapted to its main purjiose. Its admirable 
paintings by Puvis de Chavannes, John Sorgont, and others are 
more obviously accessible than its books, which aro incon- 
veniently thni.st aside for these splendours. Tho Library of 
Congress, while rather more conveniont, is oftcnest remarked 
for tile It<jnian muniticencc of its mural pictures and marbles. 
In both cases tho architects were clearly so enamoured of their 
opportunities as not always to remember that a library should not 
primarily bo a palace or a museum. TlioOhicugo Library is said 
to be less splendid and to have tho architectural fault of super- 
ficial insincerity. Its elevation, for example, shows only throe tiers 
of windows and it« inner plans reveal four or five stories. On 
the other hand, it was probably designed witJi more intelligence 
than tho others. " The controlling idea in tho interior plans," 
said the president of the Board of Directors at tlie formal 
opening, "has been to make tho book-rooms tho heart of the 
Librarj-, tho centre from which everjrthing shall rox^liate, thus 
facilitating access from every quarter and lightening tho work 
in every department." If this controlling iciea has really boon 
carried out ono can forgive the insincerity of tho outer walls, in 
themselves pleasant to look at. 

Until the Columbian Exhibition, four years ago, people on 
our Atlantic sea-board had a patronizing way of regarding 
Chicago as on tho extreme outskirts of civilization, much aa 
complacent £iir<ipeans are apt to regard the most established 
parts of America. The Exhibition oj^mned any eyes that saw it 
to the fact that Chicago is fast becoming an important centre 
of intellectual as well aa material activitv. That new Public 
Librarj' of theirs is not only, in all probability, tho best building, 
on this continent for library purposes, but it gives a permanent 
homo to an institution which in tho year ISiKJ circulated more 
books than any other in the worltl. Tho Libraries of Bir- 
mingham and of Boston showed for that year a circulation of 
above 800,000 ; that of Manchester one of 07u,000 ; that of 
Chicago one of far more than a million. In each case, of 
course, figures were greatly swelle<l by ephemeral fiction and 
tho like ; but with all allowance for this such figures mean great 
mental activity. Of this Chicago shows many other signs. For 
one thing it has at least two other imi>ortant libraries in active 
operation — tho Newberry and that of tho Vnivorsity of C!hicag{). 
lliis University, only four years old, is already an educational 
centre of imjwrtance, not fairly to be judged by such feats as 
Mr. Moulton's, who is trying to make " mo<lorn readers " 
accept the Revised Version oftho Bible as literature. Again, 
the daily Press of Chicago, though not distinguisho*! by any 
single paper so good as tho New Vork AVeiiinj i'o.rf, maintiiins an 
average merit which ono is sometimes disposed to think the 
highest in America. And certainly tho literary fortnightly of 
Chicago, the J>ial, though not very i)rotound, is on the wliolo 
the most unbiase<l and satisfact<)ry of our purely critical 
journals. 

A fair notion of Chicago as a modem literary centre may, 
perhaps, be had from a glance at some of the announcements 
and books which reach ono from thoro in a single week. Ono 
publisher thoro, whose books aro usually notable for good print- 
ing and the liKe, announces a now book by Mrs. Latimer on 
Sjiain in the 19th century ; a Ixjok of travels in Spain, by Miss 
Nixon, who whimsically calls herself " A Pessimist " ; a work 
on Thought and Theori<'s of Life and Education, by Bisho]) 
Spaulding of Peoria ; a volume of lectures on Christianity, de- 
livere<l last year in India by the Rev. Dr. Barrows on a founda- 
tion lately given tho I'niversity of Chicago for the purpose of 
Christianizing tho Hind'os ; ond a careful study by Miss Mary 
Fisher of some modem French critics. Meanwhile, among the books 
which have orrived from Chicago within a few days aro Mr. 
Henry James's Inst novel, " What Maisie Knew " ; a novel by 
a well-known American lady, whoso pseudonym is Jiilieii 
Gordon ; Miss Gmlkiii's " Stories from Italy " ; a pleasant and 



Jfovomber 13, 1897.] 



LlTEllATLRE. 



123 



sound, thoucli not oxtruordinary, book of lyrics, called " Loye's [ 
Way," t>y Murtiii Swift ; a iiuot^r lux.k hy Mr. Hnrum Flotdior i 

nil" Happiiu'ss ns Founil in Forotliought Miiv '■' " -vht," i 

huiii^' oiiii voliiiiio of nn Ofcoiitrio itystum of i li \w I 

calls " Mitiiticultiiro ; " und ii vory .■!• nr il,,i I 

Camiiai){ii of Maioiifjn, by liioiit' 

cavalry, wlioso proviouH book on N , i . ' 

was apiirovod l)y rooognizod niastors of miiitary history. Wo 
astomsliiiin ooiitributioii t« history or literatiiro i.i huro, perhapa ; 
but a city which can give ub this and muro iu oiio wook i« not to 
bo iiogloctud. 

To jmsa from now America to tho older, Mr. Paul LoicoHtcr 
Ford han just issued an exliaustivo book on tho Now Knglaiid 
I'rinior, it\ which tho Puritan children woro taught to read. 
Whatever :au bo known about this quaint little volinno Mr, 
Ford has colloctod, digested, and plea^untly sot down. His work 
has but one fault ; it apiwars in what tho lato Mr. LowoU used 
to call an '' edition of looks." 



Botes. 



In a sciiind kiiuiiy notice of Literature Sir AValtcr llosant in 
(Vic Autliiii- makes tho quaint reproach against our lirst iiumbor 
iliat ho si'0.1 •• no .space dovote<l to correspondence. " It was, wo 
think, hardly to bo expected that correspondence should bo 
addressed to a papor before it camo into existence, but we would 
point out that all our ailvertisoments have laid stress on the fact 
that our columns would l)o open to correspondence, and our third 
number, as well as the present one, shows tiiat we have beon t«kcn 
at our word. 

  « « 

While on tho subject of correspondence wo will repeat what 
wo have already said — that we invito criticism adverse to our 
own and even adverse to ourselves. Critics cannot jirofoss to lie 
infallible. All wo can do is to offer tho best criticism wo can 
obtain, and to allow a fair field and no favour to ojiposito views 
At, let ua bog, reasonable length. 

 •» » « 

One word more. While wo are grateful for the numerous 
congratulatory letters we have received, we are still more grate- 
ful to those who have aided us by criticisms, suggestions, and 



In nci'tiniance with n suggestion made to us, we announi'o 
'lat our next article " Among My Pooks " will bo by Mr. 
.\ustin Dobsoii. 



It is remarkable that no complete life of the Prince of 
Wales has ever been published. Iho task has now been under- 
taken by a writer well known in tho world of letters (whoso name, 
howoror, will not appear on the title page), and is likely to 
contain a great deal of interesting matter not hitherto presented 
to tho English public. It is to bo liberally illustrated— tho 
frontispiece gives Goorgo Richmond's beautiful drawing of tho 
Prince in 185!'— and will bo publisheil by Mr. Grant Kichartls. 
« • * » 

Mr. Arthur C. Benson, of Eton College, is engaK0<l upon a 
niomoir of his father, the late Archbishop of Canterbury, which 
will probably bo published at tho end of 1898 by Messrs. Mao- 
inillan. It is understood that the work will consist of a jiorsonal 
memoir, romiuisconces by various friends, letters and extracts 
from tho Archbishop's private diaries, which were very fully and 
completely kept. Any letters of tho Archbishop's or bio- 
£;raphical particulars which ought to bo included should be sent 
to Mr. Benson at an oarly dato. 

■» «  • 

On tho l!>th inst. Messrs. Ohatto and Windus publish 
" Moi-o Tramps Abroad " by Mark Twain, who. judging from 
his last appearaiire in public, has not lost his power of humorous 
appreciation of foreign peculiarities, and also Mr. Christie 
Murray's "This Littlo World," which is to appear simultane- 
ously We, in tho United States, and in Canada. 

•» »  • 

In a very few days another book by Mrs. Bishop (Miss Bird) 
will be published by Mr. Murray. The country which the 
advcntrr MS Indy, armed with a camera, has now explored is 



t!  
by .... 



aoeoant of U10 racmit T{eiMi(iiil«s 
n f d , and will oant«in m jfttiuM 

i1-Gi,oiira1 for KofOA. 

« 



Mrs. Hr'--  "-mettn .■,■.. i..,.-. .n ,.i,l,liihf"> '■>•-• bjr 
Messrs. F. >iid Co. It in called " II o( 

Osmonde," u.. . ' " ■•  -■•in.) it may I." in a 

complement to •' Mrs. '<n- 

0«<ivi'il t)i,< idoii !i Ihu «' ,, of 

trr of view, Tho iormer 

no'. y, and " His Grace of 

Osmondo " (fives tliu inaii'it. Musiis. U ariio also publiih to- 
day another Uovol by Caroline Ma'K-rs called " "Tbo World's 
Coarse Thumb. " The same p'li  ivu in hand a NurBcry 

io Mr. Andruw J.,aug, 



1' 
Khynio l(<H>k o<litod by tho in 
and illustratvd by Mr. L. Losliu lW'o<.)Ke 



Mr. Marion Crawford has mado up his mind to tako up once 
again lecturing work, and ho will tour in iovural of the lar^ 
American towns under Major P' -igement. I'nliko moat 

authors who from Dickens on  lubUKl fortune to faiM 

on American platforms, Mr. Crawiui' ' extract* from 

his own works. He will deliver < ^res on " The 

Italy of Horace," " Italian Home i.iie in me .Viiddlu Agot," 
" Tlie Early Italian Artists," and " Loo. XIII. in the Vatican." 

• « • » 

Tlio American lc«ture public seems to be very eclectic in 
its taatos. Kussia is always interesting, ami for a long time 
George Konnan was tho most popular speaker in tho States. 
Tho lecture room api>cars to t ' : an towns the 

placo of a theatre, for the leo' ly a roliKious 

public. Tho late Henry V- -'•' -  llion 

miles in twolyo years, ami :ule 

the lato Charles Spurgoon !. ,.,„.... .. .^„, rlca 

Kingsley's success in 1874 was iiniloubtcdly his 

literary than his religious ropi:i;itioii : and ;: _ , ug to 

note that some years ago Major I n asked who of ail living 

Englishmen ho would rathiT i v with him to hia own 

country, replied unh' , Lord Tennyson. Mrs. lioecher 

Stowe would undoubt' mado a record tour, but she lost 

her voice early, and shu uuvor consented to turn her [lersonal 
popularity to a money-making use. 

• • »  

We nndorstand that M. Emile Zola i» serinn«Tv fliinlr;,,.; of 
visiting the Dnited States on a lecturin,:  ar. 

At tho lieginningof the present year M. !• ,  nent 

French critic, gave a number of lectures in diSereut cities in the 
.States and met with considerable success, though it is very 
doubtful whether more than half of his aui' - able to 

follow his somewhat elaborate criticisms o; -Jay de- 

generacy. If M. /ola visits the States he will doubtless be able 
to reply to tho very strong strictures passetl upon him by his 
compatriot when in that country. 

« • « « 

Mr. B©mar<l Shaw is publishing through Mr. Grant Richards 
two volumes of his dramatic works, including a number of 
unpublished and unii«rfornie<l plays. The volumes, which will bo 
entitWl " Phivs I'loasant and I npleoaant," will l>e sold sepa- 
rately, and will each contjiin a preface by the author. In tho 
first will appear a portrait of Mr. Shaw from a private photo- 
graph. 

«■»■»« 

Mr. Shaw began writing for tho stage a« long ago as 1885, 
when he was asked by Mr. vVm. Archer to write a drama iu 
collalxiratiou with him. Tho resultl was tho first two acts of 
iri./i>ir<r.«' Jiov.v.t, ultimately protluced by tho Iiidepondeiit 
Theatre in 189a. 

• « ■» « 

The now book by George Egerton (Mrs. t'lairmont*) which 
Mr. John Lane is publishing carries on the nomenclature which 
began in " Keynotes." It is called '• F:— •■  - " and she may 
bo congratulated on having preforre<l to what, wo 

believe, she had first thought of—" Fairy .„. Grown-ups." 

« « « « 

It is not generally known that tho author of " Pocheur 
d'islande " once made a journey in the Holy Land under con- 
ditions strongly resembling some of Sir Richard Burtim's famona 
wanderings. Pierre Loti performed the greater porti<m of his 
journey dis^iisod as an .-Vrab, and, with characteristic lovo of 
solitude and isolation, he rcfuseil the offers of several frionds 
who were very anxious to accompany him. As in tho case of 



124 



LITERATURE. 



[November 13, 1S97. 



Burton, th* fVeadi writar'a apar* form uxl dark oompUxion 
raudtfiMl it oomparmtively ««sjr for biin to pas« m an Amb. 
« « • • 

" '' TI. the Ut« Ducb«u of Tt>cV.— The inemnrial surmon 
HI RoaihMtM- C«U>e(lral l>y Dean Hole lia« lH>en in- 

t ;,. Mr. Edwturd Arnold lor publication, ami will K. luaily 

in a (ew days. 

« •  * 

Mr. E. H. Blakenoy, M.A., formerly of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and now Hfad Mnstor of Sir Rogor Mnnwood's 
Crammar Sohrx^l, Sandwich, will shortly publish an ulition de 
1 p<Hms, with coUotypo illustrations roj ro- 
11 .\utotyi-o t'omiany from drnwinj;.s Hi>i'cially 
1 . ■■},■ Mr. ft. Maurice Page, of Mauwood Court, 

S ii: olc, which will 1h> a largo domy 8vo., will bo 

priuu.-\i oil .1 J. ; -per at the Gresham Press. 

 • • • 

The leading authorities among publishers and papcmiakers 
do not Ri'tiii ill, HimmI to pay very much attention to the " scare" 
aboir of niotU'm books to decay and perish after a 

eert;i >on of the jwor quality of j ajier used. At 

any rate. may safely bo suspended until we liuve the 

rcjwrt rf ; .y <^f Arts conimitteo which is to investigate 

the subject. Tl.u iBpcr that will not resist the ravages of Time 
i.o, it appears, that DKulu fiom wood-pulp which has not been 
subjected to ebemical process, and thus had the resin removed 
from it. The cheapness nf so many modem publications has 
bronght this kind much ii.to ('.cmand, especially in Germany, 
whore a Govcmnient I)c{iartmciit has been niovea to inquiries. 
Books printe<l upon it cannot be expected to last more than a 
hundred years. A century is |)erhap3 enough to satisfy our 
greater, if not our minor, ]K>cts and novelists. 

« • • « 

Apropo$ of the attention lately drawn to pnior nia<le from 
wood pulp it nisy le iem.-ii'kod that paper inai'.o from this 
inalcrml is by no means a modem invention. The Chinese have 
for centuries made ]>aper from the pulp of bamboo bark, and the 
ide by the Japanese from the l.aailni, or paper tree, is 
for it« strengtn and fineness. The first serious uttompt 
111 j..ii<>).v to minufactuie pa ]H>r from wood was miido about the 
yiar 17(iO. when a French and a German chemist, almost simul- 
tanooBsly, annjunco:! tiie results of certain experiments made 
with a view to producing pai er from the various parts of trees. 

• « « « 

The strike among the " machine-men " of tlie printing 

'!;;h is causiii;; much inconvenience to London 

il publishers have had to postpnne their publi- 

Luti' :is, ami iiulcss some compromise bo iminodiately elfected it 

may do harm to the future of Scotch printing. 

« « « « 

In its character of illustrated quarterly, the Yeltoic Hook 
has ceased to exist. If further volumes are iiublished at any 
time, it is intended, we leliere, that the contributions i-hall bo 
few aod longer Uiau before, and there will be no illustrations. 



A» tl»e writers of the obituary notices of Mr. Cliarles A. Dana, 

"n, have dwelt at some l»'n;;th on the most olv 

» of New York journalism, it is only fair to 

I r.i-.v iiii. nii'M ;o the extraordinary improvement in the t'eno- 

ral tone which Itas taken place in American journalism 

within the last forty years. It should also bo ronifiiibered 

that Mr. Dans was trained by the famous Horace Greeley, 

..• wl.r.'i. if ).:,« J,..oi. •iii<| that " ho threw himself upon his nows- 

a wild iKiuit, so that the columns of the 

 thoHu who know him well the profane 

ibca that sometimes made his editorial 

lir of a hyena." 



wai 

Mai...., :L 

atteaded Ui( 

',fr P-.namv 



•• " y.wl:""' 1-1 quel to " L'^ikiiij' Hackward " 

• linii' ;i;c), is a native i>f Cliicojxo, in 

' it her was a |{ni>tiat minister, but he 

ly with the view of bi.-comin); a lawver. 

"f" prominence as a writer (or tho Sew 

"M! 1.0 took np the work of a rocial 

• I .wi novels— •• iJf/ctor Heidenholf's 

fruoeas '' and *' Mirs I -tor," both of which were 

MMied by Messrs. Hou^ , oihI Co.— and a number 

of very ttriking short slot ic-k lot tiie msgtzinos. 



A book by General Benjamin Harrison.the ox-President of tho 
Inited Stales, tnlitled " I'liis Country of Ours," is to describe 
in a sim])le manner the way in which the Stati'S are |:;ovcriK'd. 
Tho various deiMirtmunts of tho National Government, with 
their functions and individual peculiarities, are characterized 
and lioscribfd by an author who has himself occupie<l the chiif 
place and the imist re8|Hinsiblo position in this tremendous and 
complex machinery. Messrs. bcrlbuer's tions are the publishers. 
•  «  



of 



"Ik Marvel,' 
a Itachulor " 



whose delightful volume of faiMtriVs—" Reveries 
-achievetl a wonderful succifS in tho Ihiited 



Ho is about to i uliish a volur.io 
lomprehonsivo lit'o '• Knj^lish LuihU, 



States, is known in irivato life as Donald ti. Mitolull, ami is, ww 

believe, a native of Livoriiool 

of esKoys bearing the 

Ivotters, and Kings," in which ho dials with tho liteiary celubii- 

tios of the present century. 

•  « * 

Captain Mahan will issue this season tlirougli Messrs. 
Little, lirown, and Co., of Doston, a new volumo entitled 
" The Interest of the United States in Sea Power, Present and 
Future." 

« « « 4 

The Dutch are following our example and levising their Old 
Testament. Like us, tlioy have a veri>ion generally need and 
generally admired, dating from tho beginning of tho 17th ccnturv 
lint modern criticism is not content with it. -V i' 
New Testament appi-aio;l in 18G3 ; and in 18^5 four Hcb. . 
including tho late Profes.s«T Kuoner, undertook tho Old Tes- 
tament. Tho result of their work has just been published by 
E. J. Prill at Leiden. No one supposes it will supeisoilo tho 
Old Version any more than our now translation has in Kiiglaiu). 
Nor is it likely to convulse two Continonta like the itevisod 
English Now Testament, which was printed in full tho murning 
after its appearance in a Chicago daily paper. 



As if to remind us that there was onco a Diamond Jubilee^ 
Mesiirs. Darlington, of IJangolleii, send us a copy of Mr. and 
Mrs. E. T. Cook's admirable Handbook to London, containing, 
we think, no alteration except in its title-page. It is no longer 
" London and Its Environs," but " London in the Time of Uie 
Diamond Jubilee." As if to be more in harmony with such a 
title, it now clothes itself in leather and gilt edges. 

• *  « 

Mr. Macqueen will publish in a day or two a new fairy story, 
by Mrs. E. S. AVillard, tho wife of tho well-known actor, wfio 
writes under the name of " itachel I'onn," with original illustra- 
tions by Miss Maudo V. .'^anibourne and MifS M. .laidiin;- 
Thompson. " Choixiwink " is tho title of the story. 
« » • * 

We regret that tho Review of Dr. Pusey's Life was inad- 
vertently omitte<1 from our list of cuntonts last week : and that 
the price of " Arnold of Rugby " in our second number wa* 
stated to be 15s. instead of us. 

« * « • 

Tho biography of Mr. Henry Roove, which is shortly to bo 
published, ought to be a most interesting book. Mr. Rcevo 
belonged to Lord IJeacoiislield's class of " suppressed per- 
sonages," and his name was almost unknown to the goneraf 
public, even after ho came Init'ore the world as tho editor of tho 
Grovilie Journals. For many years Mr. Reeve was entirely 
behind the scenes in political and literary affairs, and he was oi> 
terms of intimate friendship with a host <if celebrated people, 
both at home and abroad, with many of wlu in he constantly 
corresponded in a very confidential way. Mr. Reeve held au 
iiiqjortant jiost in tho Privy Council Oflice for nearly half a 
century, which brought him into near relations witli many 
Ministers, ami this uos the origin of his long, close, and un- 
broken friendship with Air. Charles Grovilie. Indeed, Mr. Reeve 
possessed ample materials for a secret history of English politics 
and parties between IHtl and IS^j.-i, and ho could have tliiown a 
Hood of light U]ion many inj'sterious transactions and u^ion moht 
of tho ptirsonal intri;;iics anditquabblos of that period. liis know- 
ledge of literary lracaMi.iU.i and negotiations was not lets toui- 
prebonsivo. 

« « « « 

Mr. liocvc, who was for many yours editor of the ICdiu- 
hunjh Jicvirtr, was a luminous and forcible writer, and his 
wotjkly leading articles on foreign affairs, which upiicarcd in a 
morning pa|>er, attracted attention all over Europe, and wcro 
invariably quoted and commented on by the Continental Press. 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITEUATUIIE. 



125 



In 1874 Home of Mr. Oreville'n friend* onmplftin«<1 that Mr. 

KiHivo had hoeii fur too Hliuitiiii^' in hin (Mlitoriiliiji of t)ii' Jouniula, 
1111(1 it is curtiiiii tliut h« did cut out h ureal duul wliioli might 
Wat u» wull hnvu liuuii )iiihliHha4l. Huvniitfitn yuiin oarliKr thi-ro 
Imd houii Hiiiiiliir ^'riiiiihlin);H n^'niiist Mr. (irxvillu himsolf, ulio 
waN iiociiHod of Imviii;; ruthl«ii»ly oiirtaihd tlio oiitortaininn 
" .foiiriml " of Mr. Thonms liaikim, which book wtts tho parent 
of A vast nunibor of similar work*. 

»   # 

('onsidoriiii:; thoir prino, tho voluino« forininij tho IlliiHtratct) 
Kn;;liKli I.ilirury of MosurK. Horvico and Faton ari< cfrtiiiiily w«U 
turned out, mid MioM Ohria Hammond, w)io hat in fur illiii- 
tnitod tho 'rhiLckmiys, lias in " Vanity Kair," whlrli in now 
iKfforo iiH, not falli'ii nhort of licr rupiitation. Hh<> hi>ro work* 
in lino, in hor troitmtint of wliirli tho owob a gomj di'al to Mr. 
Hugh Thomson. If oho hafi not i|uite Ids dolicaoy, sho ha* his 
humour and power of charactoriz-ution, and much of his skill in 
compoHition. l)ol>)>in is well conceived, so is Kmmy ; Ilorky 
prcsentj j;reatcr diRiciiltii'S, but for our part we aro fairly con- 
tent with MiH8 Hammond's prost'iitation of hor. Sho is loa.st 
HUi'ccssful in a ihawing ro<iuiring vigorous movuiiicnt, as in that 
of Kuwdoii Crawley knocking down Lord Steytio. 

* * * * 

Mr. F. H. Townsond is intnistod with the task of illus- 
trating llob Uoy in tho saino series. Tho greutor irrre of Mr. 
TowiiRomrs stylo our readers will remomler his excellent illus- 
trations to the " Misfortunes of KIphin " and other l)ooks of 
Thon.as I<ovo IVacoek's -fully justities hia selection. He can 
draw a hnrxo and lut its rider on its back, which is more than 
many artiMts e(|uiilly sueecesfiil can do, and somo of the land- 
RO.vpes in this volume are well sketched in. He does not, how- 
ever, always correctly ostimuto the effect of reduction, and tho 
figures in tlio foreground have sometimes a tendency to 
bluckuoss and emnhaKis out of harmony with tho rest 
of tho picture. There is more acciiraiy and solidity 
about tho landsoapo in Mr. P. I'egram's illustrations to 
the" lirido of Lammermoor," which throughout show that artist's 
thorough knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of pen- 
and-ink work. 

« • • « 

Two other books, illustrated in the same niothiHl, comofroni 
Messrs. Mocmillans. .Another >Iane Austen has passed through 
the hands of Mr. Hugh Thomson, and, like its predecessors, has 
an intrc.<liU'tion by Mr. .Austin Dobson. This is " Mansfield 
Park," and tlio drawings, like those to " Emma " and " Sensu 
and Sensil ility," are full of humour and form delightful 
studios in dross and furniture, f'nptaiii Marryat's " Nowtoii 
Korstor " — not ono of his best porfonnaiiees— is iiitroducc<l by a 
prefrtco by Mr. l>avid Haniiay, and has pictures by Mr. E. J. 
Sullivan. The latter has something to learn both in drawing 
and composition from tho artists we have meiitione<l ; but these 
pictures, like all Mr. Sullivan's, have [denty of skill and expres- 
sion. 



The number of artists who can turn out tiist-iato illustra- 
tions in tl'.is style a itylo which tho )iublic iirst learnt to ap- 
preciate in Mr. Hugh Thomson shows tho extraordinary ad- 
vance made in recent years in illustrating books. The only 
cause for regret is that they arc a little too identical in manner, 
and that they may occupy a little too much of the hold. They 
are admirable when they deal withtho quaiiitaiidthepictures<pio ; 
but they aro not ."so well 8uite<I to the romantic. Other methods, 
for in.stanoe, aro niucli bettor suited to atmospheric eDfo-ts, ami 
without these an illustrate<l edition of Scott lab«>urs under groat 
disadvantages. 

» •  • 

It almostliegins to look asif early oclitions of popular authors, 
illustrated by such master artists as'Cruikshank, •• I'hiz," Leech, 
and the rest, were In-ginning to lie appreciat*Kl again 
after *heir sleep of a couple of years. At one time there was a 
rush for books of this character ; then tlio demand for them 
suddenly wano<l and hnally fell, from a iKMJuniary standpoint, about 
fifty per cent. Now a turn appears to have taken place, kd IHs. 
given lately at Sotheby's for (.'riiikshank's " Points of Humour," 
two parts in 1 vol., calf, ISZV-i is a very fair price, and tho same 
remark applies to Harker's •' Greenwich Hospital," in the 
original boards, 1820, £5163. In this case the 28 illustrations 
wore coloured. 

 « «  

Tho " Abbotsfonl Edition "of the Waverley Novels [l2rols.. 
1812J has been declining in raluo for many years, and a sound 



no 



rtb.lr 



niv br-.H"Jif 



t.r>t 

•   e 



iticul 

l...:,l 



««t in half mnmeeo pstra riiri-nil 
' :.n yeArH ago tioino f!2 or ' 

. There hav. I . . u  iV< 'it r" 

I'roBe Works Mince then, ' 
fold " in purity of t«^xt  
this edition is inesplicablu. 

• • « • 

Mr. Stuart Ileid, whose forthc-omiii;; biography of the 
1,1 id Pmliiiii we recently allilde<l !••, « ri'.. m to us with r. f' r 
' on of his bonk : l<onl Di. 

I t4i diacovur the repi n of mm 

iiig lettura now in my pnsaossion 
Tliis is the mnro unfortunate, rinci 

cations can have failed to have liiaun tiom i.oul L.. 
imnortAnt anawurM. He kept the letlem ho roi'eive<l. but I 
only .;  ' ' '  ' 

your 
there 1 . 
of the lett 

IHitI, and 1. ., _. ........ o..^. , 

living representatives ot the writers, many valuable pol 
fa<'t.4 .and I'pinions must reiii:iiii unorinli 1 On,' of 
I'lirbams 111. .st constant corr- i 

yiiirs — to take but one in^^t 

gallant soldier who incuire<l the dinpleumire of the I'rinco i^ 
by hil attitude towards (^uoen Caroline. Con uiij* of 
readers tell mo where tiis representatives are to be foiudi' " 

• • •  

Mr. Herbert Spencer has paased through the press • pniai? 
volume entitled " Various Kragnients." Itwillbo issued by Me«'r^. 
Williams and Norgate as soon as the American edition is ready. 

• « « • 

The second portion of the Earl of .-Vsbbumham'i Library 
will \h> sold by Me.'^^r.■'. Solheby on December 6 and five follow'- 
ing days. The catalogue extends from fiadbury to Petrarch. and 
contains some extremely scarce and valun' ' -' - ' ' s 
many of great interest. The books of H' : 

til., ii... ..t ...r\,.^ ..,..,• ,,ir..,..,l ior sale, ■• 

10 Parr, 

 _ , i herself , I . i ;.. .. ... 

.\nothcr very interesting work is (iralton's Abridgment of tho 
Chronicles of England, 1670, containing in its leave* an auto- 
graph letter of Thomas Howard, I>nke of Norfolk, written ju^t 
iiefore his execution on June 2nd, 1572. Severs! •jxvimens "f 
Wynkyn de Worde's Press arc met with in thi -.and 

all of these aro of exceptional rarity. The tirst ; thm 

important library, realixod, it will be r. . '. i^jt'.lOl, and 

though it is not at all likely that any ti> till l,e reached 

on this occasion, the f:ict remains that tiie nooks to be offcrc<l 
arc of exceptional interest and value. 

• « • • 

A highly interesting collection of rare books, chiefly rplatinf: 
to the discovery, history, literature, biography, and  i 

<lialects of Spanish America, will be oHered f"< r sale • 
Sothebv, Wilkinson, and I' ' ' ii NoveniU-r 16. 1 
the collector does not tr: t the collection h:i 

been formed with ijrettt k,..-.. .. .,i,e and toite. Cne I'i uu- i; vi 
desirable of all is a good copy of the extremely rare original 
edition of Oviedo, " La Historia Cencral do los Indias,' th» 
" Primera Parte," printed at Seville in l.'hC), and with the 
autograph signature and arms of tho author on tho last leaf. 

• «   

.\t the recent .sale of the late Mr. W. K. Frcre's library, A'. 
Sotheby disnosed of a series of the Hakluyt .Society's' pi: 
tions from the commencement in 1847 to 18W. consisting ii i -i 
volumes, JC'M. Work.s issued by this society bring a price which 
varies but little. At tho same sale a complete set of the Delpl-.in 
I lassies edite<l by Valpy, ISO vols., green roan, sohl for £12 .%s. 
This scholarly receni,ion has fallen on evil days, the whole 
180 volumes bringing less in this instance than the cost of the 
binding. It is a melancholy fact tli:if old i dit ions of the Hreek 
aiul Latin classics are, with some t . almost worth- 

less at the present time. The 1 u of Piirchas's 

" Haklnytus Posthumus, or I'lircbas ins l"ilj;riires," live voN. 
folio, bn>iight £:^6. It was imperfect c* usual. The late Ixiid 
Chief Justice Coleridge had a hue and perfect copy of this l-ook, 
which, from an inscription on the title, was btiuglit for ISe. in 
1G24. At his sale it realized £07. 

• •  « 

.V curious item occurs in the interesting book-catalogue f f 
Mesirs. Jagganl, of Liverpool. It is the MS. of an Englisa 



126 



LITERATURE. 



[IJovembcr 13, 1897. 



traiulatinn n( KiWio Pellioo's c«>I»l>ntt«() Priimn Ttiary, by Obarle* 

Fir Tlie MS. u ~ "   ,11 lieen civon 

sr . I, but wl; i tinishotl hi* 

tacK a was ais\.i.>vi'ix-U that be haa uooii lorosiauod. 

* • « « 

The Sorenth Part of Mr. Will R.>then8toin'» «' Knglish 
Portraits," which be it isauinc through Mr. Grant Richards, 
will be publiahed next week. It will contain portraits of Mr. 
Robert Bridge* Mid Ftafeuor A. I^egros. 



M m m* . Lawrence and Bullen announce that they will publish 
this month the " II Pecorone," of Ser Giovanni, translated into 
Kagli»h for the first time by Mr. W. U. Waters, with 11 illus- 
trations by E. K. H Il.W.S. Sor Giovanni was a con- 
temporary of Saohett < ■' two story-tellers come next to 
Boccaccio in order of tiini' '' '■ 'bratwl of Sur Giovanni's 
aiories i* the one which " mst h&vo rend before 

writine 7^* Merchnnt of M.iuy of them treat of the 

saliect incidents in the annals of Florence : the factions of 
Ouelph aiMl Ubibelline, and Dianchi and Neri. Ser Giovanni 
w»a an ardent Guolph, and wrote his book in 1378. The 
" Pecorone," though somcwliat archaic in style, is one of the 
masterpieces of Italian prose, and ranks next to the " Do- 
ouneron " amoncst Italian SorelU. It was first printed at 
Milan in 1568. 

• « • « 

Messrs. Lawrence and Dullen will publish towards the end 
of the month the complete first volume of the " Kncyclopa>dia 
of Sport." The same publishers announce the publication to-day 
of the first two volumes of " The Anjjlcrs' Library," edited by 
Sir Herbert Maxwell and Mr. V. G. Ailalo, dealing with Coarse 
Fish (by C. H. Wheeley) and Sea Fish (by F. G. Aflalo). 
«  • • 

Messrs. Jarrold announce a " History of Hungarian 
Literature," by Dr. Eniil Reich, and " Some Beminisccuces of a 
Lecturer," by Dr. Andrew Wilson, the well-known lecturer on 
science. Among their novels are " Under the Whiie Ensign,'' 
Iw A. Lee Knight ; " A Modem Puck," by Agues Gibemo ; 
'•Sweet Audrey," by Oeoree Morloy ; and another novel by 
Roland Grey, the author of " The Power of the Dog," called 
" By Virtue of hU Office." 

« « « « 

Mr. Martin A. S. Hume, whose " Ralegh " Messrs. Fisher 
Onwin recently published, was asked to design a car for the 
Lord Mayor's Show, and this naturally took the shape of one 
containing living effigies of Italcgh, Maitland, &c. 

« * « « 

Dr. W. Robertson Nicoll has collected his Sunday Afternoon 
Vsraes which ai>peared in the Britiah Wetkly. They will be 
pablishcd in a day or two by Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton. 
The same publishers have nearly ready " The Music of the 
Soul," consisting of Daily Readings for a Year, selected from 
the writings of Dr. Alexander Maclaren, by the Rev. O. Coates. 
« « « « 

Mrs. Cathcrwood is a young American lady who has spent 
much time and study in original research among the ]>easants of the 
Voages and I>orrainc for the purpose of writing " The Days of 
Jeanne d'Arc." The )>ook is to be published in this country by 
Messrs. Gay and Uird. In a prefatory note Mrs. Catherwood 
makes a bold statement. " At the risk of raising a smile," she 
says, " I will confess that I felt — so strongly that it was like an 
instant's experience of a blow — that Jeanne d'Arc herself had 

laid up " •'■" task of writing her story. I was in the troin 

going t ;iier home. The feeling, without any premoni- 

tion, a\!-^,.. '' <ne that I would l>e obliged to make a careful 

study of iK'i ; iines and of the present geographical aspect 

of France, a; i would have to give unstinted labour to the 

nndsrtaking." An American contemporary takes this very 
•amastly ; how far Mrs. Catherwood has succeeded in fulfilling 
hsr sacred duty remains to be seen by us. 

« • « « 

The death of Mr. Johnson, the late proprietor of the old 
weekly storj--j)8per, the London Kradrr, calls to mind a novel ex- 
periment which had a remarkable result. At one time the 
circulation of this journal was as high as half a million copies 
per week ; then the owner introduced a new feature— no loss 
tiiaa the serial re-issue of the novels of Sir Walter Snott. In 
spits, bowsrsr, of the illustrations which Sir John Gilbert was 
commissionsd to supply, the experiment was a failure, and the 
fsators had to be aliandoned entirely to save the ma<rar.ino. In 

I days of much talk of " large circulations " ws lorget that 



"circulations" quite as large ruled in the days when the present 
generation was in its yoiitli, and we must look to such journals 
as the London Reader and the famoAs One* a M'l-ck for the proto- 
types of the modem " illustrated magazines,'' 

 • *  

Within the last few days a London dealer has disposed of a 
cony of Matthew Arnold's " Alaric at Homo " to an American 
collector for the large sum of £'(iO. Arnold's prize poem wos first 
recited in Rugby School on Juno 1'2, 18-10, and was afterwartls 
published in a small octavo pamphlet of 11 pages by a firm of 
printers in the same town. This early edition of " Alaric at 
Rome " is the rarest of all Matthew Arnold's works, and up to 
ISO'i only one copy was known to exist. Since that date several 
others have boon found, but the total oven now is only some 
half-<lo7.cn. Those, however, are not all perfect, and the want 
of the faded pink covers makes a difVeronce of tpiite £10 in the 
price. 

« • « « 

" The Song of Solomon " is to be issued by Messrs. Chap- 
man and Hall in the form of on elegant Christmafl gift-book. It 
will have 12 full-pai;o plates and various other <looorations by 
Mr. H. Granville Fell. It is to bo quarto in size, and 7s. (kl. in 
price. 

 «  « 

Tlie same firm have reprinted in 2t volumes for 21s. the 
cheapest and completest edition of the works of Charles Dickens 
in the market. It is excellently printo<l and handsomely bound. 

 « « « 

The AuUior has made from the Publinliers' Cinular of 
October 2 an interesting tabular statcmoiit of the books pub- 
lished during the autumn. We wonder whether publishers will 
agree with the somewhat inconsequent deduction with which it is 
prefaced — that the increasing number of publishers shows that 
" publishing is about the best business going." The same 
reasoning applied to the still more rapid increase of authors 
would certainly not be correct. 

•» »  « 

From the statement it ap]iears that during the jioriiHl 1,941 
new editions and new books wore published by CG publishers, or 
less than an average of 'M each, lint 10 publishers did more than 
half of the business — in the following order : — Macmillan, Cam- 
bridge University , Press, Cassclls, Chatto and Windus, Swan 
Sonnonschein, Clarendon IVess, Longmans, Mothuon, Sampson 
Low,Heinemann, Blackwood, Partridge, Fisher XJnwin, Putnam, 
Religious Tract Society, and Warno — leaving 00 to divide the 
other half between them. 



More tlian one-fourth of the total number of lx>oks are 
classed as fiction, and nearly one-half are included in fiction, 
children's books, poetry, and drama. For one-tenth of the 
fiction Messi-s. Chatto and Windus appear responsible. 



Mr. Frank Stockton's novel, " The Cirout Stone of Sanlis, " 
which has just ooniploted its serial course in 7/(ir;>c;'.« Maijazine, 
will be published early next year in liook form by Messrs. Harper 
Brothers, both here and in America. It is to be fully illus- 
trate<l, and there is to be a special edition for the colonies. 
« « « « 

Mr. Thomas B. Mosher is an American publisher who lias 
fallen foul of Mr. Andrew Lang's storn censure. He has a nice 
taste and a delightful and happy way in exemplifying it in his 
publications. But that diil not save him for reprinting " Helen. 
of Troy." He has now gone a step further in his piracies, ond 
announces among his " Bibelot " series dainty renrodiicticms of 
Pater's " Essavs from the duardian," Michael Hold's " Long 
Ago," Mme. "Dsrmestoter's " An Italian Garden," Morris's 
"Defence of Guenovere," and Pater's rendering from Ajjuleius 
of the story of Cupid and I'syche. What has Mr. Lang to say to 
this ? 

« « « « 

The life of the Archduke Albert, who died in 1895, has been 
written by Colonel Karl von Duncker (Vienna and Prague : F. 
Teinpsky, 1897). The author, a writer on military history, has 
produced a very handsome volume, in which he relates tho 
eventful life of the Prince who won his i)lace in history throuch 
tho victory of Castoxza. He has had tho gotxl fortjne to bo 
allowed access to tho unpublished writings and letters of tho 
Archduke, as well as tho records of the bigliest military authori- 
ties. 



November 13, 1897.] 



LITERATURE. 



127 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

TheShophcni-d'h ' liv 

Klmiltlil .Sy.. ;ic. /•. ..-.I 

wKIl li rkliirr . IM 

by Wiiltor <! lil. 

4118 n>. !>.! ilk. 

IMW. II.,,, . ..M. 

Lat«p RonalBaanoo Arohlteo- 
tup«< In RnK-lnnd. \ SitIhb nl 
Kv ' ^ ^' liilil.lillKH 

rn ,. Kll/,«- 

1)< I i. with 

In ■" xi. 

t^^ K 

M. To 

Ixirniiii'ifi.-.i m \ I. \(iH. i;i . uin,, 
12 pp. 1^111(1011,181(7. 

IfaitKfunl. 2N. not cnrh part. 

AVIndows. A lldiikiilxiiii .stalnml 
iliul rulntcf) (ilii-.^. lu /.' iriH K 
/>'ij/. i>iv(>iii., X. t ll.'i |i'ii, l.cindnn, 
IW. lliitHforil. :;iH. not. 

Thomas Oalnabopougrh. A 
liworcl (if Ills l,ifi) anil U'orlcH. 
With lUiiHtnitioiiM. Hy Mm. 
Arthur Jtell (\. DAnvi-ni). 
llJxSlin., XV. ( \Ht np. Lomlciii, 
1887. HcorKii (ioU. 2Sm. not, 

BIOGRAPHY. 
Queen Victoria. Ily Hirhard II. 

l/nlmix, K.S. .\,. l.ilinirian lo tlio 
Oiicoii. Willi II!us|nillon« from 
tlu! Itoi ion. ISxlOln,, 

aw pp. i 

BoiiwiiHl and Co. £3.T«. 

Falklands. Hv tlio Author of 
•• Tko l.ifo of .Sir Konolm Ditcby." 
Sec. 9xjlln., xll. f linpp. UiiiUon, 
Now York, nml Honibny, 18»7. 

I.oiiKiiuin.'f. 7h. 6d. 

Robert E. Leo and the 
Southern Contedepacy, 

1807-1870. (The Ilrrois of tfio 
Niltlon-.l »y Hrnru A. White, 
M.A.. Ph.D. 7Jx5Mn.. xili.+«67 pp. 
London and Now York. 1SJI7. 

I'litiiiiinH, ♦!..*. 

Ulysses S. Ornnt and the 
Pspiod or National Preser- 
vation and Reoonstpuotlon. 
(Tho HorocK of llio \aliimh.> Hy 
William C. Churrh. VJ  .'ijin., 
xl.t4T:i pp. London nml Now 
York, mr,. l"iitnaiii..<. »l..'.o. 

The Life of Ernest Renan. Hy 
MaitamrJ. Dnrmrstrtrr (.\. Mnrv 
K. Itobinsoii). 8A.'ilin.. viil. + 2sa 
pp. Ixindon, 1S!)7. Mothni'ii. (is. 

Life's Look-Out. An Autoblo- 

Kraiihy. Hy .Si/ilnry IfaLion. 

Sv.Mln.. xil. • .tVl pp. London. 1887. 

lloddcr iind StooKhton. :1k. (id. 

The Polltloal Life of the Rt. 
Hon. W. E. Gladstone. IIIiim- 
tnitc<l from •■ I'lincli." :) vols. 
lljxyiin. Vol. L. xvi.isiii) pp. 
Vol. 11.. x.t37fi pp. Vol. lf(., 
x.+3i2pp. l.ondon, ISa7. 
BradbMry,AKi)Ow. 2(1m. not cnrh vol. 

Marohesl and Music Ily 
Mnthihlr Miirrhfsl. I*ju<sftirc'H 
from tlu- Lifo of a Kiunniis .'iinKinn 
Tonoher. With IntnKluctlon by 
Miifsonet. SlxSlin.. xiv.4 30 1pp. 
Ixintlun and Now York. 1887. 

llarpir Mnis. lOs. M. 

Life and Letters of John 
Apthup Roebuck, I'.C, O.l'., 
.M.l>. With riuiiiiors of Anto- 
biouraphy. K<lito<l bv Rohn-t K. 
Leader. Oxjjin.. viil. + 3!« pp. 
London anil Now York. 1S»7. 

Kdward Arnold. IBs. 

A Memoir of Anne Jemima 
Clou^h. Hy hor nini-. Jtlnnrhe 
A.Clough. Slx.Min.. viii. t:USpp. 
London and Now York. 1KU7. 

KdwanI Arnold. 1&. 6d. 
CLASSICAL. 

The Ancient Use of the Greek 
Accents In Reading' and 
Chantlnir. wii v. •,... nowly 
iv.«toiiil ' Hv II. T. 

Carruth .'Kpp. 

London a 1 ^i..-,);. 

llrmiLiiuj, AKnow,und Co. 

JDic Satcinif*c epracte. By H'. Jf. 

liind'au. Tmnslatod from tho 
English by Hans Nohl. Cr. 8vo. 
xvi. + 747 pp. Leipzig, 1897. 

HiRzel. 14 Marks. 



'''otoM, iic, Hy 
•Min., xxviii. 



EDUCATIONAL. 

Matriculation Latin. \\\ll.J. 

Ilinir-!. MA,. T.oiid. ,iiid ('uiiIm.. 
IT. Id. 

Til. 

An Eloiiioiitury Text Uuuk of 

Sound. Hv .Inhii Ihni. MA. 

<'r. .Svo., vlll. i Ml pp. Tl,,. rnlviT- 

Hlty Tutorial .Sori.M. Lon.lon, l«r7 

Cllvo. In. fill. 

Cloero Pro I (-"-o ii<f.,„iiia, 
Kdllo.1. with 1 .1, 

&!■., by rti-i \. 

tifxllln.. xxlv. .1 

and i'arl-i. Men. i 

Plerrllle iJuli ■< c! i. i. 

with Hloifnipl-  II, 

(iramniallcal ry 

NotoH. by K. / !!., 

vl.c.W pp. Lonami aim ran-. 
lSi)7. Ha. lulto. ■:.■.. 

Passages from Standard 
Authops fop Translation 
Into Modepn LanKua^res. 

Kdiliil by E. I.. .M <• n, r l:,irru. 
M.A., and Wnlt.y a. 

M.A. 71x51n., viil. ai 

and Paris, 18117. Ii N. 

Louis XI. et Charles Le 
Ttfmtfraire (.Michi-lcll. lulllcd, 
with Introduclliin, &c., hy John /•'. 
IkirU. D.Llt.. M.A. T^x.'sin.. vlil. i 
17U pp. London ami iSirlH, IHU7. 

Uaohottu. '2a. 

The Century Book of tho 
American Revolution. Hy 
KIbridge S.